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Norethindrone use while Breastfeeding

Drugs containing Norethindrone: Lo Loestrin Fe, Junel Fe 1/20, Microgestin Fe 1/20, Blisovi 24 Fe, Camila, Taytulla, Loestrin 24 Fe, Loestrin 21 1/20, CombiPatch, Errin, Show all 143 »Norlyda, Minastrin 24 Fe, Ortho Micronor, Aygestin, Heather, Loestrin Fe 1/20, Larin Fe 1/20, Norethin 1/35 E, Nortrel 1/35, Junel Fe 24, Ortho-Novum 7/7/7, Necon 1/35, Activella, Pirmella 1/35, Junel Fe 1.5/30, Blisovi Fe 1/20, Nora-Be, Mimvey, Loestrin Fe 1.5/30, Estrostep Fe, Microgestin 1.5/30, Jencycla, Alyacen 1/35, Melodetta 24 Fe, Tulana, Junel 1/20, Blisovi Fe 1.5/30, Balziva, Deblitane, Jolivette, Lyza, Nortrel 0.5/35, Jinteli, Ovcon 35, Tarina Fe 1/20, Junel 1.5/30, Dasetta, Nortrel 7/7/7, Aranelle, Ena, Amabelz, Sharobel, Mibelas 24 Fe, Brevicon, femhrt, Nor-QD, Aurovela Fe 1/20, Lomedia 24 Fe, Vyfemla, Larin 1/20, Kaitlib Fe, Larin Fe 1.5/30, Layolis Fe, Generess Fe, Pirmella 7/7/7, Modicon, Genora 0.5/35, Gildess Fe 1/20, Microgestin 1/20, Zenchent, Microgestin 24 Fe, Norlyroc, Chabelina Fe, Finzala, Larin 1.5/30, Femcon Fe, Dasetta 1/35, Wymzya Fe, Leena, Microgestin Fe 1.5/30, Necon 0.5/35, Loestrin 21 1.5/30, Ortho-Novum 1/35, Norinyl 1+35, Cyclafem 1/35, Necon 7/7/7, Wera, Tilia Fe, Hailey 24 Fe, Briellyn, Dasetta 7/7/7, Lopreeza, Larin 24 Fe, Hailey Fe 1/20, Mimvey Lo, Charlotte 24 Fe, Hailey Fe 1.5/30, Nexesta Fe, Alyacen 7/7/7, Gildess 1.5/30, Gildess 1/20, Ortho-Novum 1/50, Jevantique Lo, Lupaneta Pack, Genora 1/50, Nelova 1/50 M, Necon 1/50, Norinyl 1+50, Hailey 1.5/30, Norethin 1/50 M, Tri-Legest Fe, Zeosa, Zenchent Fe, Gildess 24 Fe, Jevantique, Cyclafem 7/7/7, Nelova 0.5/35, Gildess Fe 1.5/30, Genora 1/35, Nelova 10/11, Nelova 1/35, Necon 10/11, Tri-Norinyl, Ovcon 50, Jenest, Ortho-Novum 10/11, Ovcon 35 Fe, Philith, Nylia 7/7/7, Cyonanz, Nylia 1/35, Aurovela Fe 1.5/30, Aurovela 24 Fe, Aurovela 1/20, Tarina 24 Fe, Leribane, Aurovela 1.5/30, Fyavolv, Cyclafem 0.5/35, Tri-Legest, Lo Minastrin Fe, Gildagia, Incassia

Medically reviewed by Last updated on Jan 10, 2020.

Norethindrone Levels and Effects while Breastfeeding

Summary of Use during Lactation

This record contains information specific to norethindrone used alone. Readers with an interest in a combination oral contraceptive should consult the record entitled, "Contraceptives, Oral, Combined."

Poor to fair quality evidence indicates that norethindrone does not adversely affect the composition of milk, the growth and development of the infant or the milk supply.[1][2][3][4] Some evidence indicates that progestin-only contraceptives may offer protection against bone mineral density loss during lactation, or at least do not exacerbate it.[5][6][7]

Although nonhormonal methods are preferred during breastfeeding, progestin-only contraceptives such as norethindrone are considered the hormonal contraceptives of choice during lactation. Fair quality evidence indicates that norethindrone does not adversely affect the composition of milk, the growth and development of the infant or the milk supply. Expert opinion holds that the risks of progestin-only contraceptive products usually are acceptable for nursing mothers at any time postpartum.[8][9]

Drug Levels

Maternal Levels. Five women with well-established lactation (exact time postpartum not stated) were given an oral dose of 350 mcg of norethindrone daily. Breastmilk levels were measured several times on the first day of treatment. Peak milk levels occurred at 2 or 4 hours after the dose in various individuals. Average milk levels were 0.747 mcg/L at 2 hours after the dose; 0.747 mcg/L at 4 hours; 0.396 mcg/L at 8 hours; 0.253 mcg/L at 12 hours; and, 0.174 mcg/L at 12 hours after the dose.[10]

Milk norethindone levels were measured in 4 women after daily ingestion of oral norethindrone 350 mcg started after 3 months postpartum. Peak milk norethindrone levels in the range of 0.4 to 0.5 mcg/L occurred between 1 and 3 hours after the dose and dropped slowly over the 6-hour study interval to about 0.15 to 0.4 mcg/L.[11]

At 6 to 20 weeks postpartum, 15 women received a single tablet of a combination oral contraceptive containing a dose of 3 mg of norethindrone. At 2 to 2.5 hours after the dose, a foremilk sample was taken. The mothers breastfed their infants and then a hindmilk sample was taken. The two samples were pooled for assay. Milk levels averaged 2.4 mcg/L (range 0.9 to 5.5 mcg/L).[12]

Infant Levels. At 6 to 20 weeks postpartum, 15 women received a single tablet of a combination oral contraceptive containing a dose of 3 mg of norethindrone. At 2 to 2.5 hours after the dose the mothers breastfed their infants; infant serum samples were taken 1.5 to 2 hours later at about 4 hours after the maternal dose. Infant serum levels averaged 0.19 mcg/L which was 0.8% of peak maternal serum levels drawn at 2 to 2.5 hours after the dose.[12]

Effects in Breastfed Infants

No consistent physical, mental, or radiologic differences have been found in infants whose mothers were using norethindrone enanthate (Norplant).[13][14] Some studies found increased infant weight gain among the infants of treated women.[13][15][16]

A non-blinded, randomized study of exclusively breastfeeding women compared those who received an etonogestrel implant 24-48 hours after delivery (n = 20) to those who received a 150 mg depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection at 6 weeks postpartum (n = 20). Infants of the implant users gained more than the infants of the DMPA mothers during the first 6 weeks of life.[17]

A short-term study of 12 women who received oral norethindrone 350 mcg daily starting 48 hours postpartum found no differences in infant weight gain over 14 days compared to 8 women taking a placebo.[18]

Effects on Lactation and Breastmilk

Studies of varying size and quality on the use of long-acting norethindrone injections (acetate or enanthate) have found that the use of levonorgestrel implants (Norplant or Norplant-2) as a contraceptive beginning at 6 weeks postpartum or later either has no clinically important negative effect on the quality of breastmilk and results in either no effect or an increase in the milk supply and duration of lactation [13][14][15][16] In one study, women who received the implant at 6 days postpartum, a transient decrease in milk protein occurred 2 weeks after implant insertion. A decrease in milk phosphorus content was also observed between 2 and 4 months after implant insertion in this group and at 3 months postpartum, the early insertion group had a higher rate of supplementation.[19] In another study, women given norethindrone enanthate depot injection less than 48 hours postpartum were 2.5 to 3 times more likely to have postpartum depression at 6 weeks postpartum. No differences were seen at 1 and 12 weeks postpartum.[20]

A short-term study of 12 women who received oral norethindrone 350 mcg daily starting 48 hours postpartum found no differences in milk production or milk composition over 14 days compared to 8 women taking a placebo.[18]

One small, nonrandomized study found that oral norethindrone 350 mcg daily decreased the quantity and quality (lower protein, lipids and calcium) compared to controls who received nonhormonal contraception.[21]

In a nonrandomized, nonblinded study comparing women who were breastfeeding at discharge, 102 postpartum women received depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (dosage not stated) in the early postpartum period (average 51.9 hours postpartum; range 6.25 to 132 hours), 181 received another progestin-only contraceptive and 138 used nonhormonal contraception. No differences in breastfeeding rates were seen at 2 and 6 weeks, but women receiving any hormonal contraceptive were breastfeeding at a lower rate (72.1% vs 77.6%) at 4 weeks postpartum. The authors concluded that progestin-only contraception initiated in the early postpartum period had no adverse effects on breastfeeding rates.[22]

A study analyzed data from a prospective cohort study of U.S. women from May 2005 through June 2007. Women were followed from the third trimester of pregnancy throughout the first year postpartum. Data from the subset of women who intended to breastfeed for 3 months or longer postpartum during their third trimester of pregnancy and who were using a contraceptive at 3 months postpartum were analyzed (n = 1349). Women who intended to breastfeed for at least 4 months and were taking a progestin-only oral contraceptive, such as norethindrone, were 3.15 times more likely to be breastfeeding (exclusive or nonexclusive) at 4 months than women who used a nonhormonal contraceptive. Women who said they would breastfeed for 3 to 4 months had 4-month breastfeeding rates equivalent to those using a nonhormonal contraceptive. These rates were much higher than those of women who were taking an estrogen-containing, combined oral contraceptive.[23]

Alternate Drugs to Consider

Etonogestrel, Intrauterine Copper Contraceptive, Oral Levonorgestrel, Intrauterine Levonorgestrel, Levonorgestrel Implant, Medroxyprogesterone Acetate, Progesterone


1. Truitt ST, Fraser AB, Grimes DA et al. Combined hormonal versus progestin-only contraception in lactation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;2:CD003988 (updated 6 May 2008). PMID: 12804497

2. Queenan JT. Contraception and breastfeeding. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2004;47:734-9. PMID: 15326435

3. Anon. FFPRHC Guidance (July 2004): Contraceptive choices for breastfeeding women. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2004;30:181-9. PMID: 15222930

4. Phillips SJ, Tepper NK, Kapp N et al. Progestogen-only contraceptive use among breastfeeding women: A systematic review. Contraception. 2016;94:226-52. PMID: 26410174

5. Caird LE, Reid-Thomas V, Hannan WJ et al. Oral progestogen-only contraception may protect against loss of bone mass in breast-feeding women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1994;41:739-45. PMID: 7889609

6. Diaz S, Reyes MV, Zepeda A et al. Norplant(R) implants and progesterone vaginal rings do not affect maternal bone turnover and density during lactation and after weaning. Hum Reprod. 1999;14:2499-505. PMID: 10527977

7. Costa ML, Cecatti JG, Krupa FG et al. Progestin-only contraception prevents bone loss in postpartum breastfeeding women. Contraception. 2012;85:374-80. PMID: 22036473

8. World Health Organization Department of Reproductive Health and Research. Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use: Executive summary. Fifth ed. Geneva. 2015. PMID: 26447268

9. Curtis KM, Tepper NK, Jatlaoui TC et al. U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016;65:1-103. PMID: 27467196

10. Saxena BN, Shrimanker K, Grudzinskas JG. Levels of contraceptive steroids in breast milk and plasma of lactating women. Contraception. 1977;16:605-13. PMID: 606500

11. Toddywalla VS, Mehta S, Virkar KD, Saxena BN. Release of 19-nor-testosterone type of contraceptive steroids through different drug delivery systems into serum and breast milk of lactating women. Contraception. 1980;21:217-22. PMID: 7389350

12. Betrabet SS, Shikary ZK, Toddywalla VS et al. ICMR Task Force Study on hormonal contraception. Transfer of norethisterone (NET) and levonorgestrel (LNG) from a single tablet into the infant's circulation through the mother's milk. Contraception. 1987;35:517-22. PMID: 3117488

13. Karim M, Ammar R, El Mahgoub S et al. Injected progestogen and lactation. Br Med J. 1971;1:200-3. PMID: 5099971

14. Shaaban MM. Contraception with progestogens and progesterone during lactation. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1991;40:705-10. PMID: 1835650

15. Anon. Progestogen-only contraceptives during lactation: II. Infant development. World Health Organization, Task Force for Epidemiological Research on Reproductive Health; Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Contraception. 1994;50:55-68. PMID: 7924322

16. Anon. Progestogen-only contraceptives during lactation: I. Infant growth. World Health Organization Task force for Epidemiological Research on Reproductive Health; Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Contraception. 1994;50:35-53. PMID: 7924321

17. Brito MB, Ferriani RA, Quintana SM et al. Safety of the etonogestrel-releasing implant during the immediate postpartum period: a pilot study. Contraception. 2009;80:519-26. PMID: 19913145

18. Giner Velazquez J, Cortes Gallegos V, Sotelo Lopez A et al. [Effect of daily oral administration of 0.350 mg of norethindrone on lactation and on the composition of milk]. Ginecol Obstet Mex. 1976;40:31-9. PMID: 780215

19. Seth U, Yadava HS, Agarwal N et al. Effect of a subdermal silastic implant containing norethindrone acetate on human lactation. Contraception. 1977;16:383-98. PMID: 923249

20. Lawrie TA, Hofmeyr GJ, De Jager M et al. A double-blind randomised placebo controlled trial of postnatal norethisterone enanthate: the effect on postnatal depression and serum hormones. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1998;105:1082-90. PMID: 9800931

21. Toddywalla VS, Joshi L, Virkar K. Effect of contraceptive steroids on human lactation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1977;127:245-9. PMID: 835620

22. Halderman LD, Nelson AL. Impact of early postpartum administration of progestin-only hormonal contraceptives compared with nonhormonal contraceptives on short-term breast-feeding patterns. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;186:1250-8. PMID: 12066106

23. Goulding AN, Wouk K, Stuebe AM. Contraception and breastfeeding at 4 months postpartum among women intending to breastfeed. Breastfeed Med. 2018;13:75-80. PMID: 29091478

Norethindrone Identification

Substance Name


CAS Registry Number


Drug Class

Breast Feeding


Contraceptive Agents, Female

Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic

Administrative Information

LactMed Record Number



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