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Ritonavir

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Jul 16, 2020.

Pronunciation

(ri TOE na veer)

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product

Capsule, Oral:

Norvir: 100 mg [DSC] [contains alcohol, usp]

Packet, Oral:

Norvir: 100 mg (30 ea)

Solution, Oral:

Norvir: 80 mg/mL (240 mL) [contains alcohol, usp, fd&c yellow #6 (sunset yellow), propylene glycol, saccharin sodium; peppermint-caramel flavor]

Tablet, Oral:

Norvir: 100 mg

Generic: 100 mg

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Norvir

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antiretroviral, Protease Inhibitor (Anti-HIV)

Pharmacology

Binds to the site of HIV-1 protease activity and inhibits cleavage of viral Gag-Pol polyprotein precursors into individual functional proteins required for infectious HIV. This results in the formation of immature, noninfectious viral particles.

Absorption

Variable; increased with food; In the fed state, mean Cmax of the tablet formulation increased by 26% compared to the capsule.

Distribution

High concentrations are produced in serum and lymph nodes; Vd: 0.41 ± 0.25 L/kg

Metabolism

Hepatic via CYP3A4 and 2D6; five metabolites, low concentration of an active metabolite (M-2) achieved in plasma (oxidative)

Excretion

Urine (~11%, ~4% as unchanged drug); feces (~86%, ~34% as unchanged drug)

Clearance: Pediatric patients: 1.5 to 1.7 times faster than adults

Time to Peak

Oral solution: 2 hours (fasted); 4 hours (nonfasted)

Half-Life Elimination

Children: 2 to 4 hours; Adults: 3 to 5 hours

Protein Binding

98% to 99%

Off Label Uses

HIV-1 infection, as a pharmacokinetic enhancer for other protease inhibitors

Based on the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Adults and Adolescents with HIV and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services updated guidelines for antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis after sexual, injection drug use, or other nonoccupational exposure to HIV, ritonavir is recommended as a pharmacokinetic enhancer for other protease inhibitors in certain antiretroviral treatment regimens for HIV-infected patients and in certain antiretroviral regimens for postexposure prophylaxis of HIV-1 infection following nonoccupational exposure (nPEP) in individuals exposed to blood, genital secretions, or other potentially infectious body fluids that may contain HIV.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity (eg, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis) to ritonavir or any component of the formulation; coadministration with drugs that are highly dependent on CYP3A for clearance and for which elevated plasma concentrations are associated with serious and/or life-threatening reactions or with potent CYP3A inducers where significantly reduced ritonavir plasma concentrations may be associated with the potential for loss of virologic response and possible resistance and cross-resistance (eg, alfuzosin, amiodarone, apalutamide, cisapride, colchicine [patients with renal and/or hepatic impairment], dronedarone, ergot derivatives [eg, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, methylergonovine], flecainide, lomitapide, lovastatin, lurasidone, midazolam [oral], pimozide, propafenone, quinidine, ranolazine, sildenafil [when used for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension; eg, Revatio], simvastatin, St John's wort, triazolam, voriconazole [when ritonavir dose is ≥800 mg/day]).

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Concurrent use with astemizole, bepridil, fusidic acid, neratinib, rivaroxaban, salmeterol, terfenadine, vardenafil, venetoclax (during dose initiation and the ramp-up phase), or voriconazole (regardless of ritonavir dose).

Dosing: Adult

Note: Norvir capsules have been discontinued in the United States for more than 1 year.

Note: Must be given in combination with other antiretroviral agents. Norvir tablets are not bioequivalent to Norvir capsules. Patients who take ritonavir capsules may experience more GI adverse reactions such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or diarrhea when switching from the capsule to the tablet because of the greater maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) achieved with the tablet compared with the capsule.

HIV-1 infection, as a pharmacokinetic enhancer in combination with other protease inhibitors (off-label use):

HIV-1 treatment regimens: Oral: 100 to 400 mg daily in 1 to 2 divided doses (HHS [adult] 2019). Refer to individual protease inhibitor monographs; specific dosage recommendations often require adjustment of both agents.

HIV-1 nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP): Oral: 100 mg once daily for 28 days (in combination with other antiretroviral agents). Initiate therapy within 72 hours of exposure (HHS [nPEP] 2016).

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Pediatric

Note: Norvir capsules have been discontinued in the US for >1 year.

Note: Norvir tablets are not bioequivalent to Norvir capsules. Patients who take ritonavir capsules may experience more GI adverse reactions such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or diarrhea when switching from the capsule to the tablet because of the greater maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) achieved with the tablet compared with the capsule.

HIV-1 infection, treatment: Note: Use in combination with other antiretroviral agents: Oral:

Ritonavir as sole protease inhibitor: Note: Not recommended as the sole protease inhibitor in any regimen (HHS [pediatric] 2016)

Infants >1 month (PMA ≥44 weeks) and Children:

Initial: 250 mg/m2/dose every 12 hours; titrate upward at 2- to 3-day intervals by 50 mg/m2/dose twice daily increments to 350 to 400 mg/m2/dose twice daily; maximum dose: 600 mg/dose; Note: Patients who do not tolerate 400 mg/m2 twice daily (due to adverse effects) may be treated with the highest tolerated dose; however, an alternative antiretroviral agent should be considered.

Serum concentrations comparable to those seen in adults receiving standard doses were obtained in children >2 years of age who received 350 to 400 mg/m2 twice daily. In younger patients (1 month to 2 years of age) who received 350 or 450 mg/m2/dose twice daily, ritonavir AUCs were 16% lower and trough concentrations were 60% lower than those observed in adults receiving standard doses; higher ritonavir AUCs were not observed with the 450 mg/m2/dose twice daily compared to the 350 mg/m2/dose twice daily dosing.

Adolescents: Note: Ritonavir as sole protease inhibitor is no longer commonly used in clinical practice and is not recommended in any initial antiretroviral regimen (HHS [adults] 2015): 600 mg twice daily; may use a dose titration schedule to reduce adverse events (nausea/vomiting) by initiating therapy at 300 mg twice daily; increase dose at 2- to 3-day intervals by 100 mg twice daily increments up to a maximum dose of 600 mg twice daily

Ritonavir as pharmacokinetic enhancer ("booster doses" of ritonavir): Note: Ritonavir is used at lower doses to increase the serum concentrations of other protease inhibitors; the recommended dose of ritonavir varies when used with different protease inhibitors; see monographs for individual protease inhibitors for recommended doses; appropriate pediatric "booster doses" of ritonavir have not been established for use with every protease inhibitor or for all pediatric age groups.

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Administration

Oral: Administer all formulations with food, per the manufacturer. DHHS guidelines recommend administering the tablets with food and administering capsules or oral solution with food, if possible, to improve tolerability (HHS [adult] 2019).

Oral powder: Pour and mix the entire contents of required number of packets over soft food (eg, apple sauce, vanilla pudding) or liquid (eg, water, chocolate milk, infant formula); use within 2 hours. Administration with food may lessen bitter aftertaste. May be administered via a feeding tube when mixed with water.

Solution: Consider mixing oral solution with chocolate milk or a liquid nutritional supplement and taking within 60 minutes to improve taste. Shake solution well before use. Contains ethanol and propylene glycol; not recommended for use with polyurethane feeding tubes (potential incompatibility) but may be used with silicone and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) feeding tubes.

Tablet: Swallow whole; do not chew, break, or crush.

Dietary Considerations

Oral solution contains 43% ethanol by volume. Consider ethanol content of all medications being administered; monitor for toxicity particularly in pediatric patients.

Storage

Capsule: Store under refrigeration at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F); may be left out at room temperature of <25°C (<77°F) if used within 30 days. Protect from light. Avoid exposure to excessive heat. Dispense in original container.

Oral powder: Store at ≤30°C (86°F).

Solution: Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); do not refrigerate. Avoid exposure to excessive heat. Keep cap tightly closed.

Tablet: Store at ≤30°C (86°F); exposure to temperatures ≤50°C (122°F) permitted for ≤7 days. Exposure to high humidity outside of the original container (or a USP equivalent container) for >2 weeks is not recommended.

Drug Interactions

Abacavir: Protease Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Abacavir. Monitor therapy

Abemaciclib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Abemaciclib. Management: In patients taking abemaciclib at a dose of 200 mg or 150 mg twice daily, reduce the dose to 100 mg twice daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. In patients taking abemaciclib 100 mg twice daily, decrease the dose to 50 mg twice daily. Consider therapy modification

Acalabrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Acalabrutinib. Avoid combination

Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine. Specifically, strong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase concentrations of the cytotoxic DM1 component. Management: Avoid concomitant use of ado-trastuzumab emtansine and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. Consider alternatives that do not inhibit CYP3A4 or consider administering after CYP3A4 inhibitor discontinuation. Monitor for toxicities if combined. Consider therapy modification

Afatinib: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Afatinib. Management: If combined, administer the P-gp inhibitor simultaneously with, or after, the dose of afatinib. Monitor closely for signs and symptoms of afatinib toxicity and if the combination is not tolerated, reduce the afatinib dose by 10 mg. Consider therapy modification

Albendazole: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Albendazole. Monitor therapy

Alfentanil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alfentanil. Management: If use of alfentanil and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is necessary, consider dosage reduction of alfentanil until stable drug effects are achieved. Frequently monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation when these agents are combined. Consider therapy modification

Alfuzosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alfuzosin. Avoid combination

Aliskiren: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Aliskiren. Monitor therapy

Alitretinoin (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alitretinoin (Systemic). Management: Consider reducing the alitretinoin dose to 10 mg when used together with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Monitor for increased alitretinoin effects/toxicities if combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Almotriptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Almotriptan. Management: Limit initial almotriptan dose to 6.25 mg and maximum dose to 12.5 mg in any 24-period when used with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Avoid concurrent use in patients with impaired hepatic or renal function. Consider therapy modification

Alosetron: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alosetron. Monitor therapy

ALPRAZolam: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of ALPRAZolam. Management: Consider using an alternative agent that is less likely to interact. If combined, monitor for increased therapeutic/toxic effects of alprazolam if combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Amiodarone: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Amiodarone. Management: Ritonavir US prescribing information lists this combination as contraindicated. Amiodarone use should be avoided with lopinavir/ritonavir, but if the combination must be used, monitor closely for increased amiodarone serum concentrations and effects. Avoid combination

AmLODIPine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of AmLODIPine. Monitor therapy

Antidiabetic Agents: Hyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Apixaban: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Strong) and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Apixaban. Management: US labeling recommends a 50% apixaban dose reduction in patients who would otherwise receive 5 or 10 mg twice daily, and avoiding in patients who would otherwise receive 2.5 mg twice daily. Canadian labeling lists any combined use as contraindicated. Consider therapy modification

Aprepitant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Aprepitant. Avoid combination

ARIPiprazole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole. Management: Aripiprazole dose reductions are required for indications other than major depressive disorder. Dose reductions vary based on formulation, CYP2D6 genotype, and use of CYP2D6 inhibitors. See full interaction monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

ARIPiprazole Lauroxil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of ARIPiprazole Lauroxil. Management: Decrease aripiprazole lauroxil dose to next lower strength if used with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors for over 14 days. No dose adjustment needed if using the lowest dose (441 mg). Max dose is 441 mg in CYP2D6 PMs or if also taking strong CYP2D6 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Artesunate: Ritonavir may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Artesunate. Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Artesunate. Monitor therapy

Astemizole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Astemizole. Avoid combination

Asunaprevir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Asunaprevir. Avoid combination

AtorvaSTATin: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of AtorvaSTATin. Management: Limit atorvastatin dose: 20 mg/day with darunavir/ritonavir, fosamprenavir, fosamprenavir/ritonavir, and saquinavir/ritonavir; 40 mg/day with nelfinavir. Use lowest dose possible with lopinavir/ritonavir. Avoid atorvastatin with tipranavir/ritonavir. Consider therapy modification

Atovaquone: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Atovaquone. Monitor therapy

Avanafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Avanafil. Avoid combination

Avapritinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Avapritinib. Avoid combination

Axitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Axitinib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of axitinib with any strong CYP3A inhibitor whenever possible. If a strong CYP3A inhibitor must be used with axitinib, a 50% axitinib dose reduction is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Barnidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Barnidipine. Avoid combination

Bedaquiline: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bedaquiline. Management: Limit duration of concurrent use of bedaquiline with CYP3A4 inhibitors to no more than 14 days, unless the benefit of continued use outweighs the possible risks. Monitor for toxic effects of bedaquiline. Consider therapy modification

Benperidol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Benperidol. Monitor therapy

Benzhydrocodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Benzhydrocodone. Specifically, the concentration of hydrocodone may be increased. Monitor therapy

Betamethasone (Ophthalmic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Betamethasone (Ophthalmic). Monitor therapy

Betamethasone (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Betamethasone (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Betrixaban: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Betrixaban. Management: Decrease adult betrixaban dose to an initial single dose of 80 mg followed by 40 mg once daily if combined with a P-gp inhibitor. Avoid concomitant use of betrixaban and P-gp inhibitors in patients with severe renal impairment (CrCL less than 30 mL/min). Consider therapy modification

Bictegravir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bictegravir. Monitor therapy

Bilastine: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Bilastine. Avoid combination

Blonanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Blonanserin. Avoid combination

Bortezomib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bortezomib. Monitor therapy

Bosentan: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Bosentan. Management: Dose adjustment of bosentan and increased monitoring for bosentan toxicities is necessary when these agents are combined. See full drug interaction monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Bosutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bosutinib. Avoid combination

Brentuximab Vedotin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brentuximab Vedotin. Specifically, concentrations of the active monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) component may be increased. Monitor therapy

Brexpiprazole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brexpiprazole. Management: Reduce brexpiprazole dose 50% with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors; reduce to 25% of usual if used with both a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and a CYP2D6 inhibitor in patients not being treated for MDD, or strong CYP3A4 inhibitor used in a CYP2D6 poor metabolizer. Consider therapy modification

Brigatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brigatinib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of brigatinib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combination cannot be avoided, reduce the brigatinib dose by approximately 50%, rounding to the nearest tablet strength (ie, from 180 mg to 90 mg, or from 90 mg to 60 mg). Consider therapy modification

Bromperidol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bromperidol. Monitor therapy

Budesonide (Nasal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Nasal). Monitor therapy

Budesonide (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Oral Inhalation). Monitor therapy

Budesonide (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Systemic). Management: Avoid the concomitant use of CYP3A4 inhibitors and oral budesonide. If patients receive both budesonide and a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, they should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of corticosteroid excess. Consider therapy modification

Budesonide (Topical): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Topical). Avoid combination

Buprenorphine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Buprenorphine. Monitor therapy

BuPROPion: CYP2B6 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of BuPROPion. Monitor therapy

BusPIRone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of BusPIRone. Management: Limit the buspirone dose to 2.5 mg daily and monitor patients for increased buspirone effects/toxicities if combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Cabazitaxel: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cabazitaxel. Management: Concurrent use of cabazitaxel with strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 should be avoided when possible. If such a combination must be used, consider a 25% reduction in the cabazitaxel dose. Consider therapy modification

Cabozantinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cabozantinib. Management: Avoid use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with cabozantinib if possible. If combined, decrease cabozantinib capsules (Cometriq) by 40 mg from previous dose or decrease cabozantinib tablets (Cabometyx) by 20 mg from previous dose. Consider therapy modification

Calcifediol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Calcifediol. Monitor therapy

Calcium Channel Blockers (Nondihydropyridine): Protease Inhibitors may decrease the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers (Nondihydropyridine). Increased serum concentrations of the calcium channel blocker may increase risk of AV nodal blockade. Management: Avoid concurrent use when possible. If used, monitor for CCB toxicity. The manufacturer of atazanavir recommends a 50% dose reduction for diltiazem be considered. Saquinavir, tipranavir, and darunavir/cobicistat use with bepridil is contraindicated. Consider therapy modification

Canagliflozin: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Canagliflozin. Management: Consider increasing canagliflozin dose to 200 mg/day in patients tolerating 100 mg/day. A further increase to 300 mg/day can be considered in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or greater. Consider therapy modification

Cannabidiol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy

Cannabis: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cannabis. More specifically, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol serum concentrations may be increased. Monitor therapy

Capmatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Capmatinib. Monitor therapy

Cariprazine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cariprazine. Management: Decrease cariprazine dose 50% (4.5 mg to 1.5 mg or 3 mg; 1.5 mg to 1.5 mg every other day) if starting a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. If on a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, start cariprazine at 1.5 mg day 1, 0 mg day 2, then 1.5 mg daily. May increase to 3 mg daily Consider therapy modification

Cat's Claw: May increase the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Monitor therapy

Celiprolol: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Celiprolol. Monitor therapy

Ceritinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ceritinib. Management: If such combinations cannot be avoided, the ceritinib dose should be reduced by approximately one-third (to the nearest 150 mg). Resume the prior ceritinib dose after cessation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Ciclesonide (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ciclesonide (Oral Inhalation). Monitor therapy

Cilostazol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cilostazol. Management: Consider reducing the cilostazol dose to 50 mg twice daily in adult patients who are also receiving strong inhibitors of CYP3A4. Consider therapy modification

Cinacalcet: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cinacalcet. Monitor therapy

Cisapride: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Cisapride. This may result in QTc prolongation and malignant cardiac arrhythmias. Avoid combination

Cladribine: Inhibitors of Equilibrative Nucleoside (ENT1) and Concentrative Nucleoside (CNT3) Transport Proteins may increase the serum concentration of Cladribine. Management: Avoid concomitant use of ENT1 or CNT3 inhibitors during the 4 to 5 day oral cladribine treatment cycles whenever possible. If combined, consider an ENT1 or CNT3 inhibitor dose reduction and separation in the timing of administration. Consider therapy modification

Clarithromycin: Ritonavir may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Clarithromycin. Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Clarithromycin. Management: Decrease clarithromycin dose 50% and do not exceed 1,000 mg per day. Decrease clarithromycin dose 75% in patients with CrCL less than 30 mL/min. Use alternative antimicrobial therapy if treating infections other than Mycobacterium avium complex. Consider therapy modification

Clobetasone: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Clobetasone. Avoid combination

Clopidogrel: Ritonavir may diminish the antiplatelet effect of Clopidogrel. Ritonavir may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Clopidogrel. Monitor therapy

Clorazepate: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Clorazepate. Monitor therapy

CloZAPine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of CloZAPine. Monitor therapy

CloZAPine: CYP1A2 Inducers (Weak) may decrease the serum concentration of CloZAPine. Monitor therapy

Cobicistat: May enhance the therapeutic effect of Ritonavir. Specifically, cobicistat and ritonavir have overlapping effects on the CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of other drugs. Avoid combination

Cobimetinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cobimetinib. Avoid combination

Codeine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Codeine. Monitor therapy

Colchicine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Management: Colchicine is contraindicated in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function who are also receiving a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. In those with normal renal and hepatic function, reduce colchicine dose as directed. See interaction monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Colchicine: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased. Management: Colchicine is contraindicated in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function who are also receiving a P-gp inhibitor. In those with normal renal and hepatic function, reduce colchicine dose as directed. See interaction monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Conivaptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Conivaptan. Avoid combination

Copanlisib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Copanlisib. Management: If concomitant use of copanlisib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors cannot be avoided, reduce the copanlisib dose to 45 mg. Monitor patients for increased copanlisib effects/toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Cortisone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cortisone. Monitor therapy

Crizotinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Crizotinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of crizotinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors whenever possible. If combined use cannot be avoided, decrease the crizotinib dose to 250 mg daily. Consider therapy modification

Cyclophosphamide: Protease Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cyclophosphamide. Specifically, the incidences of neutropenia, infection, and mucositis may be increased. Monitor therapy

Cyclophosphamide: CYP2B6 Inducers (Moderate) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Cyclophosphamide. Monitor therapy

CycloSPORINE (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of CycloSPORINE (Systemic). Management: Monitor cyclosporine serum concentrations and clinical cyclosporine closely with concurrent use of any strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Cyclosporine dose reductions and/or prolongation of the dosing interval will likely be required. Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May increase the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Consider avoiding this combination. Some combinations are specifically contraindicated by manufacturers; others may have recommended dose adjustments. If combined, monitor for increased substrate effects. Consider therapy modification

Dabrafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dabrafenib. Avoid combination

Daclatasvir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Daclatasvir. Management: Decrease the daclatasvir dose to 30 mg once daily if combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. No dose adjustment is needed when daclatasvir is used with darunavir/cobicistat. Consider therapy modification

Dapoxetine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dapoxetine. Avoid combination

Darifenacin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Darifenacin. Management: Limit the darifenacin dose to no more than 7.5 mg daily if combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Monitor patients for increased darifenacin toxicities (eg, dry mouth, constipation, headache, CNS effects) when these agents are combined. Consider therapy modification

Darolutamide: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Strong) and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Darolutamide. Monitor therapy

Dasatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dasatinib. Management: This combination should be avoided if possible. If combined, decrease dasatinib dose from 140 mg to 40 mg, 100 mg to 20 mg, or 70 mg to 20 mg. For patients taking 60 mg or 40 mg daily, stop dasatinib until the CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued. Consider therapy modification

Deferasirox: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Deferasirox. Management: Avoid combination when possible; if the combination must be used, consider a 50% increase in initial deferasirox dose, with monitoring of serum ferritin concentrations and clinical responses to guide further dosing. Consider therapy modification

Deflazacort: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Deflazacort. Management: Administer one third of the recommended deflazacort dose when used together with a strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Delamanid: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Delamanid. Management: Increase ECG monitoring frequency if delamanid is combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors due to the risk for QTc interval prolongation. Continue frequent ECG assessments throughout full delamanid treatment period. Consider therapy modification

Delavirdine: May increase the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Safe and effective doses for coadministration have not been determined according to lopinavir/ritonavir prescribing information. Consider therapy modification

DexAMETHasone (Ophthalmic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DexAMETHasone (Ophthalmic). Monitor therapy

DiazePAM: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of DiazePAM. Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of DiazePAM. Monitor therapy

Dienogest: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dienogest. Monitor therapy

Digitoxin: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Digitoxin. Monitor therapy

Digoxin: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Digoxin. Management: Reduce the digoxin dose by approximately 30% to 50%, or reduce the dosing frequency, when these agents are combined. Monitor digoxin levels closely and adjust digoxin dose as needed. Consider therapy modification

Disulfiram: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Products Containing Ethanol. Management: Do not use disulfiram with dosage forms that contain ethanol. Avoid combination

DOCEtaxel: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DOCEtaxel. Management: Avoid the concomitant use of docetaxel and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined use is unavoidable, consider a 50% docetaxel dose reduction and monitor for increased docetaxel toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Dofetilide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dofetilide. Monitor therapy

Domperidone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Domperidone. Avoid combination

Doxercalciferol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Doxercalciferol. Monitor therapy

DOXOrubicin (Conventional): P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of DOXOrubicin (Conventional). Avoid combination

Dronabinol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dronabinol. Monitor therapy

Dronedarone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dronedarone. Management: Concurrent use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with dronedarone is contraindicated according to dronedarone prescribing information. Avoid combination

Drospirenone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Drospirenone. Management: Drospirenone use is contraindicated specifically when the strong CYP3A4 inhibitors atazanavir and cobicistat are administered concurrently. Caution should be used when drospirenone is coadministered with other strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Dutasteride: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dutasteride. Monitor therapy

Duvelisib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Duvelisib. Management: Reduce the dose of duvelisib to 15 mg twice a day when used together with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor closely for evidence of altered response to treatment. Consider therapy modification

Edoxaban: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Edoxaban. Monitor therapy

Efavirenz: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ritonavir. Efavirenz may increase the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Efavirenz. Monitor therapy

Elagolix: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Elagolix. Management: Use of the elagolix 200 mg twice daily dose with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor for longer than 1 month is not recommended. Limit combined use of the elagolix 150 mg once daily dose with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor to a maximum of 6 months. Consider therapy modification

Elagolix, Estradiol, and Norethindrone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Elagolix, Estradiol, and Norethindrone. Avoid combination

Eletriptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eletriptan. Avoid combination

Elexacaftor, Tezacaftor, and Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Elexacaftor, Tezacaftor, and Ivacaftor. Management: When combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, administer two elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor tablets (100 mg/50 mg/75 mg) in the morning, twice a week, approximately 3 to 4 days apart. No evening doses of ivacaftor (150 mg) alone should be administered. Consider therapy modification

Eliglustat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eliglustat. Management: Reduce eliglustat dose to 84 mg daily in CYP2D6 EMs when used with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is contraindicated in CYP2D6 IMs, PMs, or in CYP2D6 EMs who are also taking strong or moderate CYP2D6 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Eluxadoline: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Eluxadoline. Management: Decrease the eluxadoline dose to 75 mg twice daily if combined with ritonavir and monitor patients for increased eluxadoline effects/toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Encorafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Encorafenib. Management: Avoid use of encorafenib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, decrease encorafenib from 450 mg to 150 mg; or from 300 mg, 225 mg, or 150 mg to 75 mg. Once the CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued for 3 to 5 half-lives, resume prior dose. Consider therapy modification

Enfortumab Vedotin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Enfortumab Vedotin. Specifically, concentrations of the active monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) component may be increased. Monitor therapy

Enfuvirtide: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Enfuvirtide. Enfuvirtide may increase the serum concentration of Protease Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Entrectinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Entrectinib. Management: Avoid strong CYP3A4 inhibitors during treatment with entrectinib when possible. If combined in adults and those 12 yrs of age or older with a BSA of at least 1.5 square meters, reduce dose to 100 mg/day. Avoid if BSA is less than 1.5 square meters. Consider therapy modification

Enzalutamide: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Concurrent use of enzalutamide with CYP3A4 substrates that have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided. Use of enzalutamide and any other CYP3A4 substrate should be performed with caution and close monitoring. Consider therapy modification

Eplerenone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eplerenone. Avoid combination

Erdafitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Erdafitinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of erdafitinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, monitor closely for erdafitinib adverse reactions and consider dose modifications accordingly. Consider therapy modification

Ergot Derivatives: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Ergot Derivatives. Avoid combination

Erlotinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Erlotinib. Management: Avoid use of this combination when possible. When the combination must be used, monitor the patient closely for the development of severe adverse reactions, and if such severe reactions occur, reduce the erlotinib dose (in 50 mg decrements). Consider therapy modification

Estriol (Systemic): Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Estriol (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Estriol (Topical): Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Estriol (Topical). Monitor therapy

Estrogen Derivatives: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives. Monitor therapy

Estrogen Derivatives (Contraceptive): Protease Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives (Contraceptive). Management: Use oral contraceptives containing at least 35mcg ethinyl estradiol with atazanavir/ritonavir, or no more than 30mcg in patients receiving atazanavir alone. Use of an alternative, non-hormonal contraceptive is recommended with other protease inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Eszopiclone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eszopiclone. Management: Limit the eszopiclone dose to 2 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and monitor for increased eszopiclone effects and toxicities (eg, somnolence, drowsiness, CNS depression). Consider therapy modification

Etizolam: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Etizolam. Management: Consider use of lower etizolam doses when using this combination; specific recommendations concerning dose adjustment are not available. Monitor clinical response to the combination closely. Consider therapy modification

Etoposide: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Etoposide. Monitor therapy

Etoposide Phosphate: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Etoposide Phosphate. Monitor therapy

Etravirine: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Etravirine. Management: Avoid concomitant use of etravirine with antiviral doses of ritonavir; use with ritonavir-boosted fosamprenavir or with ritonavir-boosted tipranavir is also not recommended. Consider therapy modification

Everolimus: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Strong) and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Everolimus. Avoid combination

Evogliptin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Evogliptin. Monitor therapy

Fedratinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fedratinib. Management: Consider alternatives when possible. If used together, decrease fedratinib dose to 200 mg/day. After the inhibitor is stopped, increase fedratinib to 300 mg/day for the first 2 weeks and then to 400 mg/day as tolerated. Consider therapy modification

FentaNYL: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of FentaNYL. Management: Consider fentanyl dose reductions when combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor for respiratory depression and sedation. Upon discontinuation of a CYP3A4 inhibitor, consider a fentanyl dose increase; monitor for signs and symptoms of withdrawal. Consider therapy modification

Fesoterodine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fesoterodine. Management: Limit fesoterodine doses to 4 mg daily in patients who are also receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Flecainide: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Flecainide. Avoid combination

Flibanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Flibanserin. Management: Use of flibanserin with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is contraindicated. If starting flibanserin, start 2 weeks after the last dose of the CYP3A4 inhibitor. If starting a CYP3A4 inhibitor, start 2 days after the last dose of flibanserin. Avoid combination

Flurazepam: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Flurazepam. Monitor therapy

Fluticasone (Nasal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fluticasone (Nasal). Avoid combination

Fluticasone (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fluticasone (Oral Inhalation). Consider therapy modification

Fosaprepitant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fosaprepitant. Avoid combination

Fosphenytoin: May decrease the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Fosphenytoin. Management: Dose adjustments may be required. Monitor phenytoin concentrations, and for therapeutic reponse to fosphenytoin and ritonavir, particularly with any dose adjustments. Consider therapy modification

Fostamatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fostamatinib. Monitor therapy

Fusidic Acid (Systemic): Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Fusidic Acid (Systemic). Fusidic Acid (Systemic) may increase the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Avoid combination

Galantamine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Galantamine. Monitor therapy

Garlic: May decrease the serum concentration of Protease Inhibitors. Management: Concurrent use of garlic supplements with protease inhibitors is not recommended. If this combination is used, monitor closely for altered serum concentrations/effects of protease inhibitors, and particularly for signs/symptoms of therapeutic failure. Consider therapy modification

Gefitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Gefitinib. Monitor therapy

Gilteritinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Gilteritinib. Management: Consider alternatives to the use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with gilteritinib. If the combination cannot be avoided, monitor more closely for evidence of gilteritinib toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Glasdegib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Glasdegib. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible. If the combination must be used, monitor closely for evidence of QT interval prolongation and other adverse reactions to glasdegib. Consider therapy modification

Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir. Avoid combination

GuanFACINE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of GuanFACINE. Management: Reduce the extended-release guanfacine dose 50% when combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor for increased guanfacine toxicities when these agents are combined. Consider therapy modification

Halofantrine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Halofantrine. Management: The combination of halofantrine with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor should be avoided whenever possible due to the risk for QTc interval prolongation. Avoid combination

HYDROcodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of HYDROcodone. Monitor therapy

Hydrocortisone (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Hydrocortisone (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Ibrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ibrutinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of ibrutinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor must be used short-term (eg, anti-infectives for 7 days or less), interrupt ibrutinib therapy until the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued. Avoid combination

Idelalisib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Idelalisib. Monitor therapy

Ifosfamide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ifosfamide. Monitor therapy

Iloperidone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Iloperidone. Specifically, concentrations of the metabolites P88 and P95 may be increased. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Iloperidone. Management: Reduce iloperidone dose by half when administered with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Imatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Imatinib. Monitor therapy

Imidafenacin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Imidafenacin. Monitor therapy

Irinotecan Products: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Irinotecan Products. Specifically, serum concentrations of SN-38 may be increased. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Irinotecan Products. Avoid combination

Isavuconazonium Sulfate: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Isavuconazonium Sulfate. Specifically, CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase isavuconazole serum concentrations. Management: Combined use is considered contraindicated per US labeling. Lopinavir/ritonavir (and possibly other uses of ritonavir doses less than 400 mg every 12 hours) is treated as a possible exception to this contraindication despite strongly inhibiting CYP3A4. Avoid combination

Istradefylline: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Istradefylline. Management: Limit the maximum istradefylline dose to 20 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and monitor for increased istradefylline effects/toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Itraconazole: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Itraconazole. Management: Limit the adult maximum itraconazole dose to 200 mg/day in patients receiving ritonavir. Consider therapy modification

Ivabradine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ivabradine. Avoid combination

Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ivacaftor. Management: Ivacaftor dose reductions are required; consult full drug interaction monograph content for age- and weight-specific recommendations. Consider therapy modification

Ivosidenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ivosidenib. Management: Avoid use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with ivosidenib whenever possible. When combined use is required, reduce the ivosidenib dose to 250 mg once daily. Consider therapy modification

Ixabepilone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ixabepilone. Management: Avoid use of ixabepilone and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, reduce the ixabepilone dose to 20 mg/m2. The previous ixabepilone dose can be resumed 1 week after discontinuation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Ketoconazole (Systemic): Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Ketoconazole (Systemic). Management: Limit the adult maximum ketoconazole dose to 200 mg/day in patients receiving ritonavir. Consider therapy modification

LamoTRIgine: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of LamoTRIgine. Monitor therapy

Lapatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lapatinib. Management: Avoid use of lapatinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, reduce lapatinib dose to 500 mg daily. The previous lapatinib dose can be resumed 1 week after discontinuation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Larotrectinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Larotrectinib. Management: Avoid use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with larotrectinib. If this combination cannot be avoided, reduce the larotrectinib dose by 50%. Increase to previous dose after stopping the inhibitor after a period of 3 to 5 times the inhibitor's half-life. Consider therapy modification

Lefamulin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lefamulin. Management: Avoid concomitant use of lefamulin tablets and strong inhibitors of CYP3A4. Avoid combination

Lemborexant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lemborexant. Avoid combination

Lercanidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lercanidipine. Avoid combination

Letermovir: May increase the serum concentration of UGT1A1 Inducers. Avoid combination

Levamlodipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Levamlodipine. Monitor therapy

Levobupivacaine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Levobupivacaine. Monitor therapy

Levomethadone: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Levomethadone. Monitor therapy

Levomilnacipran: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Levomilnacipran. Management: Do not exceed a maximum adult levomilnacipran dose of 80 mg/day in patients also receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

LinaGLIPtin: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of LinaGLIPtin. Monitor therapy

Lomitapide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lomitapide. Avoid combination

Lorlatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lorlatinib. Management: Avoid use of lorlatinib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If the combination cannot be avoided, reduce the lorlatinib dose from 100 mg once daily to 75 mg once daily, or from 75 mg once daily to 50 mg once daily. Consider therapy modification

Lovastatin: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Lovastatin. Avoid combination

Lovastatin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lovastatin. Avoid combination

Lumacaftor and Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lumacaftor and Ivacaftor. Management: When initiating or resuming lumacaftor/ivacaftor after a therapy interruption of 7 days or more, reduce the lumacaftor/ivacaftor dose to 1 tablet daily or 1 packet of oral granules every other day for the first week, and then resume the standard dose. Consider therapy modification

Lumateperone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lumateperone. Avoid combination

Lumefantrine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lumefantrine. Monitor therapy

Lurasidone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lurasidone. Avoid combination

Lurbinectedin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lurbinectedin. Avoid combination

Macitentan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Macitentan. Avoid combination

Manidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Manidipine. Management: Consider avoiding concomitant use of manidipine and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If combined, monitor closely for increased manidipine effects and toxicities. Manidipine dose reductions may be required. Consider therapy modification

Maraviroc: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Maraviroc. Management: Reduce maraviroc to 150mg twice/day in adult and pediatrics weighing 40kg or more. See full interaction monograph for dose adjustments in pediatrics weighing 10 to less than 40kg. Do not use if CrCl less than 30mL/min or in those weighing less than 10 kg. Consider therapy modification

Mebendazole: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Mebendazole. Monitor therapy

MedroxyPROGESTERone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of MedroxyPROGESTERone. Monitor therapy

Meperidine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Meperidine. Monitor therapy

Meptazinol: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Meptazinol. Avoid combination

Methadone: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Methadone. Monitor therapy

Methotrimeprazine: Products Containing Ethanol may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methotrimeprazine. Specifically, CNS depressant effects may be increased. Management: Avoid products containing alcohol in patients treated with methotrimeprazine. Avoid combination

MetroNIDAZOLE (Systemic): Ritonavir may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of MetroNIDAZOLE (Systemic). Specifically, the combination of ritonavir oral solution or ritonavir soft gelatin capsule, both of which contain alcohol, and metronidazole may result in a disulfiram-like reaction. Avoid combination

Midazolam: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Midazolam. Management: Oral midazolam contraindicated with all protease inhibitors. IV midazolam contraindicated with fosamprenavir and nelfinavir; other protease inhibitors recommend caution, close monitoring, and consideration of lower IV midazolam doses with concurrent use. Avoid combination

Midostaurin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Midostaurin. Management: Seek alternatives to the concomitant use of midostaurin and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors if possible. If concomitant use cannot be avoided, monitor patients for increased risk of adverse reactions. Consider therapy modification

MiFEPRIStone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of MiFEPRIStone. Management: For treatment of hyperglycemia in Cushing's syndrome, start mifepristone at 300 mg/day, may titrate to a maximum of 900 mg/day. If starting a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and taking >300 mg/day mifepristone, decrease the mifepristone dose by 300 mg/day. Consider therapy modification

Mirodenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mirodenafil. Management: Consider using a lower dose of mirodenafil when used with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Monitor for increased mirodenafil effects/toxicities with the use of this combination. Consider therapy modification

Mirtazapine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mirtazapine. Monitor therapy

Mitotane: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Doses of CYP3A4 substrates may need to be adjusted substantially when used in patients being treated with mitotane. Consider therapy modification

Mometasone (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mometasone (Oral Inhalation). Monitor therapy

Morphine (Systemic): P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Morphine (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Nadolol: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Nadolol. Monitor therapy

Naldemedine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Naldemedine. Monitor therapy

Nalfurafine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nalfurafine. Monitor therapy

Naloxegol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Naloxegol. Avoid combination

Nefazodone: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Nefazodone. Management: Consider alternatives to, or reduced doses of, nefazodone in patients treated with HIV protease inhibitors. Monitor patients receiving these combinations closely for toxic effects of nefazodone. Consider therapy modification

Neratinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Neratinib. Avoid combination

Nilotinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nilotinib. Management: Avoid if possible. If combination needed, decrease nilotinib to 300 mg once/day for patients with resistant or intolerant Ph+ CML or to 200 mg once/day for patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ CML in chronic phase. Consider therapy modification

NiMODipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of NiMODipine. Avoid combination

Nintedanib: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Strong) and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Nintedanib. Monitor therapy

Nisoldipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nisoldipine. Avoid combination

OLANZapine: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of OLANZapine. Monitor therapy

Olaparib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Olaparib. Management: Avoid use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with olaparib, if possible. If such concurrent use cannot be avoided, the dose of olaparib tablets should be reduced to 100 mg twice daily and the dose of olaparib capsules should be reduced to 150 mg twice daily. Consider therapy modification

Oliceridine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Oliceridine. Monitor therapy

Orlistat: May decrease the serum concentration of Antiretroviral Agents. Monitor therapy

Osilodrostat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Osilodrostat. Management: Reduce osilodrostat dose by 50% during coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Ospemifene: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ospemifene. Monitor therapy

Oxybutynin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Oxybutynin. Monitor therapy

Palbociclib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Palbociclib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with palbociclib when possible. If the use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor cannot be avoided, decrease the palbociclib dose to 75 mg/day. Consider therapy modification

Panobinostat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Panobinostat. Management: Reduce the panobinostat dose to 10 mg when it must be used with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor patient response to therapy closely for evidence of more severe adverse effects related to panobinostat therapy. Consider therapy modification

Parecoxib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Parecoxib. Specifically, serum concentrations of the active moiety valdecoxib may be increased. Monitor therapy

Paricalcitol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Paricalcitol. Monitor therapy

PAZOPanib: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Avoid combination

Pemigatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pemigatinib. Management: If combined use cannot be avoided, reduce the pemigatinib dose from 13.5 mg daily to 9 mg daily, or from 9 mg daily to 4.5 mg daily. Resume prior pemigatinib dose after stopping the strong inhibitor once 3 half-lives of the inhibitor has passed. Consider therapy modification

Pexidartinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pexidartinib. Management: Avoid use of pexidartinib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors if possible. If combined use cannot be avoided, pexidartinib dose should be reduced. Decrease 800 mg or 600 mg daily doses to 200 mg twice daily. Decrease doses of 400 mg per day to 200 mg once daily Consider therapy modification

Phenytoin: May decrease the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Phenytoin. Management: Dose adjustments may be required. Monitor phenytoin concentrations, and for therapeutic reponse to phenytoin and ritonavir, particularly with any dose adjustments. Consider therapy modification

Pimavanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pimavanserin. Management: Decrease the pimavanserin dose to 10 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Pimecrolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease the metabolism of Pimecrolimus. Monitor therapy

Pimozide: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Pimozide. Avoid combination

Pimozide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pimozide. Avoid combination

Piperaquine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Piperaquine. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Piperaquine. Management: Avoid concomitant use of piperaquine and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If the combination cannot be avoided, frequent ECG monitoring is recommended due to the risk for QTc prolongation. Consider therapy modification

Polatuzumab Vedotin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Polatuzumab Vedotin. Exposure to unconjugated MMAE, the cytotoxic small molecule component of polatuzumab vedotin, may be increased. Monitor therapy

PONATinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PONATinib. Management: Reduce the adult starting dose of ponatinib to 30 mg daily during treatment with any strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Posaconazole: May increase the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Monitor therapy

Pralsetinib: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Strong) and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Pralsetinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use if possible. If combined, reduce the pralsetinib dose. If taking 400 mg or 300 mg once daily, reduce to 200 mg once daily. If taking 200 mg once daily, reduce to 100 mg once daily. Consider therapy modification

Pranlukast: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pranlukast. Monitor therapy

Praziquantel: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Praziquantel. Monitor therapy

PrednisoLONE (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PrednisoLONE (Systemic). Monitor therapy

PredniSONE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PredniSONE. Monitor therapy

Proguanil: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Proguanil. Monitor therapy

Propafenone: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Propafenone. Avoid combination

Protease Inhibitors: May increase the serum concentration of other Protease Inhibitors. Management: Atazanavir--indinavir combination contraindicated. Tipranavir/ritonavir or atazanavir/ritonavir not recommended with other protease inhibitors (PI). Darunavir/cobicistat not recommended with PI that require boosting.Other combos may require dose changes. Consider therapy modification

QUEtiapine: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of QUEtiapine. Management: The ritonavir Canadian labeling states this combination should not be used. U.S. labeling recommends using an alternative when possible; if the combination must be used, reduce the quetiapine dose to one-sixth of the original dose. Consider therapy modification

QuiNIDine: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Avoid combination

Quinidine (Non-Therapeutic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Quinidine (Non-Therapeutic). Monitor therapy

QuiNINE: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of QuiNINE. This effect has been seen with lopinavir/ritonavir. The individual contributions of lopinavir and ritonavir to this effect are unclear. QuiNINE may increase the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of QuiNINE. Avoid combination

Radotinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Radotinib. Avoid combination

Ramelteon: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ramelteon. Monitor therapy

Ranolazine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ranolazine. Avoid combination

Red Yeast Rice: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Red Yeast Rice. Specifically, concentrations of lovastatin and related compounds found in Red Yeast Rice may be increased. Avoid combination

Regorafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Regorafenib. Avoid combination

Repaglinide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Repaglinide. Management: The addition of a CYP2C8 inhibitor to this drug combination may substantially increase the magnitude of increase in repaglinide exposure. Monitor therapy

Retapamulin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Retapamulin. Management: Avoid this combination in patients less than 2 years old. No action is required in other populations. Monitor therapy

Ribociclib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ribociclib. Management: Avoid use of ribociclib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible; if combined use cannot be avoided, reduce ribociclib dose to 400 mg once daily. Consider therapy modification

Rifabutin: Ritonavir may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Rifabutin. Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Rifabutin. Management: Ritonavir labeling recommends reducing rifabutin doses by at least 75% (ie, 150 mg every other day). Refer to drug interaction monographs addressing concomitantly administered protease inhibitors for recommendations specific to ritonavir-boosted regimens. Consider therapy modification

RifAMPin: May decrease the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Avoid combination

RifAXIMin: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of RifAXIMin. Monitor therapy

Rilpivirine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Rilpivirine. Monitor therapy

Rimegepant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Rimegepant. Avoid combination

Riociguat: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Strong) and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Riociguat. Management: Consider a riociguat starting dose of 0.5 mg 3 times a day when initiating riociguat in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 and P-gp inhibitors. Monitor for hypotension when these agents are combined and reduce the riociguat dose as needed. Consider therapy modification

Ripretinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ripretinib. Monitor therapy

RisperiDONE: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of RisperiDONE. Monitor therapy

Rivaroxaban: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Strong) and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Rivaroxaban. Avoid combination

RomiDEPsin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of RomiDEPsin. Monitor therapy

RomiDEPsin: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of RomiDEPsin. Monitor therapy

Rosuvastatin: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Rosuvastatin. Management: Limit rosuvastatin to 10 mg daily in patients receiving atazanavir/ritonavir or lopinavir/ritonavir. Patients receiving fosamprenavir/ritonavir or tipranavir/ritonavir do not require dose adjustments if rosuvastatin is used concomitantly. Consider therapy modification

Rupatadine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Rupatadine. Avoid combination

Ruxolitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ruxolitinib. Management: This combination should be avoided under some circumstances; dose adjustments may be required in some circumstances and depend on the indication for ruxolitinib. See monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Sacituzumab Govitecan: UGT1A1 Inducers may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Sacituzumab Govitecan. Specifically, concentrations of SN-38 may be decreased. Avoid combination

Salmeterol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Salmeterol. Avoid combination

Sarilumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

SAXagliptin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SAXagliptin. Management: Limit the saxagliptin dose to 2.5 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. When using the saxagliptin combination products saxagliptin/dapagliflozin or saxagliptin/dapagliflozin/metformin, avoid use with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Selpercatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Selpercatinib. Management: Avoid combination if possible. If use is necessary, reduce selpercatinib dose as follows: from 120 mg twice/day to 40 mg twice/day, or from 160 mg twice/day to 80 mg twice/day. Consider therapy modification

Selumetinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Selumetinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use when possible. If combined, selumetinib dose reductions are recommended and vary based on body surface area and selumetinib dose. For details, see the full drug interaction monograph or selumetinib prescribing information. Consider therapy modification

Sibutramine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Sibutramine. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sibutramine. Monitor therapy

Sildenafil: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Sildenafil. Management: Erectile dysfunction: sildenafil max = 25 mg/48 hrs with ritonavir, atazanavir, or darunavir; starting dose = 25 mg with other protease inhibitors (adult doses). Contraindicated if sildenafil being used for pulmonary arterial hypertension. Consider therapy modification

Sildenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sildenafil. Management: Use of sildenafil for pulmonary hypertension should be avoided with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. When used for erectile dysfunction, starting adult dose should be reduced to 25 mg. Maximum adult dose with ritonavir or cobicistat is 25 mg per 48 hours. Consider therapy modification

Silodosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Silodosin. Avoid combination

Siltuximab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Simeprevir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Simeprevir. Avoid combination

Simeprevir: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Simeprevir. Simeprevir may increase the serum concentration of Protease Inhibitors. Avoid combination

Simvastatin: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Avoid combination

Simvastatin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Avoid combination

Sirolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sirolimus. Management: Avoid concurrent use of sirolimus with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible and alternative agents with lesser interaction potential with sirolimus should be considered. Concomitant use of sirolimus and voriconazole or posaconazole is contraindicated. Consider therapy modification

Sirolimus: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Sirolimus. Management: Avoid concurrent use of sirolimus with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors when possible and alternative agents with lesser interaction potential with sirolimus should be considered. Monitor for increased sirolimus concentrations/toxicity if combined. Consider therapy modification

Solifenacin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Solifenacin. Management: Limit adult solifenacin doses to 5 mg daily and limit doses in pediatric patients to the recommended weight-based starting dose (and do not increase the dose) when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Sonidegib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sonidegib. Avoid combination

SORAfenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SORAfenib. Monitor therapy

St John's Wort: May increase the metabolism of Protease Inhibitors. Avoid combination

SUFentanil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SUFentanil. Management: If a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor is initiated in a patient on sufentanil, consider a sufentanil dose reduction and monitor for increased sufentanil effects and toxicities (eg, respiratory depression). Consider therapy modification

SUNItinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SUNItinib. Management: Avoid when possible. If combined, decrease sunitinib dose to a minimum of 37.5 mg daily when treating GIST or RCC. Decrease sunitinib dose to a minimum of 25 mg daily when treating PNET. Monitor patients for both reduced efficacy and increased toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Suvorexant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Suvorexant. Avoid combination

Tacrolimus (Systemic): Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Tacrolimus (Systemic). Management: Tacrolimus dose reductions may be needed with concurrent ritonavir. Monitor tacrolimus concentrations closely to determine dose; doses of tacrolimus 0.5 mg to 1 mg every week may be adequate. Consider therapy modification

Tacrolimus (Topical): Protease Inhibitors may decrease the metabolism of Tacrolimus (Topical). Monitor therapy

Tadalafil: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Tadalafil. Management: In patients treated for pulmonary arterial hypertension avoid initiating ritonavir in patients taking tadalafil; dose adjustments are required. For ED or BPH treatment, decrease tadalafil max dose and frequency. See full monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Talazoparib: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Talazoparib. Monitor therapy

Tamsulosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tamsulosin. Avoid combination

Tasimelteon: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tasimelteon. Monitor therapy

Tazemetostat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tazemetostat. Avoid combination

Tegaserod: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Tegaserod. Monitor therapy

Telithromycin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Telithromycin. Monitor therapy

Temsirolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Temsirolimus. Management: Avoid concomitant use of temsirolimus and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If coadministration is unavoidable, decrease temsirolimus dose to 12.5 mg per week. Resume previous temsirolimus dose 1 week after discontinuation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Terfenadine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Terfenadine. Avoid combination

Tetrahydrocannabinol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tetrahydrocannabinol. Monitor therapy

Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy

Tezacaftor and Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tezacaftor and Ivacaftor. Management: If combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, tezacaftor/ivacaftor should be administered in the morning, twice a week, approximately 3 to 4 days apart. Tezacaftor/ivacaftor dose depends on age and weight; see full Lexi-Interact monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Theophylline Derivatives: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Theophylline Derivatives. Monitor therapy

Thioridazine: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Thioridazine. Management: Consider avoiding concomitant use of thioridazine and weak CYP2D6 inhibitors. If combined, monitor closely for QTc interval prolongation and arrhythmias. Some weak CYP2D6 inhibitors list use with thioridazine as a contraindication. Consider therapy modification

Thiotepa: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Thiotepa. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Thiotepa. Management: Thiotepa prescribing information recommends avoiding concomitant use of thiotepa and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor for adverse effects and decreased efficacy. Consider therapy modification

Thyroid Products: Ritonavir may diminish the therapeutic effect of Thyroid Products. Monitor therapy

Ticagrelor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ticagrelor. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ticagrelor. Avoid combination

Tocilizumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Tofacitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tofacitinib. Management: Tofacitinib dose reductions are recommended when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Recommended dose adjustments vary by tofacitinib formulation and therapeutic indication. See full Lexi Interact monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Tolterodine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tolterodine. Management: The maximum recommended dose of tolterodine is 2 mg per day (1 mg twice daily for immediate-release tablets or 2 mg daily for extended-release capsules) when used together with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Tolvaptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tolvaptan. Avoid combination

Topotecan: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Topotecan. Avoid combination

Toremifene: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Toremifene. Management: Use of toremifene with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors should be avoided if possible. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for increased toremifene toxicities, including QTc interval prolongation. Consider therapy modification

Trabectedin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Trabectedin. Avoid combination

TraMADol: Ritonavir may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of TraMADol. Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of TraMADol. Monitor therapy

TraZODone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of TraZODone. Management: Consider the use of a lower trazodone dose and monitor for increased trazodone effects (eg, sedation, QTc prolongation) if combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Triamcinolone (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Triamcinolone (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Triazolam: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Triazolam. Avoid combination

Ubrogepant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ubrogepant. Avoid combination

Udenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Udenafil. Avoid combination

Ulipristal: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ulipristal. Management: This is specific for when ulipristal is being used for signs/symptoms of uterine fibroids (Canadian indication). When ulipristal is used as an emergency contraceptive, patients receiving this combo should be monitored for ulipristal toxicity. Avoid combination

Upadacitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Upadacitinib. Monitor therapy

Valbenazine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Valbenazine. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Valbenazine. Management: Reduce the valbenazine dose to 40 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Valproate Products: Protease Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Valproate Products. Monitor therapy

Vardenafil: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Vardenafil. Management: Limit Levitra (vardenafil) dose to a single 2.5 mg dose within a 72-hour period if combined with ritonavir. Avoid concomitant use of Staxyn (vardenafil) and ritonavir. Combined use is contraindicated outside of the US. Consider therapy modification

Vemurafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vemurafenib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of vemurafenib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If concomitant use is unavoidable, consider a vemurafenib dose reduction if clinically indicated. Consider therapy modification

Venetoclax: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Venetoclax. Management: Coadministration is contraindicated during venetoclax initiation and ramp-up in CLL/SLL patients. Reduced venetoclax doses are required during ramp-up for patients with AML, and all maintenance therapy. See full Lexi Interact monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Venetoclax: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Venetoclax. Management: Reduce the venetoclax dose by at least 50% in patients requiring concomitant treatment with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors. Resume the previous venetoclax dose 2 to 3 days after discontinuation of a P-gp inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Verapamil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Verapamil. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible. If combined, monitor for increased verapamil effects and toxicities (eg, hypotension, bradycardia). Consider therapy modification

Vilanterol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vilanterol. Monitor therapy

Vilazodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vilazodone. Management: Limit the maximum vilazodone dose to 20 mg daily in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. The original vilazodone dose can be resumed following discontinuation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

VinBLAStine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of VinBLAStine. Monitor therapy

VinCRIStine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of VinCRIStine. Management: Seek alternatives to this combination when possible. If combined, monitor closely for vincristine toxicities (eg, neurotoxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, myelosuppression). Consider therapy modification

VinCRIStine (Liposomal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of VinCRIStine (Liposomal). Avoid combination

VinCRIStine (Liposomal): P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of VinCRIStine (Liposomal). Avoid combination

Vindesine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vindesine. Monitor therapy

Vinflunine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vinflunine. Avoid combination

Vinorelbine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vinorelbine. Monitor therapy

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Vitamin K Antagonists. Monitor therapy

Vorapaxar: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vorapaxar. Avoid combination

Voriconazole: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Voriconazole. Management: Concurrent voriconazole and high-dose ritonavir (adult doses of 400 mg every 12 hrs or greater) is contraindicated. Voriconazole with lower-dose ritonavir should be avoided unless benefits outweigh risk of inadequate voriconazole concentrations. Avoid combination

Voxelotor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Voxelotor. Management: Avoid concomitant use of voxelotor and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If concomitant use is unavoidable, reduce the voxelotor dose to 1,000 mg once daily. Consider therapy modification

Zanubrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Zanubrutinib. Management: Decrease the zanubrutinib dose to 80 mg once daily during coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Further dose adjustments may be required for zanubrutinib toxicities, refer to prescribing information for details. Consider therapy modification

Zidovudine: Protease Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Zidovudine. Monitor therapy

Zolpidem: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Zolpidem. Monitor therapy

Zopiclone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Zopiclone. Management: If coadministered with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, initiate zopiclone at 3.75 mg in adults, with a maximum dose of 5 mg. Monitor for zopiclone toxicity (eg, drowsiness, confusion, lethargy, ataxia, respiratory depression). Consider therapy modification

Adverse Reactions

The following adverse drug reactions and incidences are derived from product labeling unless otherwise specified.

Incidences as reported for combined experiences in both treatment-naive and experienced adults unless otherwise noted:

>10%:

Cardiovascular: Flushing (13%)

Dermatologic: Pruritus (12%), skin rash (27%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Hypercholesterolemia (3%; >240 mg/dL: 37% to 45%), increased serum triglycerides (9%; >800 mg/dL: 17% to 34%; >1500 mg/dL: 1% to 13%)

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain (26%), diarrhea (68%), dysgeusia (16%), dyspepsia (12%), nausea (57%), vomiting (32%)

Hepatic: Increased gamma-glutamyl transferase (5% to 20%)

Nervous system: Dizziness (16%), fatigue (46%; including asthenia), paresthesia (51%; including oral paresthesia)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Arthralgia (≤19%), back pain (≤19%), increased creatine phosphokinase in blood specimen (4% to 12%)

Respiratory: Cough (22%), oropharyngeal pain (16%)

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Cold extremity (1%), edema (≤6%), hypertension (3%), hypotension (2%; including orthostatic hypotension), peripheral edema (≤6%), syncope (3%)

Dermatologic: Acne vulgaris (4%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Increased uric acid (≤4%), lipodystrophy (acquired, 3%)

Gastrointestinal: Flatulence (8%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (1%), gastrointestinal hemorrhage (2%), gout (1%), increased serum amylase (grades 3/4; infants, children, and adolescents: 7%)

Genitourinary: Urinary frequency (4%)

Hematologic & oncologic: Anemia (grades 3/4; infants, children, and adolescents: 4%), neutropenia (grades 3/4; infants, children, and adolescents: 9%), thrombocytopenia (grades 3/4; infants, children, and adolescents: 5%)

Hepatic: Hepatitis (9%), increased serum alanine aminotransferase (8% to 9%), increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (6% to 10%; infants, children, and adolescents: 3%), increased serum bilirubin (1%)

Hypersensitivity: Hypersensitivity reaction (8%)

Nervous system: Confusion (3%), disturbance in attention (3%), peripheral neuropathy (10%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Myalgia (9%), myopathy (≤4%)

Ophthalmic: Blurred vision (6%)

Frequency not defined:

Gastrointestinal: Pancreatitis

Postmarketing:

Cardiovascular: Atrioventricular block (first, second, or third degree), prolongation P-R interval on ECG, right bundle branch block

Dermatologic: Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis

Endocrine & metabolic: Dehydration

Hypersensitivity: Angioedema

Immunologic: Immune reconstitution syndrome

Nervous system: Seizure

Renal: Renal insufficiency

Respiratory: Bronchospasm

ALERT: U.S. Boxed Warning

Drug-drug interactions leading to potentially serious and/or life threatening reactions:

Coadministration of ritonavir with several classes of drugs, including sedative hypnotics, antiarrhythmics, or ergot alkaloid preparations, may result in potentially serious and/or life-threatening adverse reactions due to possible effects of ritonavir on the hepatic metabolism of certain drugs. Review medications taken by patients prior to prescribing ritonavir or when prescribing other medications to patients already taking ritonavir.

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Hypersensitivity reactions: Protease inhibitors have been associated with a variety of hypersensitivity events (some severe), including rash, anaphylaxis (rare), angioedema, bronchospasm, erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and/or Stevens-Johnson syndrome (rare). It is generally recommended to discontinue treatment if severe rash or moderate symptoms accompanied by other systemic symptoms occur.

• Fat redistribution: May cause redistribution/accumulation of fat (eg, central obesity, buffalo hump, peripheral wasting, facial wasting, breast enlargement, cushingoid appearance).

• Hepatotoxicity: May cause hepatitis, jaundice, and/or exacerbation of preexisting hepatic dysfunction (including fatalities); use with caution in patients with underlying hepatic disease, such as hepatitis B or C, cirrhosis, or those with high baseline transaminases; consider increased monitoring of transaminases in these patients.

• Immune reconstitution syndrome: Patients may develop immune reconstitution syndrome resulting in the occurrence of an inflammatory response to an indolent or residual opportunistic infection during initial HIV treatment or activation of autoimmune disorders (eg, Graves’ disease, polymyositis, Guillain-Barré syndrome) later in therapy; further evaluation and treatment may be required.

• Increased cholesterol: Increases in total cholesterol and triglycerides have been reported; screening should be done prior to therapy and periodically throughout treatment.

• PR interval prolongation: Ritonavir has been associated with AV block (including second- and third-degree block) due to prolongation of PR interval; use caution with drugs that prolong the PR interval.

Disease-related concerns:

• Cardiovascular disease: Use with caution in patients with cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, preexisting conduction abnormalities, or structural heart disease; may be at increased risk of conduction abnormalities (eg, second- or third-degree AV block).

• Diabetes: Hyperglycemia, exacerbation of diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, and new-onset diabetes mellitus have been reported in patients receiving protease inhibitors. Consider monitoring for these conditions. In some patients who discontinued protease inhibitors, hyperglycemia persisted.

• Hemophilia A or B: Use with caution in patients with hemophilia A or B; increased bleeding events, including spontaneous skin hematoma and hemarthrosis, during protease inhibitor therapy have been reported. Additional factor VIII may be needed.

• Hepatic impairment: Use is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C).

• Pancreatitis: Use with caution in patients with increased triglycerides; pancreatitis has been observed (including fatalities). Monitor serum lipase and amylase, and for symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain. Temporary or permanent discontinuation may be clinically indicated.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: [US Boxed Warning]: Coadministration of ritonavir with several classes of drugs, including antiarrhythmics, ergot alkaloids, and sedatives/hypnotics, may result in potentially serious and/or life-threatening adverse reactions due to possible effects of ritonavir on the hepatic metabolism of certain drugs. Review medications taken by patients prior to prescribing ritonavir or when prescribing other medications to patients already taking ritonavir.

Special populations:

• Preterm neonates: Oral solution contains ethanol and propylene glycol; ethanol competitively inhibits propylene glycol metabolism; preterm infants may be at increased risk of toxicity due to decreased ability to metabolize propylene glycol. Postmarketing adverse reactions (cardiac toxicity, lactic acidosis, renal failure, CNS depression, respiratory complications, acute renal failure including fatalities) have been reported in preterm neonates receiving ritonavir-containing solutions. Do not use in neonates with a postmenstrual age (first day of mother's last menstrual period to birth plus elapsed time after birth) <44 weeks, unless benefit outweighs risk and neonate is closely monitored (serum creatinine and osmolality, CNS depression, renal toxicity, lactic acidosis, cardiac conduction abnormalities, hemolysis).

Dosage form specific issues:

• Bioequivalence: Norvir tablets are not bioequivalent to Norvir capsules. Gastrointestinal side effects (eg, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea) or paresthesias may be more common when patients are switching from the capsule to the tablet formulation due to a higher Cmax (26% increase) observed with the tablet formulation compared to the capsule. These side effects may decrease as therapy is continued.

• Oral solution: The oral solution contains large amounts of ethanol (43.2%) and propylene glycol (26.57%). Healthcare providers should pay special attention to accurate calculation, measurement, and administration of dose. Overdose (or cumulative ethanol or propylene glycol content in medications) in a child may lead to lethal ethanol or propylene glycol toxicity.

Monitoring Parameters

Triglycerides, cholesterol, CBC, LFTs, CPK, uric acid, basic HIV monitoring, viral load, CD4 count, glucose, serum amylase and lipase

Reproductive Considerations

The Health and Human Services (HHS) perinatal HIV guidelines consider ritonavir, when used as a booster for other protease inhibitors, to be a preferred or alternate component of regimens for females living with HIV who are not yet pregnant but are trying to conceive.

For males and females living with HIV and planning a pregnancy, maximum viral suppression below the limits of detection with antiretroviral therapy (ART), modification of therapy (if needed), optimization of the woman’s health, and a discussion of the potential risks and benefits of ART therapy during pregnancy is recommended prior to conception (HHS [perinatal] 2019).

Pregnancy Considerations

Ritonavir has a low level of transfer across the human placenta.

No increased risk of overall birth defects has been observed following first trimester exposure according to data collected by the antiretroviral pregnancy registry. Maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm delivery, stillbirth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age infants. Actual risks may be influenced by maternal factors, such as disease severity, gestational age at initiation of therapy, and specific ART regimen; therefore, close fetal monitoring is recommended. Because there is clear benefit to appropriate treatment, maternal ART should not be withheld due to concerns for adverse neonatal outcomes. Long-term follow-up is recommended for all infants exposed to antiretroviral medications; children without HIV but who were exposed to ART in utero and develop significant organ system abnormalities of unknown etiology (particularly of the CNS or heart) should be evaluated for potential mitochondrial dysfunction.

Hyperglycemia, new onset of diabetes mellitus, or diabetic ketoacidosis have been reported with protease inhibitors (PI); it is not clear if pregnancy increases this risk. Consider performing the standard glucose screening test earlier in pregnancy in women who initiated PI therapy prior to conception.

The Health and Human Services (HHS) perinatal HIV guidelines do not recommend treatment doses of ritonavir in pregnant women. Ritonavir should only be used as a low-dose booster; when used as a pharmacologic booster for other PIs, ritonavir is the preferred pharmacologic booster for use in pregnancy.

The HHS perinatal HIV guidelines consider ritonavir, when used as a booster for other PIs, to be a preferred or alternate component of regimens for pregnant females living with HIV who are antiretroviral naive, who have had ART therapy in the past but are restarting, or who require a new ART regimen (due to poor tolerance or poor virologic response of current regimen). In addition, females who become pregnant while taking ritonavir (used as a booster) may continue if viral suppression is effective and the regimen is well tolerated. A ritonavir-boosted PI regimen is also recommended when acute HIV infection is detected during pregnancy. Plasma levels are lower during pregnancy compared to postpartum; however, dosage adjustment is not needed when used as a low-dose booster in pregnant females. The oral solution contains alcohol and, therefore, is not recommended for use in pregnant patients.

In general, ART is recommended for all pregnant females living with HIV to keep the viral load below the limit of detection and reduce the risk of perinatal transmission. Therapy should be individualized following a discussion of the potential risks and benefits of treatment during pregnancy. Monitoring of pregnant females is more frequent than in nonpregnant adults. ART should be continued postpartum for all females living with HIV and can be modified after delivery.

Health care providers are encouraged to enroll pregnant females exposed to antiretroviral medications as early in pregnancy as possible in the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (1-800-258-4263 or http://www.APRegistry.com). Health care providers caring for pregnant females living with HIV and their infants may contact the National Perinatal HIV Hotline (1-888-448-8765) for clinical consultation (HHS [perinatal] 2019).

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to treat HIV infection.

• This drug is taken with other drugs. Be sure you know about the warnings, benefits, and risks of these other drugs. Talk with the doctor if you have questions or concerns about any of the drugs.

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

• Muscle pain

• Joint pain

• Back pain

• Nausea

• Vomiting

• Diarrhea

• Abdominal pain

• Heartburn

• Passing gas

• Change in taste

• Numbness or tingling of hands or feet

• Numbness or tingling of mouth

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

• Liver problems like dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or yellow skin.

• Pancreatitis like severe abdominal pain, severe back pain, severe nausea, or vomiting.

• High blood sugar like confusion, fatigue, increased thirst, increased hunger, passing a lot of urine, flushing, fast breathing, or breath that smells like fruit.

• Severe diarrhea

• Chest pain

• Fast heartbeat

• Abnormal heartbeat

• Dizziness

• Passing out

• Flushing

• Bruising

• Bleeding

• Sweating a lot

• Severe loss of strength and energy

• Swelling

• Blurred vision

• Change in body fat

• Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis like red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin (with or without fever); red or irritated eyes; or sores in mouth, throat, nose, or eyes

• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine’s uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.