There are two vaccines to prevent typhoid fever. One is an inactivated (killed) vaccine and the other is a live, attenuated (weakened) vaccine. Your health care provider can help you decide which type of typhoid vaccine is best for you.
Inactivated typhoid vaccine is administered as an injection (shot). It may be given to people 2 years and older. One dose is recommended at least 2 weeks before travel. Repeated doses are recommended every 2 years for people who remain at risk.
Live typhoid vaccine is administered orally (by mouth). It may be given to people 6 years and older. One capsule is taken every other day, for a total of 4 capsules. The last dose should be taken at least 1 week before travel. Each capsule should be swallowed whole (not chewed) about an hour before meals with cold or lukewarm water. A booster vaccine is needed every 5 years for people who remain at risk. Important: live typhoid vaccine capsules must be stored in a refrigerator (not frozen).
Routine typhoid vaccination is not recommended in the United States, but typhoid vaccine is recommended for:
Travelers to parts of the world where typhoid is common. (NOTE: typhoid vaccine is not 100% effective and is not a substitute for being careful about what you eat or drink.)
People in close contact with a typhoid carrier.
Laboratory workers who work with Salmonella typhi bacteria.
Typhoid vaccine may be given at the same time as other vaccines.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health & Human Resources
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