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Gastroesophageal Reflux in Infants


Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) occurs when the lower muscle (sphincter) of your baby's esophagus does not close properly. The sphincter normally opens to let food into the stomach. It then closes to keep food and stomach acid in the stomach. If the sphincter is not fully developed or does not close properly, food and stomach acid may back up (reflux) into the esophagus. GER becomes gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) when symptoms prevent your baby from eating, or they last more than 12 months. GERD is a long-term condition that develops when the acid has irritated your baby's esophagus.


Call your local emergency number (911 in the US) if:

  • Your baby suddenly stops breathing, begins choking, or his or her body becomes stiff or limp.

Call your baby's doctor if:

  • Your baby has forceful vomiting.
  • Your baby's vomit is green or yellow, or has blood in it.
  • Your baby has blood in his or her bowel movements.
  • Your baby suddenly has trouble breathing or wheezes.
  • Your baby's stomach is swollen.
  • Your baby becomes more irritable or fussy and does not want to eat.
  • Your baby becomes weak and urinates less than usual.
  • Your baby is losing weight.
  • You have questions or concerns about your baby's condition or care.


  • Medicines help decrease stomach acid and help your baby's lower esophageal sphincter and stomach contract (tighten) more.
  • Give your child's medicine as directed. Contact your child's healthcare provider if you think the medicine is not working as expected. Tell him or her if your child is allergic to any medicine. Keep a current list of the medicines, vitamins, and herbs your child takes. Include the amounts, and when, how, and why they are taken. Bring the list or the medicines in their containers to follow-up visits. Carry your child's medicine list with you in case of an emergency.

Help manage your baby's symptoms:

  • Smaller, more frequent feedings may be recommended by your baby's healthcare provider.
  • Practice safe sleeping techniques to decrease risk of sudden infant death syndrome.
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  • Keep a diary of your baby's symptoms. Bring the diary to visits with your baby's healthcare provider. The diary may help the provider plan the best treatment for him or her.
  • Keep your baby away from cigarette smoke. Do not smoke or allow others to smoke around your baby.

Follow up with your baby's doctor as directed:

Tell the doctor about any new or worsening symptoms your baby has. Your baby may need other tests if his or her symptoms do not improve. Write down your questions so you remember to ask them during your visits.

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The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.