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Parkinson Disease

Medically reviewed by Last updated on Mar 5, 2023.

Parkinson disease (PD) is a long-term movement disorder. The brain cells that control movement start to die and cause changes in how you move, feel, and act. Even though PD may progress and have a severe impact on your daily life, it is not a life-threatening disease.


Informed consent

is a legal document that explains the tests, treatments, or procedures that you may need. Informed consent means you understand what will be done and can make decisions about what you want. You give your permission when you sign the consent form. You can have someone sign this form for you if you are not able to sign it. You have the right to understand your medical care in words you know. Before you sign the consent form, understand the risks and benefits of what will be done. Make sure all your questions are answered.


  • Anti-Parkinson medicines are used to improve movement problems, such as muscle stiffness, twitches, and restlessness. Your healthcare provider may use several types of medicine to help manage your symptoms.
  • Botulinum toxin helps control problems such as tremors, bladder or bowel problems, trouble swallowing, and drooling.


  • MRI pictures may be taken of your brain. You may be given contrast liquid to help the pictures show up better. Tell the healthcare provider if you have ever had an allergic reaction to contrast liquid. Do not enter the MRI room with anything metal. Metal can cause serious injury. Tell the healthcare provider if you have any metal in or on your body.
  • A PET scan takes pictures of your brain and shows how the blood is flowing in your brain. It can also show where medicines and chemicals go inside your brain. A PET scan may show your healthcare provider if your brain has changed or is not functioning well.
  • A single photon emission CT (SPECT) scan is used to take pictures of your brain and may show how the neurons connect to one another. A SPECT scan may also show where brain chemicals go inside your brain.


Healthcare providers may place an electrical device inside your brain during surgery called deep brain stimulation. Deep brain stimulation may help to decrease symptoms, such as tremor and rigidity. When the device is in your brain, you may turn the device on or off whenever you want.

Treatment options

The following list of medications are in some way related to or used in the treatment of this condition.


  • Exercise and physical therapy can help you learn exercises to improve movement and strength, and to decrease pain. This may help you control your body movements, keep your balance, and fall less often.
  • Occupational therapy can help you learn skills to do your daily activities more easily. Your occupational therapist may help you choose equipment to help you at home and work. He or she can also suggest ways to keep your home and workplace safe.
  • Speech therapy may be used to help you improve your ability to talk or swallow.


  • Even with treatment, PD may increase your risk of behavior changes, depression, or anxiety. You may have confusion or difficulty thinking. PD may make it difficult to sleep. You may also have vision changes or difficulty smelling and swallowing. PD may also affect bowel or bladder control. You may have problems with low blood pressure, which may cause you to feel dizzy or faint.
  • If PD is not treated, your symptoms may get worse more quickly. Your symptoms may make it hard for you to do your normal daily activities. You may fall and break a bone. You may have a higher risk of life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia, heart disease, heart attack, or stroke.


You have the right to help plan your care. Learn about your health condition and how it may be treated. Discuss treatment options with your healthcare providers to decide what care you want to receive. You always have the right to refuse treatment.

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The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.

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Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.