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H1N1 Influenza in Children


What is H1N1 influenza?

H1N1 influenza (swine flu) is an infection caused by a virus. H1N1 influenza is easily spread when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or has close contact with others. Your child may be able to spread H1N1 influenza to others for 1 week or longer after signs or symptoms appear.

What are the signs and symptoms of H1N1 influenza?

Severe symptoms are more likely in children younger than 5 years. They are also more likely in children who have heart or lung disease, or a weak immune system. Your child may have any of the following:

  • Fever and chills
  • Headaches, body aches, earaches, and muscle or joint pain
  • Dry cough, runny or stuffy nose, and sore throat
  • Loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
  • Tiredness
  • Fast breathing, trouble breathing, or chest pain

How is H1N1 influenza diagnosed?

Your child's healthcare provider will examine your child. Tell him if your child has health problems such as epilepsy or asthma. Tell him if your child has been around sick people or traveled recently. A sample of fluid may be collected from your child's nose or throat and tested for the H1N1 influenza virus.

How is H1N1 influenza treated?

Most healthy children get better within a week. Your child may need any of the following:

  • Acetaminophen decreases pain and fever. It is available without a doctor's order. Ask how much to give your child and how often to give it. Follow directions. Acetaminophen can cause liver damage if not taken correctly.
  • NSAIDs , such as ibuprofen, help decrease swelling, pain, and fever. This medicine is available with or without a doctor's order. NSAIDs can cause stomach bleeding or kidney problems in certain people. If your child takes blood thinner medicine, always ask if NSAIDs are safe for him or her. Always read the medicine label and follow directions. Do not give these medicines to children under 6 months of age without direction from your child's healthcare provider.
  • Do not give aspirin to children under 18 years of age. Your child could develop Reye syndrome if he takes aspirin. Reye syndrome can cause life-threatening brain and liver damage. Check your child's medicine labels for aspirin, salicylates, or oil of wintergreen.
  • Antivirals help fight a viral infection. This medicine works best if it is given within 48 hours after symptoms begin.

How can I manage my child's symptoms?

  • Help your child rest and sleep as much as possible as he recovers.
  • Give your child liquids as directed to help prevent dehydration. Ask your child's healthcare provider how much liquid your child should drink each day. Good liquids include water, fruit juice, or broth.
  • Use a cool mist humidifier to increase air moisture in your home. This may make it easier for your child to breathe and help decrease his cough.

How can I help prevent the spread of H1N1 influenza?

  • Have your child wash his hands often. Have him use soap and water. Make sure he washes his hands after he uses the bathroom or sneezes, and before he eats. Use gel hand cleanser when soap and water are not available. Tell him not to touch his eyes, nose, or mouth unless he has washed his hands first.
  • Teach your child to cover his mouth when he sneezes or coughs. Show him how to cough into a tissue or the bend of his arm.
  • Clean shared items with a germ-killing cleaner. Clean table surfaces, doorknobs, and light switches. Do not let your child share towels, silverware, and dishes with people who are sick. Wash bed sheets, towels, silverware, and dishes with soap and hot water.
  • Wear a mask over your mouth and nose when you are near your sick child.
  • Keep your child home if he is sick. Keep your child away from others as much as possible while he recovers.
  • Influenza vaccine helps prevent influenza (flu). Everyone 6 months or older should get a yearly influenza vaccine. Get the vaccine as soon as recommended each year, usually in September or October.

Call 911 for any of the following:

  • Your child has fast breathing, trouble breathing, or chest pain.
  • Your child has a seizure.
  • Your child does not want to be held and does not respond to you, or he does not wake up.

When should I seek immediate care?

  • Your child has a fever with a rash.
  • Your child's skin is blue or gray.
  • Your child's symptoms get better, but then come back with a fever or a worse cough.
  • Your child will not drink liquids, is not urinating, or has no tears when he cries.
  • Your child has trouble breathing, a cough, and he vomits blood.

When should I contact my child's healthcare provider?

  • Your child's symptoms get worse.
  • Your child has new symptoms, such as muscle pain or weakness.
  • You have questions or concerns about your child's condition or care.

Care Agreement

You have the right to help plan your child's care. Learn about your child's health condition and how it may be treated. Discuss treatment options with your child's healthcare providers to decide what care you want for your child. The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2020 Information is for End User's use only and may not be sold, redistributed or otherwise used for commercial purposes. All illustrations and images included in CareNotes® are the copyrighted property of A.D.A.M., Inc. or IBM Watson Health

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

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