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Mannitol (Oral Inhalation)

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Aug 2, 2020.

Pronunciation

(MAN i tole)

Index Terms

  • D-Mannitol

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Kit, Inhalation:

Aridol: Graduated dose; 0 mg (1), 5 mg (1), 10 mg (1), 20 mg (1), 40 mg (15)

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Aridol

Pharmacologic Category

  • Diagnostic Agent

Pharmacology

The mechanisms of bronchoconstriction are unknown.

Distribution

34.3 L (based on IV administration)

Metabolism

Minimally hepatic to glycogen

Excretion

Urine (~55% to 87% as unchanged drug)

Time to Peak

Plasma: Inhaled: 1.5 hours

Half-Life Elimination

Terminal: 4.7 hours

Use: Labeled Indications

Assessment of bronchial hyper-responsiveness: For the assessment of bronchial hyper-responsiveness in patients 6 years and older who do not have clinically apparent asthma.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to mannitol, gelatin, or any component of the formulation; conditions that may be compromised by induced bronchospasm or repeated spirometry (eg, aortic or cerebral aneurysm, uncontrolled hypertension, recent MI or cerebral vascular accident)

Dosing: Adult

Assessment of bronchial hyper-responsiveness: Inhalation: Administer in a stepwise fashion (measuring FEV1 in duplicate after each administration) until the patient has a positive response or 635 mg of mannitol has been administered (whichever comes first).

Positive test: 15% reduction in FEV1 from baseline or 10% incremental reduction in FEV1 between consecutive doses

Negative test: Administration of full dose (635 mg) without reduction in FEV1 sufficient to meet criteria for a positive test

Administration should be as follows:

Stepwise Administration Schedule

Dose #

Dose (mg)

Cumulative Dose (mg)

Capsules/Dose

1

0

0

1

2

5

5

1

3

10

15

1

4

20

35

1

5

40

75

1

6

80

155

2 x 40 mg caps

7

160

315

4 x 40 mg caps

8

160

475

4 x 40 mg caps

9

160

635

4 x 40 mg caps

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Pediatric

Bronchial hyper-responsiveness assessment: Children ≥6 years and Adolescents: Oral inhalation: Administer in a stepwise fashion (measuring FEV1 in duplicate at baseline and after each administration) until the patient has a positive response or 635 mg of mannitol has been administered (whichever comes first).

Positive test: 15% reduction in FEV1 from baseline or 10% incremental reduction in FEV1 between consecutive doses

Negative test: Administration of full dose (635 mg) without reduction in FEV1 sufficient to meet criteria for a positive test

Administration should be as follows:

Stepwise Administration Schedule

Dose #

Dose (mg)

Cumulative Dose (mg)

Capsules/Dose

1

0

0

1

2

5

5

1

3

10

15

1

4

20

35

1

5

40

75

1

6

80

155

2 x 40 mg caps

7

160

315

4 x 40 mg caps

8

160

475

4 x 40 mg caps

9

160

635

4 x 40 mg caps

Administration

Inhalation: Administer using supplied single patient use inhaler; do not puncture capsule more than once; do not swallow capsules. A nose clip may be used if preferred. The patient should exhale completely, followed by a controlled rapid deep inspiration from the device; hold breath for 5 seconds and exhale through the mouth. Measure FEV1 in duplicate 60 seconds after inhalation; repeat process until positive response or full dose (635 mg) has been administered.

Storage

Powder for inhalation: Store at <25°C (<77°F); excursions permitted between 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Do not freeze.

Drug Interactions

There are no known significant interactions.

Adverse Reactions

The following adverse drug reactions and incidences are derived from product labeling unless otherwise specified.

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Chest discomfort (1%)

Central nervous system: Headache (adults 6%; children 3%), dizziness (1%)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea (adults 2%; children 3%), throat irritation (2%), retching (1%)

Respiratory: Cough (2%), pharyngolaryngeal pain (adults 2%; children 4%), rhinorrhea (2%), dyspnea (1%), wheezing (1%)

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: FEV1 decreased, gagging

ALERT: U.S. Boxed Warning

Risk of severe bronchospasm (powder for inhalation):

Mannitol acts as a bronchoconstrictor and may cause severe bronchospasm. Bronchial challenge testing with mannitol is for diagnostic purposes only. Bronchial challenge testing with mannitol should only be conducted by trained professionals under the supervision of a health care provider familiar with all aspects of the bronchial challenge test and the management of acute bronchospasm. Medications (eg, short-acting inhaled beta-agonists) and equipment to treat severe bronchospasm must be present in the testing area. If severe bronchospasm occurs, it should be treated immediately by administration of a short-acting inhaled beta-agonist. Because of the potential for severe bronchoconstriction, the bronchial challenge testing with mannitol should not be performed in any patient with clinically apparent asthma or very low baseline pulmonary function tests (eg, forced expiratory volume at 1 second [FEV1] less than 1 to 1.5 L or less than 70% of the predicted values).

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Bronchospasm: [US Boxed Warning] Use may result in severe bronchospasm; use only for bronchial challenge testing. Testing should only be done by trained professionals. Not for use in patients with asthma or very low baseline pulmonary function. Medications (eg, short-acting inhaled beta-agonist) and equipment for the treatment of severe bronchospasm should be readily available. Use with caution in patients with conditions that may increase sensitivity to bronchoconstriction (eg, severe cough, ventilatory impairment, spirometry-induced bronchoconstriction, hemoptysis of unknown origin, pneumothorax, recent abdominal, thoracic, or intraocular surgery, unstable angina, active upper or lower respiratory tract infection). Patients who have ≥10% reduction in FEV1 on administration of the 0 mg capsule, patients with a positive response to bronchial challenge testing, or patients who develop significant respiratory symptoms should receive short acting inhaled beta-agonist; monitor until full recovery to baseline. Bronchial challenge testing should not be performed in children <6 years of age as these patients are unable to provide reliable spirometric results.

Monitoring Parameters

Standard spirometry prior to bronchial challenge test; FEV1 in duplicate 60 seconds after administration of each step of test

Pregnancy Risk Factor

C

Pregnancy Considerations

Adverse events were not observed in animal reproduction studies.

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used during an asthma test.

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

• Headache

• Sore throat

• Nausea

• Vomiting

• Abdominal pain

• Dizziness

• Runny nose

• Sneezing

• Sweating a lot

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

• Cough

• Whistling sound while breathing

• Shortness of breath

• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine's uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.