Skip to Content

Gastroesophageal Reflux in Infants


Gastroesophageal reflux

(GER) occurs when the lower muscle (sphincter) of your baby's esophagus does not close properly. The sphincter normally opens to let food into the stomach. It then closes to keep food and stomach acid in the stomach. If the sphincter is not fully developed or does not close properly, food and stomach acid may back up (reflux) into the esophagus. GER becomes gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) when symptoms prevent your baby from eating, or they last more than 12 months. GERD is a long-term condition that develops when the acid has irritated your baby's esophagus.

Common signs and symptoms of GER:

The most common symptom is frequent spitting up or vomiting after feedings. Symptoms may be worse if you lay your baby down to sleep or you put him or her in a car seat after a feeding. Your baby may also have any of the following:

  • Irritability or constant crying after eating
  • Wet burps or hiccups
  • Wheezing
  • Dry cough or hoarseness
  • Gagging or choking while eating
  • Poor feeding and growth
  • Back arching during feedings

Call your local emergency number (911 in the US) if:

  • Your baby suddenly stops breathing, begins choking, or his or her body becomes stiff or limp.

Call your baby's doctor if:

  • Your baby has forceful vomiting.
  • Your baby's vomit is green or yellow, or has blood in it.
  • Your baby has blood in his or her bowel movements.
  • Your baby suddenly has trouble breathing or wheezes.
  • Your baby's stomach is swollen.
  • Your baby becomes more irritable or fussy and does not want to eat.
  • Your baby becomes weak and urinates less than usual.
  • Your baby is losing weight.
  • You have questions or concerns about your baby's condition or care.


The goal of treatment is to relieve your baby's symptoms and prevent damage to his or her esophagus. Treatment also helps promote healthy weight gain and growth. Your baby may need any of the following:

  • Medicines help decrease stomach acid and help your baby's lower esophageal sphincter and stomach contract (tighten) more.
  • Surgery may be needed if your baby has GERD and other treatments do not work. During surgery, the upper part of the stomach is wrapped around the esophageal sphincter. This will help strengthen the sphincter and prevent reflux.

Help manage your baby's symptoms:

  • Smaller, more frequent feedings may be recommended by your baby's healthcare provider.
  • Practice safe sleeping techniques to decrease risk of sudden infant death syndrome.
    Back to Sleep
  • Keep a diary of your baby's symptoms. Bring the diary to visits with your baby's healthcare provider. The diary may help the provider plan the best treatment for him or her.
  • Keep your baby away from cigarette smoke. Do not smoke or allow others to smoke around your baby.

Follow up with your baby's doctor as directed:

Tell the doctor about any new or worsening symptoms your baby has. Your baby may need other tests if his or her symptoms do not improve. Write down your questions so you remember to ask them during your visits.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2021 Information is for End User's use only and may not be sold, redistributed or otherwise used for commercial purposes. All illustrations and images included in CareNotes® are the copyrighted property of A.D.A.M., Inc. or IBM Watson Health

The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.