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Brimonidine Tartrate / Timolol Maleate
Pronunciation: bri-MOE-ni-deen TAR-trate/TIM-oh-lol MAL-ee-ate
- Ophthalmic solution brimonidine tartrate 0.2%/timolol 0.5%
Indications and Usage
Reduction of elevated IOP in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension who require adjunctive or replacement therapy due to inadequate control of IOP.
Bronchial asthma; history of bronchial asthma; severe COPD; sinus bradycardia or cardiac shock; second- or third-degree AV block; overt cardiac failure; hypersensitivity to any component of the product.
Dosage and AdministrationAdults and Children 2 yr of age and older
Ophthalmic One drop in affected eye(s) twice daily approximately 12 h apart. If more than 1 topical ophthalmic product is to be used, separate the instillation times by at least 5 min.
Store at 59° to 77°F. Protect from light.
Drug InteractionsAntihypertensive agents, cardiac glycosides
Use with caution because of increased risk of hypotension.Beta-blocking agents
Possible additive effects systemically and on IOP. Coadministration is not recommended.Calcium antagonists
Risk of atrioventricular conduction disturbances, left ventricular failure, and hypotension may be increased with coadministration of oral or IV calcium antagonists. Concurrent use should be avoided.CNS depressants (eg, alcohol, anesthetics, barbiturates, opiates, sedatives)
Possible additive or synergistic effects.CYP2D6 inhibitors (eg, quinidine)
Systemic beta-blockade (eg, decreased heart rate) may be potentiated.Digitalis glycosides
Possible additive effects, prolonging AV conduction time.Tricyclic antidepressants (eg, amitriptyline)
Use with caution because data are insufficient to determine if tricyclic antidepressants will blunt the IOP-lowering effect.MAOIs
Use with caution because MAOIs may theoretically interfere with brimonidine metabolism, resulting in an increase in systemic adverse reactions (eg, hypotension).
Laboratory Test Interactions
None well documented.
Hypertension (1% to 5%).Postmarketing Brimonidine
Bradycardia, hypotension, tachycardia.
Asthenia, depression, headache, somnolence (1% to 5%).
Eyelid pruritus, skin reactions including erythema, rash, and vasodilation (postmarketing).
Allergic conjunctivitis, conjunctival folliculosis, conjunctival hyperemia, epiphora, eye pruritus, ocular burning and stinging (5% to 15%); blepharitis, corneal erosion, eye discharge, eye dryness, eye irritation, eye pain, eyelid edema, eyelid erythema, eyelid pruritus, foreign body sensation, superficial punctate keratitis, visual disturbance (1% to 5%).Postmarketing Brimonidine
Iritis, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, miosis.
Oral dryness (1% to 5%).Brimonidine
Hypothermia, hypotonia (postmarketing).
Excreted in breast milk.Brimonidine
Safety and efficacy not established in children younger than 2 yr of age.
No overall differences in safety and efficacy have been observed between elderly patients and other adult patients.
Patients with a history of atopy or severe anaphylactic reactions may be more reactive to repeated exposures to allergens (eg, therapeutic challenge).
May be precipitated in susceptible patients.
Beta-adrenergic blockade may exacerbate cardiac failure.
Beta-adrenergic blockers may mask signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia (eg, tachycardia).
Beta-adrenergic blockers may potentiate muscle weakness consistent with myasthenic symptoms (eg, generalized weakness).
Beta-adrenergic blockade may impair the ability of the heart to respond to beta-adrenergic reflex stimuli. Consider withdrawal of the beta-blocking agent during general anesthesia.
Syndromes associated with vascular insufficiency (eg, cerebral or coronary insufficiency) may be potentiated.
Bradycardia, bronchospasm, cardiac arrest, dizziness, headache, shortness of breath.
- Inform patients that if more than 1 topical ophthalmic drug is being used, the administration times should be separated by at least 5 min.
- Inform patient that product contains benzalkonium chloride, which may be absorbed by soft contact lenses. Remove lenses before instilling drops. Lenses may be reinserted 15 min following administration.
- Advise patient that the drug may cause drowsiness, and to use caution while driving or performing other tasks requiring mental alertness.
Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health.