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Drug Interactions between Vicodin and Xanax

This report displays the potential drug interactions for the following 2 drugs:

  • Vicodin (acetaminophen/hydrocodone)
  • Xanax (alprazolam)

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Interactions between your drugs

Major

ALPRAZolam HYDROcodone

Applies to: Xanax (alprazolam) and Vicodin (acetaminophen / hydrocodone)

GENERALLY AVOID: Concomitant use of opioids with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants (e.g., nonbenzodiazepine sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids, alcohol) may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. The risk of hypotension may also be increased with some CNS depressants (e.g., alcohol, benzodiazepines, phenothiazines).

MANAGEMENT: The use of opioids in conjunction with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants should generally be avoided unless alternative treatment options are inadequate. If coadministration is necessary, the dosage and duration of each drug should be limited to the minimum required to achieve desired clinical effect, with cautious titration and dosage adjustments when needed. Patients should be monitored closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation, and advised to avoid driving or operating hazardous machinery until they know how these medications affect them. Cough medications containing opioids (e.g., codeine, hydrocodone) should not be prescribed to patients using benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants including alcohol. For patients who have been receiving extended therapy with both an opioid and a benzodiazepine and require discontinuation of either medication, a gradual tapering of dose is advised, since abrupt withdrawal may lead to withdrawal symptoms. Severe cases of benzodiazepine withdrawal, primarily in patients who have received excessive doses over a prolonged period, may result in numbness and tingling of extremities, hypersensitivity to light and noise, hallucinations, and epileptic seizures.

References

  1. US Food and Drug Administration "FDA warns about serious risks and death when combining opioid pain or cough medicines with benzodiazepines; requires its strongest warning. Available from: URL: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/UCM518672.pdf." ([2016, Aug 31]):

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Drug and food interactions

Major

HYDROcodone food

Applies to: Vicodin (acetaminophen / hydrocodone)

GENERALLY AVOID: Alcohol may potentiate the central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects of opioid analgesics including hydrocodone. Concomitant use may result in additive CNS depression and impairment of judgment, thinking, and psychomotor skills. In more severe cases, hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, or even death may occur.

GENERALLY AVOID: Consumption of alcohol while taking some sustained-release formulations of hydrocodone may cause rapid release of the drug, resulting in high systemic levels of hydrocodone that may be potentially lethal. Alcohol apparently can disrupt the release mechanism of some sustained-release formulations. In study subjects, the rate of absorption of hydrocodone from an extended-release formulation was found to be affected by coadministration with 40% alcohol in the fasted state, as demonstrated by an average 2.4-fold (up to 3.9-fold in one subject) increase in hydrocodone peak plasma concentration and a decrease in the time to peak concentration. Alcohol also increased the extent of absorption by an average of 1.2-fold (up to 1.7-fold in one subject).

GENERALLY AVOID: Grapefruit juice may increase the plasma concentrations of hydrocodone. The proposed mechanism is inhibition of CYP450 3A4-mediated metabolism of hydrocodone by certain compounds present in grapefruit. Increased hydrocodone concentrations could conceivably increase or prolong adverse drug effects and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression.

MANAGEMENT: Patients taking sustained-release formulations of hydrocodone should not consume alcohol or use medications that contain alcohol. In general, potent narcotics such as hydrocodone should not be combined with alcohol. Patients should also avoid consumption of grapefruit or grapefruit juice during treatment with hydrocodone.

References

  1. "Product Information. Zohydro ER (HYDROcodone)." Zogenix, Inc, San Diego, CA.

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Moderate

ALPRAZolam food

Applies to: Xanax (alprazolam)

GENERALLY AVOID: The pharmacologic activity of oral midazolam, triazolam, and alprazolam may be increased if taken after drinking grapefruit juice. The proposed mechanism is CYP450 3A4 enzyme inhibition. In addition, acute alcohol ingestion may potentiate CNS depression and other CNS effects of many benzodiazepines. Tolerance may develop with chronic ethanol use. The mechanism may be decreased clearance of the benzodiazepines because of CYP450 hepatic enzyme inhibition. Also, it has been suggested that the cognitive deficits induced by benzodiazepines may be increased in patients who chronically consume large amounts of alcohol.

MANAGEMENT: The manufacturer recommends that grapefruit juice should not be taken with oral midazolam. Patients taking triazolam or alprazolam should be monitored for excessive sedation. Alternatively, the patient could consume orange juice which does not interact with these drugs. Patients should be advised to avoid alcohol during benzodiazepine therapy.

References

  1. Hukkinen SK, Varhe A, Olkkola KT, Neuvonen PJ "Plasma concentrations of triazolam are increased by concomitant ingestion of grapefruit juice." Clin Pharmacol Ther 58 (1995): 127-31
  2. Kupferschmidt HHT, Ha HR, Ziegler WH, Meier PJ, Krahenbuhl S "Interaction between grapefruit juice and midazolam in humans." Clin Pharmacol Ther 58 (1995): 20-8
  3. "Product Information. Valium (diazepam)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  4. "Product Information. Halcion (triazolam)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  5. "Grapefruit juice interactions with drugs." Med Lett Drugs Ther 37 (1995): 73-4
  6. Bailey DG, Dresser GR, Kreeft JH, Munoz C, Freeman DJ, Bend JR "Grapefruit-felodipine interaction: Effect of unprocessed fruit and probable active ingredients." Clin Pharmacol Ther 68 (2000): 468-77
  7. "Product Information. Xanax (alprazolam)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
View all 7 references

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Therapeutic duplication warnings

No warnings were found for your selected drugs.

Therapeutic duplication warnings are only returned when drugs within the same group exceed the recommended therapeutic duplication maximum.

Drug Interaction Classification

These classifications are only a guideline. The relevance of a particular drug interaction to a specific individual is difficult to determine. Always consult your healthcare provider before starting or stopping any medication.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No interaction information available.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.