Generic Name: tramadol (TRAM a dol)
Brand Name: ConZip, Rybix ODT, Ryzolt, Ultram, Ultram ER, ...show all 25 brand namesDromadol SR, Zydol, Zamadol, Zamadol Melt, Zamadol SR, Tramake Insts, Tramake, Dromadol XL, Zydol XL, Zydol SR, Tramal, Tramal SR, Chem Mart TraMADol, GenRx TraMADol, Terry White Chemists TraMADol, Larapam SR, Tramahexal SR, Zamadol 24hr, Tramedo, Tramahexal
What is tramadol?
Tramadol is a narcotic-like pain reliever.
Tramadol is used to treat moderate to severe pain. Tramadol extended-release is used to treat moderate to severe chronic pain when treatment is needed around the clock.
Tramadol may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
What is the most important information I should know about tramadol?
You should not take tramadol if you are allergic to it, if you have ever been addicted to drugs or alcohol, or if you have ever attempted suicide. Do not take tramadol while you are intoxicated (drunk) or taking any of the following: alcohol or street drugs, narcotic pain medicine, sedatives or tranquilizers, or medicine for depression, anxiety, or mental illness.
Seizures (convulsions) have occurred in some people taking tramadol. Tramadol may be more likely to cause a seizure if you have a history of seizures or head injury, a metabolic disorder, or if you are taking certain medicines such as antidepressants, muscle relaxers, narcotic, or medicine for nausea and vomiting.
Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this medicine. A tramadol overdose can be fatal.
Tramadol may be habit-forming and should be used only by the person it was prescribed for. Keep the medication in a secure place where others cannot get to it.
Do not crush the tramadol tablet. This medicine is for oral (by mouth) use only. Powder from a crushed tablet should not be inhaled or diluted with liquid and injected into the body. Using this medicine by inhalation or injection can cause life-threatening side effects, overdose, or death.
What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking tramadol?
You should not take tramadol if you are allergic to it, if you have ever been addicted to drugs or alcohol, or if you have ever attempted suicide.
Do not take tramadol while you are intoxicated (drunk) or taking any of the following:
alcohol or street drugs;
narcotic pain medicine;
sedatives or tranquilizers (such as Valium);
medicine for depression or anxiety; or
medicine for mental illness (such as bipolar disorder, schizophrenia).
Seizures have occurred in some people taking tramadol. Talk with your doctor about your seizure risk, which may be higher if you have:
a history of drug or alcohol addiction;
a history of epilepsy or other seizure disorder;
a history of head injury;
a metabolic disorder; or
if you are also taking an antidepressant, muscle relaxer, narcotic, antipsychotic, or medicine for nausea and vomiting.
To make sure you can safely take tramadol, tell your doctor if you have any of these other conditions:
kidney disease (or if you are on dialysis);
cirrhosis or other liver disease;
a stomach disorder; or
a history of depression, mental illness, or thoughts of suicide.
Tramadol may be habit forming and should be used only by the person it was prescribed for. Never share tramadol with another person, especially someone with a history of drug abuse or addiction. Keep the medication in a place where others cannot get to it.
FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether tramadol will harm an unborn baby. Tramadol may cause serious or fatal side effects in a newborn if the mother uses the medication during pregnancy or labor. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while using this medication.
Tramadol can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. You should not breast-feed while you are taking tramadol.
Do not give this medication to anyone younger than 16 years old without the advice of a doctor.
Rybix ODT may contain phenylalanine. Talk to your doctor before using this form of tramadol if you have phenylketonuria (PKU).
How should I take tramadol?
Take exactly as prescribed. Never take tramadol in larger amounts, or for longer than recommended by your doctor. Follow the directions on your prescription label. Tell your doctor if the medicine seems to stop working as well in relieving your pain.
Tramadol can be taken with or without food, but take it the same way each time.
Do not crush, chew, or break a tramadol tablet. Swallow it whole. Breaking the pill may cause too much of the drug to be released at one time.
This medicine is for oral (by mouth) use only. Powder from a crushed tablet should not be inhaled or diluted with liquid and injected into the body. Using this medicine by inhalation or injection can cause life-threatening side effects, overdose, or death.
To take tramadol orally disintegrating tablets (Rybix ODT):
Keep the tablet in its blister pack until you are ready to take it.
Using dry hands, remove the tablet and place it in your mouth. It will begin to dissolve right away.
Do not swallow the tablet whole. Allow it to dissolve in your mouth without chewing.
Swallow several times as the tablet dissolves. If desired, you may drink liquid to help swallow the dissolved tablet.
If you use the tramadol extended-release tablet, the tablet shell may pass into your stools (bowel movements). This is normal and does not mean that you are not receiving enough of the medicine.
Do not stop using tramadol suddenly, or you could have unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. Talk to your doctor about how to avoid withdrawal symptoms when stopping the medication.
Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat.
Keep track of the amount of medicine used from each new bottle. Tramadol is a drug of abuse and you should be aware if anyone is using your medicine improperly or without a prescription.
See also: Tramadol dosage (in more detail)
What happens if I miss a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.
What happens if I overdose?
Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222. A tramadol overdose can be fatal.
Overdose symptoms may include extreme drowsiness, shallow breathing, muscle weakness, slow heartbeat, cold or clammy skin, fainting, or seizure.
What should I avoid while taking tramadol?
Do not drink alcohol. It may cause a dangerous decrease in your breathing when used together with tramadol.
Tramadol may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be alert.
Tramadol side effects
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Stop using tramadol and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:
agitation, hallucinations, fever, fast heart rate, overactive reflexes, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of coordination, fainting;
a red, blistering, peeling skin rash; or
shallow breathing, weak pulse.
Less serious side effects may include:
dizziness, spinning sensation;
constipation, upset stomach;
feeling nervous or anxious.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
See also: tramadol side effects (in more detail)
Tramadol Dosing Information
Usual Adult Dose for Pain:
For mild to moderate severe chronic pain not requiring rapid onset of analgesic effect:
Initial dose: 25 mg every morning
Titration: increase in 25 mg increments as separate doses every 3 days to reach 100 mg per day taken as 25 mg 4 times per day. Then the total daily dose may be increased by 50 mg as tolerated every 3 days to reach 200 mg per day taken as 50 mg 4 times per day.
Maintenance: After titration, tramadol 50 mg to 100 mg can be administered as needed for pain relief every 4 to 6 hours not to exceed 400 mg per day.
For the management of moderate to moderately severe chronic pain in adults who require around-the-clock treatment of their pain for an extended period of time:
Initial Dose: 100 mg once daily and titrated up as necessary by 100 mg increments every five days to relief of pain and depending upon tolerability.
Maximum Dose: Extended-release tablets should not be administered at a dose exceeding 300 mg per day.
For patients in whom rapid onset of analgesic effect is required and for whom the benefits outweigh the risk of discontinuation due to adverse events associated with higher initial dose:
Dose: 50 mg to 100 mg can be administered as needed for pain relief every 4 to 6 hours, not to exceed 400 mg per day.
Tramadol Extended-Release (ER):
Patients not currently treated with tramadol immediate-release:
Initial dose: 100 mg once daily and titrated up as necessary by 100 mg increments every 5 days to relief of pain and individualized according to patient need and tolerability.
Maximum dose: 300 mg per day
Patients currently on tramadol IR:
Calculate the 24-hour tramadol IR dose:
Initial dose: Round down to the next lowest 100 mg increment. The dose may subsequently be individualized according to patient need and tolerability.
Maximum dose: 300 mg per day
Due to limitations in flexibility of dose selection with tramadol ER, some patients maintained
on tramadol IR products may not be able to convert.
Usual Geriatric Dose for Pain:
For patients over 65 years:
Dose selection should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
For patients over 75 years:
Maximum dose of regular oral tablets: 300 mg per day in divided doses
Usual Pediatric Dose for Pain:
4 to 16 years:
Immediate release formulations: 1 to 2 mg/kg/dose every 4 to 6 hours
Maximum single dose: 100 mg
Maximum total daily dose is the lesser of: 8 mg/kg/day or 400 mg/day
16 years and older:
Initial dose: 50 to 100 mg every 4 to 6 hours
Maximum dose: 400 mg/day
Alternatively, for patients not requiring a rapid onset of effect, side effects may be decreased by initiating dosage at 25 mg/day and increasing by 25 mg every 3 days up to 25 mg 4 times a day. Dosage may then be increased by 50 mg every 3 days as tolerated to 50 mg 4 times a day.
16 years and older:
Oral disintegrating tablet (ODT):
Initial: 50 to 100 mg every 4 to 6 hours
Maximum: 400 mg/day
Alternatively, for patients not requiring a rapid onset of effect, side effects may be decreased by initiating dosage at 50 mg/day and increasing by 50 mg every 3 days up to 50 mg 4 times a day.
Maximum: 400 mg/day
16 years and older:
Initial: 100 mg once daily
Titrate by 100 mg increments every 2 to 3 days if needed for pain control
Maximum: 300 mg/day
What other drugs will affect tramadol?
You may be more likely to have a seizure (convulsions) if you take tramadol while you are using certain other medicines. Do not take tramadol without telling your doctor if you also use any of the following medications:
an MAO inhibitor such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), tranylcypromine (Parnate), phenelzine (Nardil), or selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam); or
an antidepressant such as amitriptyline (Elavil, Vanatrip), citalopram (Celexa), clomipramine (Anafranil), desipramine (Norpramin), escitalopram (Lexapro), fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem), fluvoxamine (Luvox), imipramine (Tofranil), nortriptyline (Pamelor), paroxetine (Paxil), or sertraline (Zoloft).
Cold or allergy medicine, sleeping pills, muscle relaxers, and medicine for seizures or anxiety can add to sleepiness caused by tramadol. Tell your doctor if you regularly use any of these medicines, or any other pain medication.
Tell your doctor about all other medicines you use, especially:
carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Equetro, Tegretol);
lithium (Eskalith, LithoBid);
ADHD medications (Adderall, Ritalin, Strattera);
an antibiotic such as clarithromycin (Biaxin), erythromycin (E.E.S., EryPed, Ery-Tab, Erythrocin, Pediazole), linezolid (Zyvox), rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane, Rifater); or telithromycin (Ketek);
antifungal medication such as clotrimazole (Mycelex Troche), itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), miconazole (Oravig), or voriconazole (Vfend);
cancer medications such as gefitinib (Iressa), imatinib (Gleevec), or nilotinib (Tasigna);
a heart rhythm medication such as amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), flecainide (Tambocor), propafenone (Rythmol), or quinidine (Quin-G);
heart or blood pressure medication such as diltiazem (Cartia, Cardizem), felodipine (Plendil), nifedipine (Nifedical, Procardia), verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan), and others;
HIV/AIDS medicine such as atazanavir (Reyataz), delavirdine (Rescriptor), fosamprenavir (Lexiva), indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir (Viracept), saquinavir (Invirase), or ritonavir (Norvir, Kaletra); or
migraine headache medicine such as sumatriptan (Imitrex, Treximet).
This list is not complete and there are many other drugs that can interact with tramadol. Tell your doctor about all medications you use. This includes prescription, over-the-counter, vitamin, and herbal products. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor. Keep a list of all your medicines and show it to any healthcare provider who treats you.
More tramadol resources
- tramadol MedFacts Consumer Leaflet (Wolters Kluwer)
- tramadol Advanced Consumer (Micromedex) - Includes Dosage Information
- ConZip Prescribing Information (FDA)
- ConZip extended-release capsules MedFacts Consumer Leaflet (Wolters Kluwer)
- Rybix ODT Prescribing Information (FDA)
- Rybix ODT orally disintegrating tablets MedFacts Consumer Leaflet (Wolters Kluwer)
- Ryzolt Prescribing Information (FDA)
- Ryzolt extended-release tablets MedFacts Consumer Leaflet (Wolters Kluwer)
- Ryzolt Consumer Overview
- Tramadol Hydrochloride Monograph (AHFS DI)
- Ultram Consumer Overview
- Ultram Prescribing Information (FDA)
- Ultram ER Prescribing Information (FDA)
Compare tramadol with other medications
Where can I get more information?
- Your pharmacist can provide more information about tramadol.
- Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.
- Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.
Copyright 1996-2012 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 13.03. Revision Date: 2011-10-20, 2:27:12 PM.