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is inflammation of the liver caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The infection is called acute when a person first becomes infected. The infection becomes chronic when a person has symptoms for 6 months or longer.
Common symptoms include the following:
- Dark urine or pale bowel movements
- Fatigue and weakness
- Loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting
- Jaundice (yellow skin or eyes), itchy skin, or skin rash
- Joint pain and body aches
- Pain in the right upper side of your abdomen
Seek care immediately if:
- You have a sudden, severe headache and head pressure.
- You have new or increased bruising or red or purple dots on your skin. You may also have bleeding that does not stop easily.
- Your abdomen is swollen.
- You have severe nausea or cannot stop vomiting.
- You see blood in your urine or bowel movements, or you vomit blood.
- You have new or increased yellowing of your skin or the whites of your eyes.
- You have severe pain in your upper abdomen.
Contact your healthcare provider if:
- The palms of your hands are red.
- You have a fever.
- You have new or increased swelling in your legs, ankles, or feet.
- Your muscles get smaller and weaker.
- You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.
Treatment for hepatitis B
may include antiviral medicine to help fight HBV and keep it from spreading in your body. You may need a transfusion of plasma or platelets if your blood is not clotting as it should. Plasma and platelets are parts of your blood that help your blood clot. You will get the transfusion through an IV. Surgery for a liver transplant may be done if you have severe liver disease or liver failure.
Manage hepatitis B:
- Do not drink alcohol. Alcohol can increase liver damage. Talk to your healthcare provider if you drink alcohol and need help to stop.
- Do not smoke. Nicotine can damage blood vessels and make it more difficult to manage hepatitis B. Smoking can also lead to more liver damage. Ask your healthcare provider for information if you currently smoke and need help to quit. E-cigarettes or smokeless tobacco still contain nicotine. Talk to your healthcare provider before you use these products.
- Eat a variety of healthy foods. Healthy foods include fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, beans, lean meats and fish, and whole-grain breads. Ask if you need to be on a special diet.
- Drink more liquids. Liquids help your liver function properly. Ask your healthcare provider how much liquid to drink each day and which liquids are best for you.
Prevent the spread of HBV:
- Cover any open cuts or scratches. If blood from a wound gets on a surface, clean the surface with bleach right away. Put on gloves before you clean. Throw away any items with blood or body fluids on them, as directed by your healthcare provider.
- Do not share personal items. These items include toothbrushes, nail clipper, and razors. Do not share needles.
- Tell household members that you have HBV. Anyone who has not been vaccinated against hepatitis B may need to start treatment to help prevent infection. Everyone should wash their hands often, especially after using the bathroom and before eating. Regular handwashing is important for you and everyone who lives with you.
- Tell your sex partners that you have HBV. Use a condom during sex. Even if you have acute HBV and your infection goes away, you can still spread the virus for up to 6 months.
- Protect your baby if you are pregnant. Ask your healthcare provider for more information on how to prevent your baby from getting HBV. He will need a vaccination or treatment if you plan to breastfeed.
- Do not donate blood, organs, or tissues. Donations are screened for HBV, but it is best not to donate at all.
Follow up with your healthcare provider as directed:
You may need ongoing tests or treatment. Write down your questions so you remember to ask them during your visits.
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The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.