Skip to Content

Hydrocodone / pseudoephedrine Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings

Hydrocodone / pseudoephedrine is also known as: ColdCough HCM, Detussin, Entuss-D Liquid, H-C Tussive D, Histinex D, Histussin D, Hytussin, Iotussin D Liquid, Liquituss HD, P-V-Tussin, Pancof HC, Rezira, SymTan, Tussafin, Tussgen

Hydrocodone / pseudoephedrine Pregnancy Warnings

Use is not recommended, including during or immediately prior to labor

US FDA pregnancy category: Not assigned

Comments:
-Prolonged use of opioids during pregnancy may cause neonatal withdrawal syndrome and physical dependence in the neonate.
-Neonatal withdrawal syndrome presents as irritability, hyperactivity and abnormal sleep pattern, high pitched cry, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea, and failure to gain weight.
-The onset, duration, and severity of neonatal withdrawal syndrome vary with the specific opioid used, duration of use, timing and amount of last maternal use, and the newborn's rate of drug elimination.
-Observe newborns for symptoms of neonatal withdrawal syndrome and manage appropriately.
-An opioid antagonist (e.g. naloxone) should be available for reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression in the neonate.
-Monitor neonates exposed to opioids during labor for excess sedation and respiratory depression.
-Advise women of the risk of neonatal withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available.

Animal studies have not been conducted with this combination product, but animal studies with subcutaneous hydrocodone have shown teratogenicity when given during organogenesis at doses approximately 70 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD). Opioids cross the placenta and may produce respiratory depression and psycho-physiologic effects in neonates. Babies born to mothers taking opioids regularly during pregnancy may become physically dependent. Opioids given to mothers shortly before delivery may produce some degree of respiratory depression in the newborn, especially if high doses are used. Opioids can prolong labor by temporarily reducing the strength, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions, however this effect is not consistent and may be offset by an increased rate of cervical dilation, which tends to shorten labor. Maternal use of pseudoephedrine can cause fetal tachycardia. There are no controlled data in human pregnancy. Chronic use of opioids may reduce fertility in males and females of reproductive potential; it is unknown if these effects are reversible. Studies of pseudoephedrine use during pregnancy did not find an increased risk of congenital abnormalities; some studies showed an increased risk of gastroschisis, however similar studies did not find a statistically significant association.

US FDA pregnancy category Not Assigned: The US FDA has amended the pregnancy labeling rule for prescription drug products to require labeling that includes a summary of risk, a discussion of the data supporting that summary, and relevant information to help health care providers make prescribing decisions and counsel women about the use of drugs during pregnancy. Pregnancy categories A, B, C, D, and X are being phased out.

See references

Hydrocodone / pseudoephedrine Breastfeeding Warnings

Hydrocodone: Case reports have shown variable hydrocodone and hydromorphone (an active metabolite) levels in breast milk with use of immediate release hydrocodone to nursing mothers in the early postpartum period with relative infant doses of hydrocodone ranging between 1.4 and 3.7%.

Pseudoephedrine: A study of 8 lactating women, between 8 to 76 weeks postpartum, who received a single 60 mg dose of pseudoephedrine, showed a mean reduction in 24 hour milk production of 24%, and an estimated mean relative infant dose from breast milk (assuming mean milk consumption of 150 mL/kg/day and a maternal dosing regimen of 60 mg pseudoephedrine 4 times daily) was calculated to be 4.3% of the weight adjusted maternal dose.

Breastfeeding is not recommended during use of this drug.

Excreted into human milk: Yes (hydrocodone); Yes (pseudoephedrine)

Comments:
-Breastfed infants should be closely monitored for increased sedation, respiratory depression, and irritability.
-Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breastfed infants when maternal opioids are stopped or breastfeeding is stopped.

See references

References for pregnancy information

  1. "Product Information. Rezira (hydrocodone-pseudoephedrine)." Hawthorn Pharmaceuticals, Madison, MS.

References for breastfeeding information

  1. United States National Library of Medicine "Toxnet. Toxicology Data Network. Available from: URL: http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?LACT." ([cited 2013 -]):
  2. "Product Information. Rezira (hydrocodone-pseudoephedrine)." Hawthorn Pharmaceuticals, Madison, MS.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Hide