Class: Hemorrheologic Agents
VA Class: CV900
Molecular Formula: C13H18N4O3
CAS Number: 6493-05-6
Brands: Pentoxil, Trental
Uses for Pentoxifylline
Peripheral Vascular Disease
Used for the symptomatic treatment of intermittent claudication associated with peripheral vascular disease (i.e., chronic occlusive arterial disease of the extremities).1 2 4 6 7 8 9 13 14 16 18 21 27 32 52 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 120 121 May improve function of the extremities and symptoms of the disease1 2 4 6 7 8 9 13 14 16 18 21 27 32 52 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 103 120 121 (e.g., improvement in walking distance and duration;2 4 6 7 8 13 14 27 32 35 52 57 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 68 69 71 119 120 121 reductions in severity and occurrence of paresthesia6 7 8 57 59 62 63 64 68 121 and trophic ulcers6 7 8 109 110 121 ). Does not affect other symptoms associated with claudication such as cramping, tiredness, tightness, and pain during exercise.57 59 62 63 64 68 Pentoxifylline should not replace more definitive therapy for peripheral vascular disease such as smoking cessation, weight loss, exercise therapy,18 103 107 108 121 or surgical bypass or removal of arterial obstructions when indicated.1
Also has been used for the management of acute73 76 81 83 121 and chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency†73 74 75 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 121 . Improves psychopathologic symptoms74 81 87 121 (e.g., those associated with aging, stroke, TIAs), including memory loss, disorientation, constructional apraxia, impaired practical reasoning, motor impairment, and dizziness.74 81 87 Reduces the incidence of recurrence of TIAs.87 121
Used in a limited number of patients for the treatment of male fertility disorders†, including asthenospermia†90 92 121 and idiopathic oligospermia†.91 92 121 Increases the duration of activity of ejaculated spermatozoa.90 95
Pentoxifylline Dosage and Administration
Administer orally, preferably with meals.1
An aluminum and magnesium hydroxides antacid can be administered concomitantly to reduce intolerable GI effects.117
Peripheral Vascular Disease
400 mg 3 times daily.1 2 4 8 13 18 59 60 61 63 64 65 68 69 71 Continue for at least 8 weeks to determine efficacy.1 Reduce dosage to 400 mg twice daily if adverse GI and/or CNS effects develop.1 Discontinue if adverse effects persist at this lower dosage.1 Efficacy was demonstrated in clinical studies of 6-months duration.1
Cautions for Pentoxifylline
History of intolerance to pentoxyphylline or to xanthine derivatives such as caffeine, theophylline, or theobromine.1
Recent cerebral and/or retinal hemorrhage.1
Other manifestations of arteriosclerotic disease may be exhibited frequently in patients with chronic occlusive arterial disease.1 Angina, hypotension, and arrhythmia reported occasionally in patients with concomitant coronary artery and/or cerebrovascular disease; consider the possibility that such effects may occur.1
Periodic examination for signs of bleeding (e.g., hemoglobin and hematocrit determinations) recommended in patients who have risk factors potentially complicated by hemorrhage (e.g., recent surgery, peptic ulceration, cerebral and/or retinal bleeding).1
Safety and efficacy not established.a
Common Adverse Effects
Dyspepsia, nausea, dizziness.1
Interactions for Pentoxifylline
Potential pharmacokinetic interaction (reduced bioavailability of several metabolites)117
Interaction not clinically important; concomitant administration may reduce intolerable GI effects117
Interaction not observeda
Anticoagulants, oral (warfarin)
Possible bleeding an/or prolonged PT1
Determine prothrombin time more frequently during concomitant therapy1
Interaction not observed1
Possible additive antihypertensive effect1
β-Adrenergic blocking agents
Interaction not observed1
Interaction not observed1
Interaction not observed1
Possible bleeding and/or prolonged PT
Possible increased theophylline levels and possible theophylline toxicitya
Closely monitor and adjust theophylline dosage as needed1
Mean absolute bioavailability is 33% in healthy men.122
Symptomatic relief may occur within 2–4 weeks following initiation of therapy.1 The therapeutic effects result principally from an action on newly formed erythrocytes rather than on circulating mature erythrocytes.3 Allow at least 8 weeks to determine full therapeutic efficacy.1
Food increases mean peak plasma concentrations and mean AUC.a
Peak plasma concentrations and mean absolute bioavailability were substantially increased, and time to peak concentration was prolonged in adults with hepatic cirrhosis.122
Increased AUC in patients 60–68 years of age, compared to younger adults.1
Prolonged elimination in adults with hepatic cirrhosis.122
Decreased elimination rate in patients 60–68 years of age, compared with younger adults.1
Tight, light-resistant containers at 15–30°C.1
Actions and Spectrum
Increases erythrocyte flexibility (deformability)1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 18 19 20 21 and reduces the viscosity of whole blood, which decreases total systemic vascular resistance,3 4 improves blood flow,1 2 3 18 and increases tissue oxygenation1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 in patients with peripheral vascular disease.1 2 3 4 6 7 16 17 20 21
May improve poststenotic blood flow in relatively poorly perfused tissue.6 7 26 27 30 31 32 Improves resting blood flow and reactive hyperemia.26 31 Increases peak flow of reactive hyperemia in the extremities indicating an increase in reserve blood flow which is associated with some increase in walking distance.31
Improves regional and hemispheric cerebral blood flow, particularly in ischemic areas where microcirculation is impaired.73 74 75 76 77 78 79 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 Increases oxygen and glucose supply, eliminates or reduces perivascular edema, and enhances cellular function in some patients with cerebrovascular insufficiency.77 82 87 121
Advice to Patients
Importance of informing clinicians of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs.1
Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed.1
Importance of informing patients of other important precautionary information. (See Cautions.)
Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.
Please refer to the ASHP Drug Shortages Resource Center for information on shortages of one or more of these preparations.
* available from one or more manufacturer, distributor, and/or repackager by generic (nonproprietary) name
Tablets, extended-release, film-coated
Pentoxifylline Extended-release Tablets
Biovail, Clonmel, Impax, Mylan, Pliva, Purepac, Teva, Torpharm, Watson
Trental (with povidone)
AHFS DI Essentials. © Copyright 2017, Selected Revisions July 1, 2006. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 7272 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.
1. Hoechst-Roussel Pharmaceuticals Inc. Trental (pentoxifylline) prescribing information dated July 1991. In: Physicians’ desk reference. 49th ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company Inc; 1995:1136-7.
2. Anon. Facts about Trental (pentoxifylline) tablets 400 mg. Hoechst-Roussel Pharmaceuticals Inc., Somerville, NJ. Publication No. Q7314-984; 1984 Sep.
3. Aviado DM, Dettelbach HR. Pharmacology of pentoxifylline a hemorheologic agent for the treatment of intermittent claudication. Angiology. 1984; 35:407-17. [PubMed 6380349]
4. Aviado DM, Porter JM. Pentoxifylline: a new drug for the treatment of intermittent claudication. Pharmacotherapy. 1984; 4:297-306. [IDIS 393520] [PubMed 6393073]
5. Reynolds JEF, ed. Martindale: the extra pharmacopoeia. 28th ed. London: The Pharmaceutical Press; 1982:1629-30.
6. Müller R. Pentoxifylline: a biomedical profile. J Med (Westbury, NY). 1979; 10:307-29.
7. Müller R. Hemorheology and peripheral vascular diseases: a new therapeutic approach. J Med (Westbury, NY). 1981; 12:209-35.
8. DiPerri T, Carandente O, Vittoria A et al. Studies of the clinical pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy of pentoxifylline in peripheral obstructive arterial disease. Angiology. 1984; 35:427-35. [PubMed 6540539]
9. Ehrly AM. Improvement of the flow properties of blood. A new therapeutical approach in occlusive arterial disease. Angiology. 1976; 27:188-96. [PubMed 1078314]
10. Angelkort B, Maurin N, Boateng K. Influence of pentoxifylline on erythrocyte deformability in peripheral occlusive arterial disease. Curr Med Res Opin. 1979; 6:255-8. [IDIS 190320] [PubMed 527350]
11. Schubotz R, Mühlfellner O. The effect of pentoxifylline on erythrocyte deformability and on phosphatide fatty acid distribution in the erythrocyte membrane. Curr Med Res Opin. 1977; 4:609-17. [IDIS 190343] [PubMed 590022]
12. Ehrly AM. The effect of pentoxifylline on the deformability of erythrocytes and on the muscular oxygen pressure in patients with chronic arterial disease. J Med (Westbury, NY). 1979; 10:331-8.
13. Weintraub M, Evans P. Pentoxifylline: a new medication for intermittent claudication. Hosp Formul. 1984; 19:117-20.
14. Ehrly AM. Clinical implications of altered flexibility of erythrocytes in patients with intermittent claudication. Vasc Med. 1983; 1:175-80.
15. Ehrly AM. Effects of orally administered pentoxifylline on muscular oxygen pressure in patients with intermittent claudication. IRCS Med Sci: Libr Compend. 1982; 10:401-2.
16. Lusov VA, Belousov JB, Sidelmann AA et al. The treatment of peripheral atherosclerosis with pentoxifylline. Pharmatherapeutica. 1978; 2(Suppl 1):123-8.
17. Smud R, Sermukslis B, Kartin D. Changes in blood viscosity induced by pentoxifylline. Pharmatherapeutica. 1976; 1:229-31.
18. Anon. Pentoxifylline for intermittent claudication. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1984; 26:103-4. [PubMed 6390108]
19. Ehrly AM, Köhler HJ. Altered deformability of erythrocytes from patients with chronic occlusive arterial disease. Vasa. 1976; 5:319-22. [PubMed 1007538]
20. Grigoleit HG, Porsche E, Stefanovich V et al. The effect of pentoxifylline on red cell flexibility in healthy subjects after administration of “Trental” 400. Pharmatherapeutica. 1976; 1:241-7.
21. Spagnoli A, Tognoni G. Cerebroactive’ drugs: clinical pharmacology and therapeutic role in cerebrovascular disorders. Drugs. 1983; 26:44-69. [IDIS 173385] [PubMed 6349963]
22. Stefanovich V. Effect of pentoxifylline on energy rich phosphates in rat’s erythrocytes. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1975; 10:747-50. [PubMed 1153851]
23. Buchanan N, Moodley GP. The effect of pentoxifylline on human erythrocyte adenosine triphosphate. IRCS Med Sci: Libr Compend. 1977; 5:43.
24. Kramer JJ, Swislocki NI. Effects of pentoxifylline on membrane protein phosphorylation in rat erythrocytes. Vasc Med. 1983; 1:159-74.
25. Porsche VE, Stefanovich V. Die Wirkung von Pentoxifyllin auf den Ca++-induzierten Kalium-Ausstrom und auf die ATPase-Aktivitëat von Erythrozyten. (German; with English summary.) Arzneim-Forsch. 1981; 31:825-8.
26. Buzzi A, Canaveris G, Cibeira JB et al. Modifications of muscle blood flow produced by pentoxifylline in peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Pharmatherapeutica. 1976; 1:234-9.
27. Angelkort B. Influence of pentoxifylline (Trental 400) on microcirculation, poststenotic blood pressure and walking capacity in patients with chronic occlusive arterial disease. IRCS Med Sci: Libr Compend. 1977; 5:370-7.
28. Marcel GA (Faculte de Medecine de Paris, Paris, France): Personal communication; 1983 Apr 27.
29. Porsche E, Stefanovich V, Grigoleit H. Inhibition of K+ leakage from human red blood cells by pentoxifylline. IRCS Med Sci: Libr Compend. 1977; 5:484-8.
30. Ehrly AM, Schroeder W, Dannhof S. The effect of pentoxifylline on the oxygen pressure of ischemic muscle tissue in patients with chronic arterial occlusions. IRCS Med Sci: Libr Compend. 1977; 5:411-7.
31. Heidrich H, Witt D, Witt E. Plethysmographic studies in the influence of intravenous long-term therapy with pentoxifylline in arterial occlusive disease. IRCS Med Sci: Libr Compend. 1977; 5:487-95.
32. Komarov FI, Olbinskaja LI, Severova TM. Pentoxifylline in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease. Pharmatherapeutica. 1978; 2(Suppl 1):82-9.
33. Seiffge D. Effect of pentoxifylline on red cell aggregation. IRCS Med Sci: Libr Compend. 1982; 8:727-34.
34. Gastpar H, Ambrus JL, Ambrus CM et al. Study of platelet aggregation in vivo. III. Effect of pentoxifylline. J Med (Westbury, NY). 1977; 8:191-8.
35. Gorbatschova FE, Turaschwili GA, Kvassov VT et al. The circulatory and clinical effects of pentoxifylline. Pharmatherapeutica. 1978; 2:100-7.
36. Stefanovich V, Jarvis P, Grigoleit HG. The effect of pentoxifylline on the 3′,5′-cyclic AMP-system in bovine platelets. Int J Biochem. 1977; 8:359-63.
37. Angelkort B, Boateng K, Maurin N. Blood fluidity and coagulation phenomena in chronic arterial occlusive disease. J Int Med Res. 1980; 8:242-7. [PubMed 7389992]
38. Zinzadse KI, Gulischwili LN, Tavchelidse TD et al. The effect of pentoxifylline on the flow properties of blood in experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits. Pharmatherapeutica. 1978; 2:118-23.
39. Weithmann KU. The influence of pentoxifylline on interactions between blood vessel wall and platelets. IRCS Med Sci: Libr Compend. 1980; 8:293-300.
40. Matzky R, Darius H, Schrör K. The release of prostacyclin (PGI2) by pentoxifylline from human vascular tissue. Arzneimittelforschung. 1982; 32:1315-8. [PubMed 6817760]
41. Gorman RR, Fitzpatrick FA, Miller OV. Reciprocal regulation of human platelet cAMP levels by thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin. Adv Cyclic Nucleotide Res. 1978; 9:597-604. [PubMed 208399]
42. Fjodorov NA, Jermiltschenko GV, Vinnizkij LI et al. Clinical and experimental investigations into the role of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in the mechanism of action of pentoxifylline. Pharmatherapeutica. 1978; 2:17-23.
43. Angelkort B, Kiesewetter H. Influence of risk factors and coagulation on the fluidity of blood in chronic arterial occlusive disease. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1981; 41(Suppl 156):185-8. [IDIS 167601] [PubMed 7313501]
44. Perego MA, Sergio G, Artale F. Haemorheological aspect of the pathophysiology and clinical features of peripheral occlusive arterial disease. Pharmatherapeutica. 1983; 3(Suppl 1):91-101.
45. Jarrett PEM, Moreland M, Browse NL. The effect of oxypentifylline (Trental) on fibrinolytic activity and plasma fibrinogen levels. Curr Med Res Opin. 1977; 4:492-5. [IDIS 190319] [PubMed 321184]
46. Satewachin II, Iljin VN, Schestakov VA et al. The use of pentoxifylline in a combined regimen for the prevention of re-thrombosis in major blood vessels. Pharmatherapeutica. 1978; 2:109-14.
47. Maxwell GM. The effects of a new xanthine derivative, 3,7-dimethyl-1-(5′ oxohexyl)-xanthin (pentoxifylline) on the general and cardiac hemodynamics of the intact animal. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci. 1975; 54:265-71.
48. Watanabe H, Furukawa Y, Chiba S. Cardiovascular effects of aminophylline and pentoxifylline on intact dogs and isolated dog atria. Jpn Heart J. 1982; 23:235-43. [PubMed 7077828]
49. Vetterlein F, Halfter R, Schmidt G. Regional blood flow determination in rats by the microsphere method during i.v. infusion of vasodilating agents. Arzneimittelforschung. 1979; 29:747-51. [PubMed 582971]
50. Boksay I, Bollman V. The effect of 3,7-dimethyl-1-(5′-oxo-hexyl)-xanthin on the β-adrenergic receptors and on the activity of isoprenaline. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1971; 194:174-80. [PubMed 5123864]
51. Vittone L, Chiappe LE, Argel MI et al. The mechanical and biochemical effects of pentoxifylline on the perfused rat heart. Experientia. 1980; 36:1088-90. [PubMed 6252042]
52. Völker D. Haemorheological investigations in patients with vascular disease undergoing treatment with pentoxifylline. Pharmatherapeutica. 1978; 1:154-9.
53. Hinze HJ, Grigoleit HG, Rethy B. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of pentoxifylline from “Trental 400” in man. Pharmatherapeutica. 1976; 1:160-71.
54. Wills RJ, Waller ES, Puri SK et al. Influence of food on the bioavailability of Trental (pentoxifylline) in man. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 1981; 7:385-96.
55. Christ O, Gleixner K, Kellner HM et al. Pharmakokinetische Untersuchungen nach oraler Verabreichung von 3,7-Dimethyl-1-(5′-oxohexyl)-xanthin-14C (BL 191-14C) an Ratten, Hunde und Menschen. (German: with English summary.) Arzneim-Forsch. 1972; 22:1933-7.
56. Chien S. Haemorheology in disease, pathophysiological significance and therapeutic implications. Clin Hemorheol. 1981; 1:419-42.
57. Bollinger A, Frei C. Double-blind study of pentoxifylline against placebo in patients with intermittent claudication. Pharmatherapeutica. 1977; 1:557-62.
58. Coffman JD. Medical therapy of chronic obstructive arterial disease. Drug Ther. 1982; 12:53-67.
59. Porter JM, Cutler BS, Lee BY et al. Pentoxifylline efficacy in the treatment of intermittent claudication: multicenter controlled double-blind trial with objective assessment of chronic occlusive arterial disease patients. Am Heart J. 1982; 104:66-72. [IDIS 154447] [PubMed 7046409]
60. Accetto B. Beneficial hemorheologic therapy of chronic peripheral arterial disorders with pentoxifylline: results of double-blind study versus vasodilator-nylidrin. Am Heart J. 1982; 103:864-9. [IDIS 150477] [PubMed 7041579]
61. Porter JM, Baur GM. Pharmacologic treatment of intermittent claudication. Surgery. 1982; 92:966-71. [IDIS 190279] [PubMed 7147192]
62. Schubotz R. Double-blind trial of pentoxifylline in diabetics with peripheral vascular disorders. Pharmatherapeutica. 1976; 1:172-9.
63. DiPerri T, Guerrini M. Placebo-controlled double-blind study with pentoxifylline of walking performance in patients with intermittent claudication. Angiology. 1983; 34:40-5. [IDIS 190306] [PubMed 6824189]
64. Strano A, Davi G, Avellone G et al. Double-blind, crossover study of the clinical efficacy and the hemorheological effects of pentoxifylline in patients with occlusive arterial disease of the lower limbs. Angiology. 1984; 35:459-66. [PubMed 6380350]
65. Reich T, Cutler BC, Lee BY. Pentoxifylline in the treatment of intermittent claudication of the lower limbs. Angiology. 1984; 35:389-95. [PubMed 6380347]
66. Schlindler H. The clinical use of pentoxifylline. Pharmatherapeutica. 1978; 2(Suppl 1):66-73.
67. Angelkort B, Pirnay D, Kiesewetter H et al. Hemodilution and pentoxifylline effects on muscle blood flow and blood fluidity in chronic arterial occlusive disease. Vasc Med. 1983; 1:150-8.
68. Roekaerts F, Deleers L. Trental 400 in the treatment of intermittent claudication: results of long-term, placebo-controlled administration. Angiology. 1984; 35:396-406. [PubMed 6380348]
69. Angelkort B, Doppelfeld E. The treatment of chronic arterial occlusion: a clinical study with a new formulation of pentoxifylline (Trental 400). Pharmatherapeutica. 1983; 3(Suppl 1):18-26.
70. Ambrus JL, Ambrus CM, Taheri SA et al. Red cell flexibility and platelet aggregation in patients with chronic obstructive vascular disease (COAD) and study of therapeutic approaches. Angiology. 1984; 35:418-26. [PubMed 6540538]
71. Strano A, Davi G, Novo S et al. Clinical evaluation of the effects of pentoxifylline in patients with chronic peripheral circulatory disorders. Pharmatherapeutica. 1983; 3(Suppl 1):117-22.
72. Chien S. Hemorheology: its clinical implications. Vasc Med. 1983; 1:123-43.
73. Müller R, Schröer R. Cerebrovascular circulatory disorders. J Med (Westbury, NY). 1979; 10:347-64.
74. Harwart D. The treatment of chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency. A double-blind study with pentoxifylline (“Trental 400”). Curr Med Res Opin. 1979; 6:73-84. [IDIS 190321] [PubMed 380914]
75. Passero S, Nardini M, Battistini N. Effect of pentoxifylline on cerebral blood flow in patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease. J Int Med Res. 1981; 9:211-4. [IDIS 190323] [PubMed 7238996]
76. Bexreder J. Use of pentoxifylline in the treatment of acute cerebrovascular insufficiency. Eur Neurol. 1983; 22(Suppl 1):116-23. [IDIS 190305] [PubMed 6350007]
77. Hartmann A. Effect of pentoxifylline on regional cerebral blood flow in patients with cerebral vascular disorders. Eur Neurol. 198; 22(Suppl 1):108-115.
78. Schneider R, Schmid-Schönbein H, Kiesewetter H. The rhological efficiency of parenteral pentoxifylline (Trental) in patients with ischemic brain lesions. Eur Neurol. 1983; 22(Suppl 1):98-104. [IDIS 190275] [PubMed 6884407]
79. Ott E, Lechner H, Fazekas F. Hemorheological effects of pentoxifylline on disturbed flow behavior of blood in patients with cerebrovascular insufficiency. Eur Neurol. 1983; 22(Suppl 1):105-7. [IDIS 190274] [PubMed 6884401]
80. Sherman DG, Easton JD. Cerebral edema in stroke. Postgrad Med. 1980; 68:107-20. [IDIS 116672] [PubMed 6771748]
81. Janaki S. Pentoxifylline in strokes: a clinical study. J Int Med Res. 1980; 8:56-62. [IDIS 190325] [PubMed 7358205]
82. Hartmann A. Effect of pentoxifylline on regional cerebral blood flow in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Pharmatherapeutica. 1981; 2:528-31. [IDIS 190327] [PubMed 7255509]
83. Martin P, Vives P. The effect of pentoxifylline on red cell deformability in cerebrovascular accidents. Curr Med Res Opin. 1980; 6:518-22. [IDIS 190331] [PubMed 6248293]
84. Sen S, Chakravarty A. Clinical experience with pentoxifylline in occlusive cerebrovascular disorders. Angiology. 1984; 28:340-5.
85. Koppenhagen K, Wenig HG, Muller K. Measurement of cerebral blood flow following intravenous administration of pentoxifylline (“Trental”). Curr Med Res Opin. 1977; 4:521-8. [IDIS 190341] [PubMed 844329]
86. Koppenhagen K, Wenig HG, Muller K. The effect of pentoxifylline (“Trental”) on cerebral blood flow: a double-blind study. Curr Med Res Opin. 1977; 4:681-7.
87. Marcel GA, George C. Pentoxifylline and cerebrovascular diseases. Eur Neurol. 1983; 22(Suppl 1):89-97. [PubMed 6350013]
88. Stennert E. Bell’s palsy: a new concept of treatment. Arch Oto-Rhino-Laryngol. 1979; 225:265-8.
89. Stennert E. Pathomechanisms in cell metabolism: a key to treatment of Bell’s palsy. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1981; 90:577-83. [IDIS 190315] [PubMed 6172071]
90. Marsiglia EAP, Santillan EJ. Pentoxifylline treatment of asthenozoospermia. Andrologia. 1983; 15:571-2. [IDIS 190308] [PubMed 6666863]
91. Wang C, Chan CW, Wong KK et al. Comparison of the effectiveness of placebo, clomiphene citrate, mesterolone, pentoxifylline, and testosterone rebound therapy for the treatment of idiopathic oligospermia. Fertil Steril. 1983; 40:358-65. [IDIS 175877] [PubMed 6411497]
92. Schill WB, Michalopoulos M. Treatment of male fertility disturbances: current concepts. Drugs. 1984; 28:263-80. [IDIS 190033] [PubMed 6386424]
93. Seiffge D, Berthold R, Berthold F. Effect of pentoxifylline on sickle cell thalassaemia: haemorheological and clinical results. Klin Wochenschr. 1983; 60:1159-60.
94. Cho YW, Aviado DM. Clinical pharmacology for pediatricians. II. Antisickling agents, with special reference to new vasoerythroactive drugs. J Clin Pharmacol. 1982; 22:1-13. [IDIS 148246] [PubMed 7037870]
95. Aparicio NJ, de Turner EA, Schwartzstein L et al. Effect of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor pentoxifylline on human sperm motility. Andrologia. 1980; 12:49-54. [PubMed 7377553]
96. Sznajder IJ, Bentur Y, Taitelman U. First and second degree atrioventricular block in pentoxifylline overdose. BMJ. 1984; 288:26. [IDIS 180659] [PubMed 6418302]
97. Windholz M, ed. The Merck index. 10th ed. Rahway, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc.; 1983:1025-6.
98. Popendiker K, Boksay I, Bollmann V. Pharmacology of the new peripheral vasodilator, 3,7-dimethyl-1-(5-oxohexyl) xanthine. Arzneimittelforschung. 1971; 21:1160-71. [PubMed 4329076]
99. USP DI Update. No. 1. Pentoxifylline. Rockville, MD: The United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc.; 1985:8-9.
100. Beermann B, Ings R, Mansby J et al. Kinetics of intravenous and oral pentoxifylline in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1985; 37:25-8. [IDIS 195515] [PubMed 3965236]
101. Gosselin RE, Smith RP, Hodge HC. Clinical toxicology of commercial products. 5th ed. Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Co.; 1984:I10.
102. Roney JV (Hoechst-Roussel Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Somerville, NJ): Personal communication; 1985 Mar 29.
103. Reviewers’ comments (personal observations); 1985 Mar.
104. Bauza MT, Smith RV, Knutson DE. Gas chromatographic determination of pentoxifylline and its metabolites in human breast milk. J Chromatogr. 1984; 310:61-9. [PubMed 6501523]
105. Vittone L, Chiappe LE, Argel MI et al. The mechanical and biochemical effects of pentoxifylline on the perfused rat heart. Experientia. 1980; 36:1088-90. [PubMed 6252042]
106. Coffman JD. Pentoxifylline: a new drug for the treatment of intermittent claudication. Commentary 1. Pharmacotherapy. 1984; 4:306-7.
107. Rihn TL. Pentoxifylline: a new drug for the treatment of intermittent claudication. Commentary 2. Pharmacotherapy. 1984; 4:307.
108. Anon. Management of intermittent claudication. Lancet. 1980; 1:404-5. [PubMed 6101852]
109. Baumann JC. New prospects for the conservative management of peripheral arterial disease: clinical investigations with pentoxifylline (″Trental’ 400). Pharmatherapeutica. 1983; 3(Suppl 1):30-41.
110. Weitgasser H. The use of pentoxifylline (“Trental 400”) in the treatment of leg ulcers: results of a double-blind trial. Pharmatherapeutica. 1983; 3(Suppl 1):143-51.
112. Mass RD, Venook AP, Linker CA et al. Pentoxifylline and aplastic anemia. Ann Intern Med. 1987; 107:427-8. [IDIS 233648] [PubMed 3619234]
113. Solerte SB, Fioravanti M, Patti AL et al. Pentoxifylline, total urinary protein excretion rate and arterial blood pressure in long-term insulin-dependent diabetic patients with overt nephropathy. Acta Diabetol Lat. 1987; 24:229-39. [PubMed 3687315]
114. Solerte SB, Fioravanti M, Bozzetti A et al. Pentoxifylline, albumin excretion rate and proteinuria in type I and type II diabetic patients with microproteinuria: results of a short-term randomized study. Acta Diabetol Lat. 1986; 23:171-7. [PubMed 3751450]
115. Ferrari E, Fioravanti M, Patti AL et al. Effects of long-term treatment (4 years) with pentoxifylline on haemorheological changes and vascular complications in diabetic patients. Pharmatherapeutica. 1987; 5:26-39. [PubMed 3602021]
116. Cohen KL, Harris S. Pentoxifylline and diabetic neuropathy. Ann Intern Med. 1987; 107:600-1. [PubMed 3631805]
117. Puri SK, Lassman HB, Ho I et al. The effect of antacid on the absorption of pentoxifylline (P) in humans. J Pharm Sci. 1987; 76:S111.
118. Littler CM, Tschen EH. Pentoxifylline for necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987; 17:314-6. [PubMed 3624574]
119. Reich T, Gillings D. Effects of pentoxifylline on severe intermittent claudication. Angiology. 1987; 38:651-6. [PubMed 3310744]
120. Blombery PA. Intermittent claudication: an update on management. Drugs. 1987; 34:404-10. [IDIS 234656] [PubMed 3315623]
121. Ward A, Clissold SP. Pentoxifylline: a review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its therapeutic efficacy. Drugs. 1987; 34:50-97. [IDIS 236656] [PubMed 3308412]
122. Rames A, Poirier JM, LeCoz F et al. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral pentoxifylline in healthy volunteers and in cirrhotic patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1990; 47:354-9. [IDIS 264326] [PubMed 2178853]
a. Aventis Pharmaceuticals. Trental (pentoxifylline) tablets prescribing information. Cincinnati, OH; 2003 May.