Medically reviewed on Nov 15, 2018
(FLOO may ze nil)
Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.
Generic: 0.5 mg/5 mL (5 mL); 1 mg/10 mL (10 mL)
Competitively inhibits the activity at the benzodiazepine receptor site on the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex. Flumazenil does not antagonize the CNS effect of drugs affecting GABA-ergic neurons by means other than the benzodiazepine receptor (ethanol, barbiturates, general anesthetics) and does not reverse the effects of opioids
Initial Vd: 0.5 L/kg; Vdss: 0.9-1.1 L/kg
Hepatic; dependent upon hepatic blood flow
Feces; urine (<1% as unchanged drug)
Clearance: Dependent upon hepatic blood flow; Adults: 0.8-1 L/hour/kg
Onset of Action
1-2 minutes; 80% response within 3 minutes; Peak effect: 6-10 minutes
Duration of Action
Resedation occurs after ~1 hour (range: 19-50 minutes); duration related to dose given and benzodiazepine plasma concentrations; reversal effects of flumazenil may wear off before effects of benzodiazepine
Children: Terminal: 20-75 minutes (mean: 40 minutes)
Adults: Alpha: 4-11 minutes; Terminal: 40-80 minutes
Moderate hepatic dysfunction: 1.3 hours
Severe hepatic impairment: 2.4 hours
~50% (~67% of which is bound to albumin)
Special Populations: Hepatic Function Impairment
Moderate: Mean total clearance decreased 40% to 60%. Severe: Mean total clearance decreased 75%.
Use: Labeled Indications
Benzodiazepine reversal when used in conscious sedation or general anesthesia: Complete or partial reversal of the sedative effects of benzodiazepines used in conscious sedation and general anesthesia.
Management of benzodiazepine overdose: Treatment of benzodiazepine overdose.
Hypersensitivity to flumazenil, benzodiazepines, or any component of the formulation; patients given benzodiazepines for control of potentially life-threatening conditions (eg, control of intracranial pressure or status epilepticus); patients who may have ingested or are showing signs of cyclic-antidepressant overdosage.
Benzodiazepine reversal when used in conscious sedation or general anesthesia: IV:
Initial dose: 0.2 mg over 15 seconds
Repeat doses (maximum: 4 doses): If the desired level of consciousness is not obtained, 0.2 mg may be repeated at 1-minute intervals.
Maximum total cumulative dose: 1 mg (usual total dose: 0.6 to 1 mg). In the event of resedation: Repeat doses may be given at 20-minute intervals as needed at 0.2 mg per minute to a maximum of 1 mg total dose and 3 mg in 1 hour.
Management of benzodiazepine overdose: IV:
Initial dose: 0.2 mg over 30 seconds; if the desired level of consciousness is not obtained 30 seconds after the dose, 0.3 mg can be given over 30 seconds
Repeat doses: 0.5 mg over 30 seconds repeated at 1-minute intervals
Maximum total cumulative dose: 3 mg (usual total dose: 1 to 3 mg).
Patients with a partial response at 3 mg may require (rare) additional titration up to a total dose of 5 mg (although doses >3 mg do not reliably produce additional effects). If a patient has not responded 5 minutes after a cumulative dose of 5 mg, the major cause of sedation is not likely due to benzodiazepines or may be due to exposure to additional CNS depressants (eg, opioids). In the event of resedation, repeat doses may be given at 20-minute intervals if needed, at 0.5 mg per minute to a maximum of 1 mg total dose and 3 mg in 1 hour.
Refer to adult dosing. No differences in safety or efficacy have been reported; however, increased sensitivity may occur in some elderly patients.
Reversal of benzodiazepine when used in conscious sedation: Children ≥1 year and Adolescents: IV:
Initial dose: 0.01 mg/kg (maximum dose: 0.2 mg) given over 15 seconds
Repeat doses (maximum: 4 doses): If the desired level of consciousness is not obtained, 0.01 mg/kg (maximum dose: 0.2 mg) repeated at 1-minute intervals
Maximum total cumulative dose: 1 mg or 0.05 mg/kg (whichever is lower)
Mean total dose: 0.65 mg (range: 0.08 to 1 mg)
Dosing: Renal Impairment
No dosage adjustment provided in manufacturer's labeling; however, pharmacokinetics are not significantly affected by renal failure (CrCl <10 mL/minute) or hemodialysis.
Dosing: Hepatic Impairment
Initial reversal: No dosage adjustment necessary. Repeat doses: Reduce dose or frequency.
IV: Administer in freely-running IV into large vein.
Management of benzodiazepine overdose: Administer over 30 seconds.
Reversal of benzodiazepine when used in conscious sedation: Administer over 15 seconds.
Avoid alcohol for the first 24 hours after administration or as long as the effects of benzodiazepines exist.
Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F). Once drawn up in the syringe or mixed with D5W, LR, or NS, use within 24 hours. Discard any unused solution after 24 hours.
There are no known significant interactions.
>10%: Gastrointestinal: Vomiting (11%)
1% to 10%:
Cardiovascular: Palpitation (3% to 9%), flushing (1% to 3%), thrombophlebitis (1% to 3%), vasodilatation (1% to 3%)
Central nervous system: Ataxia (10%), dizziness (10%), vertigo (10%), agitation (3% to 9%), anxiety (3% to 9%), insomnia (3% to 9%), nervousness (3% to 9%), depersonalization (1% to 3%), depression (1% to 3%), dysphoria (1% to 3%), emotional lability (1% to 3%; including crying), euphoria (1% to 3%), fatigue (1% to 3%), headache (1% to 3%), hypoesthesia (1% to 3%), malaise (1% to 3%), paranoia (1% to 3%), paresthesia (1% to 3%)
Dermatologic: Dermatological disease (skin abnormality: 1% to 3%), diaphoresis (1% to 3%), skin rash (1% to 3%)
Endocrine & metabolic: Hot flash (1% to 3%)
Gastrointestinal: Xerostomia (3% to 9%), nausea (1% to 3%)
Local: Pain at injection site (3% to 9%), injection site reaction (1% to 3%)
Neuromuscular & skeletal: Weakness (1% to 3%), tremor
Ophthalmic: Blurred vision (3% to 9%), lacrimation (1% to 3%), visual disturbance (1% to 3%)
Respiratory: Dyspnea (3% to 9%), hyperventilation (3% to 9%)
<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Atrial tachycardia (paroxysmal), auditory disturbance, bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmia, chest pain, confusion, decreased blood pressure, delirium, drowsiness, fear, hiccups, hyperacusis, hypertension, increased blood pressure, lack of concentration, panic attack, reversible hearing loss, rigors, seizure (including generalized), sensation of cold, shivering, stupor, tachycardia, tinnitus, tongue edema, ventricular tachycardia, voice disorder, withdrawal syndrome
Concerns related to adverse effects:
• Amnesia: Does not consistently reverse amnesia; patient may not recall verbal instructions after procedure.
• CNS depression: May cause CNS depression, which may impair physical or mental abilities; patients must be cautioned about performing tasks which require mental alertness (eg, operating machinery or driving) for 24 hours after discharge.
• Resedation: Occurs more frequently in patients where a large single dose or cumulative dose of a benzodiazepine has been administered along with a neuromuscular-blocking agent and multiple anesthetic agents.
• Respiratory depression: Should not rely upon to reverse respiratory depression/hypoventilation. Flumazenil is not a substitute for evaluation of oxygenation. Establishing an airway and assisting ventilation, as necessary, is always the initial step in overdose management.
• Seizures: [US Boxed Warning]: Benzodiazepine reversal may result in seizures; seizures may occur more frequently in patients on benzodiazepines for long-term sedation or following tricyclic antidepressant overdose. Dose should be individualized and practitioners should be prepared to manage seizures. Seizures may also develop in patients with concurrent major sedative-hypnotic drug withdrawal, recent therapy with repeated doses of parenteral benzodiazepines, myoclonic jerking or seizure activity prior to flumazenil administration. Use with caution in patients relying on a benzodiazepine for seizure control.
• Head injury: Use with caution in patients with a head injury; may alter cerebral blood flow or precipitate convulsions in patients receiving benzodiazepines.
• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with hepatic dysfunction; repeated doses of the drug should be reduced in frequency or amount.
• Panic disorder: Use with caution in patients with a history of panic disorder; may provoke panic attacks.
• Drug/alcohol dependence: Use caution in drug and ethanol-dependent patients; these patients may also be dependent on benzodiazepines.
• Intensive care patients: Should be used with caution in the intensive care unit because of increased risk of unrecognized benzodiazepine dependence in such settings.
• Appropriate use: Should not be used to diagnose benzodiazepine-induced sedation. Reverse neuromuscular blockade before considering use. Flumazenil does not antagonize the CNS effects of other GABA agonists (such as ethanol, barbiturates, or general anesthetics); nor does it reverse opioids. Not recommended for treatment of benzodiazepine dependence.
• Overdose use: Use with caution in patients with mixed drug overdoses; toxic effects of other drugs taken may emerge once benzodiazepine effects are reversed.
Monitor for return of sedation, respiratory depression, benzodiazepine withdrawal, and other residual effects of benzodiazepines for at least 2 hours and until the patient is stable and resedation is unlikely.
Pregnancy Risk Factor
Teratogenic effects were not seen in animal reproduction studies. Embryocidal effects were seen at large doses. Use during labor and delivery is not recommended. In general, medications used as antidotes should take into consideration the health and prognosis of the mother; antidotes should be administered to pregnant women if there is a clear indication for use and should not be withheld because of fears of teratogenicity (Bailey 2003).
• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)
• Patient may experience dizziness, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, dry mouth, headache, sweating a lot, anxiety, tremors, or insomnia. Have patient report immediately to prescriber shortness of breath, seizures, fast breathing, abnormal heartbeat, behavioral changes, agitation, mood changes, change in balance, or severe injection site redness, burning, pain, edema, or irritation (HCAHPS).
• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.
Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.
Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.
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- Drug class: antidotes
Other brands: Romazicon