Skip to Content

Flurbiprofen (EENT)

Class: Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Agents
- Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Agents, Ophthalmic
ATC Class: S01BC04
VA Class: OP900
Molecular Formula: C15H13FO2•Na
CAS Number: 56767-76-1
Brands: Ocufen

Medically reviewed by Last updated on Jul 22, 2020.


Prototypical NSAIA; propionic acid derivative.1 2 3 4 16 17 18 19 20 21 23

Uses for Flurbiprofen (EENT)

Inhibition of Intraoperative Miosis

Prophylactically before ocular surgery (e.g., cataract extraction)74 102 to prevent or reduce intraoperative miosis.1 74 102

Postoperative Ocular Inflammation

Has been used for prevention and management of postoperative ocular inflammation associated with argon laser trabeculoplasty and cyclocryotherapy.75 76 78

Cystoid Macular Edema

Has been used for prevention of postoperative cystoid macular edema associated with cataract extraction.48 120

Inhibition of Corneal Neovascularization

Has been reported to inhibit corneal neovascularization induced by chemical or thermal burns or prolonged use of contact lenses in preliminary research in animals.79 80 81 121

Flurbiprofen (EENT) Dosage and Administration


Ophthalmic Administration

Apply topically to the eye as an ophthalmic solution.1 74

Avoid contamination of the solution container.94


Available as flurbiprofen sodium; dosage expressed in terms of flurbiprofen sodium.1 113


Inhibition of Intraoperative Miosis

1 drop of 0.03% solution into the eye(s) undergoing surgery beginning 2 hours before the surgery; repeat at approximately 30-minute intervals for a total of 4 drops per affected eye.1

Cautions for Flurbiprofen (EENT)


Known hypersensitivity to flurbiprofen sodium or any ingredient in the formulation.1



Hematologic Effects

May inhibit platelet aggregation and prolong bleeding time.1 4 28 29 30 31 32 33

May cause increased bleeding of ocular tissues (including hyphemas) when used in conjunction with ocular surgery.1

Use with caution in patients with underlying bleeding tendencies or in those receiving drugs known to prolong bleeding time.1 (See Specific Drugs under Interactions.)

Sensitivity Reactions

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Possible cross-sensitivity with aspirin and other NSAIAs.1 3 Use with caution in patients with history of hypersensitivity to these drugs (severe, nearly fatal anaphylactic reaction to oral flurbiprofen reported)86 and in whom asthma, rhinitis, or urticaria is precipitated by aspirin or other NSAIAs.1 3

General Precautions

Wound-healing Complications

May slow or delay wound healing (including corneal).1 84

Ocular Effects

Exacerbation of active epithelial herpes simplex keratitis (dendritic keratitis), more severe conjunctivitis, corneal perforation, and/or clouding of cornea reported in animals.85 Use with extreme caution in patients with active epithelial herpes simplex keratitis.103

Specific Populations


Category C.1


Distributed into milk after systemic administration;117 118 not known whether distributed into milk after topical application to the eye.1 Discontinue nursing or the drug.1

Pediatric Use

Safety and efficacy not established.1

Geriatric Use

No substantial differences in safety and efficacy relative to younger adults.1

Common Adverse Effects

Ocular stinging,1 74 101 burning,1 76 78 101 or discomfort78 and other minor symptoms of ocular irritation1 (e.g., tearing, dry eye sensation, dull eye pain, photophobia);101 103 105 itching;78 101 105 foreign body sensation;78 105 fibrosis;1 miosis;1 and mydriasis.1

Interactions for Flurbiprofen (EENT)

Interactions with other topical ophthalmic drugs not fully evaluated.1

Specific Drugs




Acetylcholine chloride

Diminished miotic effect reported when used with flurbiprofen, although recent clinical and animal studies suggest no interaction1 115 116

Anesthetics, local (e.g., benoxinate, capsaicin)

Additive effects on miotic inhibition during ocular surgery demonstrated in animals40


Possible bleeding complications1

Use with caution1


Diminished miotic effect reported when used with flurbiprofen, although recent clinical and animal studies suggest no interaction1 115 116

Flurbiprofen (EENT) Pharmacokinetics



Ophthalmic: Absorbed through the aqueous humor.119 Extent of systemic absorption not fully elucidated.1 101 104



Distribution into human ocular tissues and fluids not fully characterized to date.101 103 104

Not known whether flurbiprofen crosses the placenta.103 Distributed into milk after systemic administration;117 118 not known whether distributed into milk after topical application to the eye.1

Plasma Protein Binding

≥99% (mainly albumin).3 67 69

May bind to erythrocytes.68





Tight, light-resistant containers105 at 15–25°C.1


  • Systemic pharmacologic actions similar to other prototypical NSAIAs; exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activity.1 3 7 8 10 11 12 14 15 16 17 21 26 27 However, risk of systemic effects appears minimal following topical ophthalmic use.1 74 75 76 78 103 105

  • Exact mechanism of ocular effects not clearly established, but inhibits ocular prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting COX-1 and COX-2.1 3 4 18 19 20 21 23 24 25 35 36 37 39 40 43 45 51 52 59 64 74 101 107 108 109 110 111 112

  • Prostaglandins are mediators of intraocular and extraocular inflammation.1 35 36 37 39 40 52 57 58 74 75 76 Prostaglandins also appear to produce a miotic response during ocular surgery by constricting the iris sphincter1 35 51 64 74 independently of cholinergic mechanisms.1 74

  • Following topical application to the eye, flurbiprofen inhibits or reduces miosis1 35 40 74 102 and ocular inflammation75 76 78 84 120 induced by ocular trauma (e.g., ocular surgery).

Advice to Patients

  • Risk of ocular bleeding.1 Risk of anaphylactoid and other sensitivity reactions.1

  • Importance of learning and adhering to proper administration techniques to avoid contamination of the product.94

  • Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed.1

  • Importance of informing clinicians of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs, as well as any concomitant illnesses.1

  • Importance of informing patients of other important precautionary information.1 (See Cautions.)


Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.

Please refer to the ASHP Drug Shortages Resource Center for information on shortages of one or more of these preparations.

Flurbiprofen Sodium


Dosage Forms


Brand Names





Flurbiprofen Sodium Ophthalmic Solution (with thimerosal)

Bausch & Lomb

Ocufen (with thimerosal)


AHFS DI Essentials™. © Copyright 2021, Selected Revisions August 1, 2007. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 4500 East-West Highway, Suite 900, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.

† Use is not currently included in the labeling approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.


1. Allergan , Inc. Ocufen (flurbiprofen sodium ophthalmic solution) 0.03% prescribing information. Irvine, CA; 2003 Feb.

2. Reynolds JEF, ed. Martindale: the extra pharmacopoeia. 28th ed. London: The Pharmaceutical Press; 1982:255.

3. Brogden RN, Heel RC, Speight TM et al. Flurbiprofen: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic use in rheumatic diseases. Drugs. 1979; 18:417-38.

4. Adams SS, Buckler JW. Ibuprofen and flurbiprofen. Clin Rheum Dis. 1979; 5:359-79.

5. Mimnaugh MN, Gearien JE. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. In: Foye WO, ed. Principles of medicinal chemistry. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1981:561-90.

6. Flower RJ, Moncada S, Vane JR. Analgesic-antipyretics and anti-inflammatory agents; drugs employed in the treatment of gout. In: Gilman AG, Goodman LS, Rall TW et al, eds. Goodman and Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 7th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company; 1985:674-715.

7. Moncada S, Roderick JF, Vane JR. Prostaglandins, prostacyclin, thromboxane A2, and leukotrienes. In: Gilman AG, Goodman L, Rall TW et al, eds. Goodman and Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 7th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company; 1985:660-73.

8. Wolf RE. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Arch Intern Med. 1984; 144:1658-60.

9. Abramson S, Edelson H, Kaplan H et al. Inhibition of neutrophil activation by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Am J Med. 1984; 77(Suppl 4B):3-6.

10. Robinson DR. Prostaglandins and the mechanism of action of anti-inflammatory drugs. Am J Med. 1983; 75(Suppl 4B):26-31.

11. O’Brien WM. Pharmacology of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: practical review for clinicians. Am J Med. 1983; 75(Suppl 4B):32-9.

12. Hart FD, Huskisson EC. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: current status and rational therapeutic use. Drugs. 1984; 27:232-55.

13. Simon LS, Mills JA. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. N Engl J Med. 1980; 302:1179-85.

14. Robert A. Cytoprotection by prostaglandins. Gastroenterology. 1979; 77:761-7.

15. Miller TA, Jacobson ED. Gastrointestinal cytoprotection by prostaglandins. Gut. 1979; 20:75-87.

16. Glenn EM, Rohloff N, Bowman BJ et al. The pharmacology of 2-(2-fluoro-4-biphenylyl)propionic acid (flurbiprofen): a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Agents Actions. 1973; 3:210-6.

17. Adams SS, McCullough KF, Nicholson JS. Some biological properties of flurbiprofen, an anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic agent. Arzneimittelforschung. 1975; 25:1786-91.

18. Nozu K. Flurbiprofen: highly potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1978; 529:493-6.

19. Crook D, Collins AJ, Rose AJ. A comparison of the effect of flurbiprofen on prostaglandin synthetase from human rheumatoid synovium and enzymatically active animal tissues. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1976; 28:535.

20. Ford-Hutchinson AW, Walker JR, Connor NS et al. Separate anti-inflammatory effects of indomethacin, flurbiprofen and benoxaprofen. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1977; 29:372-3.

21. Adams SS. Some aspects of the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of flurbiprofen. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1977; 2:27-33.

22. Ringrose PS, Parr MA, McLaren M. Effects of anti-inflammatory and other compounds on the release of lysosomal enzymes from macrophages. Biochem Pharmacol. 1975; 24:607-14.

23. Fitzpatrick FA, Wynalda MA. In vivo suppression of prostaglandin biosynthesis by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Prostaglandins. 1976; 12:1037-51.

24. Blackham A, Owen RT. Prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors and leucocytic emigration. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1975; 27:201-3.

25. Adams SS, Burrows CA, Skeldon N et al. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and leucocyte migration by flurbiprofen. Curr Med Res Opin. 1977; 5:11-6.

26. Vakil BJ, Kulkarni RD, Kulkarni VN et al. Estimation of gastro-intestinal blood loss in volunteers treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Curr Med Res Opin. 1977; 5:32-7.

27. Vakil BJ, Shah PN, Dalal NJ et al. Endoscopic study of gastro-intestinal injury with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Curr Med Res Opin. 1977; 5:38-42.

28. Sim AK, McCraw AP, Sim MF. An evaluation of the effect of flurbiprofen [2-(2-fluoro-4-biphenylyl) propionic acid] on platelet behaviour. Thromb Res. 1975; 7:655-68.

29. Davies T, Lederer DA, Spencer AA et al. The effect of flurbiprofen [2-(2-fluoro-4-biphenylyl) propionic acid] on platelet function and blood coagulation. Thromb Res. 1974; 5:667-83.

30. Gupta KC, Manikeri S, Paul T et al. Effect of RH-8, flurbiprofen and aspirin on platelet function and coagulation. Ind J Med Res. 1979; 69:181-8.

31. Abe T, Goto H, Imaoka S et al. Influence of flurbiprofen on platelet aggregation. Part I: Metabolic and ultrastructural studies in vitro. Acta Haem Jap. 1978; 41:111-26.

32. Nishizawa EE, Wynalda DJ, Suydam DE et al. Flurbiprofen, a new potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Thromb Res. 1973; 3:577-88.

33. Nishizawa EE, Wynalda DJ, Suydam DE. Effect of flurbiprofen on platelet function. Thromb Diath Haemorrh. 1974; 60:415-23.

34. Cremoncini CM, Libroia A, Valente C et al. Flurbiprofen and thyroid function tests. Br J Clin Pract. 1984; 38:399-402.

35. Havener WH. Ocular pharmacology. 5th ed. St. Louis: The CV Mosby Company; 1983:18-43,223-35.

36. Bhattacherjee P. Prostaglandins and inflammatory reactions in the eye. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1980; 2:17-31.

37. Eakins KE. Prostaglandin and non-prostaglandin mediated breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier. Exp Eye Res. 1977; 25(Suppl):483-98.

38. van Alphen GWHM, Wilhelm P. Effect of prostaglandins on the blood-aqueous barrier of the perfused cat eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1978; 17:60-3.

39. Podos SM, Becker B. Comparison of ocular prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors. Invest Ophthalmol. 1976; 15:841-4.

40. Duffin RM, Camras CB, Gardner SK et al. Inhibitors of surgically induced miosis. Ophthalmology. 1982; 89:966-78.

41. Srinivasan BD, Kulkarni PS. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte response: inhibition following corneal epithelial denudation by steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Arch Ophthalmol. 1981; 99:1085-9.

42. Srinivasan BD, Kulkarni PS. The effect of indomethacin (INDO), flurbiprofen (F) and prednisolone acetate on conjunctival prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) release following corneal injury. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1980; 19(Suppl):228-9.

43. Kulkarni PS, Srinivasan BD. Comparative in vivo inhibitory effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents on prostaglandin synthesis in rabbit ocular tissues. Arch Ophthalmol. 1985; 103:103-6.

44. Beitch BR, Eakins KE. The effects of prostaglandins on the intraocular pressure of the rabbit. Br J Pharmacol. 1969; 37:158-67.

45. Leopold IH, Murray D. Noncorticosteroidal anti-inflammatory agents in ophthalmology. Ophthalmology. 1979; 86:142-55.

46. Green K. Permeability properties of the ciliary epithelium in response to prostaglandins. Invest Ophthalmol. 1973; 12:752-8.

47. Miller JD, Eakins KE, Atwal M. The release of PGE2-like activity into aqueous humor after paracentesis and its prevention by aspirin. Invest Ophthalmol. 1973; 12:939-42.

48. Araie M, Sawa M, Takase M. Topical flurbiprofen and diclofenac suppress blood-aqueous barrier breakdown in cataract surgery: a fluorophotometric study. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 1983; 27:535-42.

49. Gieser DK, Hodapp E, Goldberg I et al. Flurbiprofen and intraocular pressure. Ann Ophthalmol. 1981; 13:831-3.

50. Araie M, Takase M. Effects of S-596 and carteolol, new beta-adrenergic blockers, and flurbiprofen on the human eye: a fluorophotometric study. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1985; 222:259-62.

51. van Alphen GWHM, Dutilh CE, de Deckere EAM. The high yield of prostacyclin biosynthesis by the iris and its effects on the intraocular muscles. Prostaglandins Med. 1978; 1:151-8.

52. Hall DWR, Bonta IL. Prostaglandins and ocular inflammation. Doc Ophthalmol. 1977; 2:421-34.

53. Waitzman MB. Possible new concepts relating prostaglandins to various ocular functions. Surv Ophthalmol. 1970; 14:301-26.

54. Starr MS. Effects of prostaglandin on blood flow in the rabbit eye. Exp Eye Res. 1971; 11:161-9.

55. Starr MS. Further studies on the effect of prostaglandin on intraocular pressure in the rabbit. Exp Eye Res. 1971; 11:170-7.

56. Eakins KE. Increased intraocular pressure produced by prostaglandins E1 and E2 in the cat eye. Exp Eye Res. 1970; 10:87-92.

57. Srinivasan BD, Kulkarni PS. The role of arachidonic acid metabolites in the mediation of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte response following corneal injury. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1980; 19:1087-93.

58. Eakins KE, Whitelocke RAF, Bennett A et al. Prostaglandin-like activity in ocular inflammation. Br Med J. 1972; 3:452-3.

59. Kass MA, Holmberg NJ. Prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis by microsomes of rabbit ocular tissues. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1979; 18:166-71.

60. Camras CB, Bito LZ, Eakins KE. Reduction of intraocular pressure by prostaglandins applied topically to the eyes of conscious rabbits. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1977; 16:1125-34.

61. Butler JM, Unger WG, Hammond BR. Sensory mediation of the ocular response to neutral formaldehyde. Exp Eye Res. 1979; 28:577-89.

62. Unger WG, Cole DF, Bass MS. Prostaglandin and neurogenically mediated ocular response to laser irradiation of the rabbit iris. Exp Eye Res. 1977; 25:209-20.

63. Jampol LM, Neufeld AH, Sears ML. Pathways for the response of the eye to injury. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1975; 14:184-9.

64. Sawa M, Masuda K. Topical indomethacin in soft cataract aspiration. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 1976; 20:514-9.

65. Tang-Liu DDS, Liu SS, Weinkam RJ. Ocular and systemic bioavailability of ophthalmic flurbiprofen. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm. 1984; 12:611-26.

66. Anderson JA, Chen CC, Vita JB et al. Disposition of topical flurbiprofen in normal and aphakic rabbit eyes. Arch Ophthalmol. 1982; 100:642-5.

67. Risdall PC, Adams SS, Crampton EL et al. The disposition and metabolism of flurbiprofen in several species including man. Xenobiotica. 1978; 8:691-704.

68. Kaiser DG, Brooks CD, Lomen PL. Pharmacokinetics of flurbiprofen. Am J Med. 1986; 80(Suppl 3A):10-5.

69. Aarons L, Khan AZ, Grennan DM et al. The binding of flurbiprofen to plasma proteins. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1985; 37:644-6.

70. Cardoe N, de-Silva M, Glass RC et al. Serum concentrations of flurbiprofen in rheumatoid patients receiving flurbiprofen over long periods of time. Curr Med Res Opin. 1977; 5:21-5.

71. Miyake K. Prevention of cystoid macular edema after lens extraction by topical indomethacin. II: a control study in bilateral extractions. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 1978; 22:80-94.

72. BenEzra D. Neovasculogenic ability of prostaglandins, growth factors, and synthetic chemoattractants. Am J Ophthalmol. 1978; 86:455-61.

73. Sudlow G, Birkett DJ, Wade DN. Further characterization of specific drug binding sites on human serum albumin. Mol Pharmacol. 1976; 12:1052-61.

74. Keates RH, McGowan KA. Clinical trial of flurbiprofen to maintain pupillary dilation during cataract surgery. Ann Ophthalmol. 1984; 16:919-21.

75. Hurvitz LM, Spaeth GL, Zakhour I et al. A comparison of the effect of flurbiprofen, dexamethasone, and placebo on cyclocryotherapy-induced inflammation. Ophthalmic Surg. 1984; 15:394-9.

76. Weinreb RN, Robin AL, Baerveldt G et al. Flurbiprofen pretreatment in argon laser trabeculoplasty of primary open-angle glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 1984; 102:1629-32.

77. Hillman JS, Frank GJ, Kheskani MB. Flurbiprofen and human intraocular inflammation. Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Res. 1980; 8:1723-5.

78. Hotchkiss ML, Robin AL, Pollack IP et al. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents after argon laser trabeculoplasty: a trial with flurbiprofen and indomethacin. Ophthalmology. 1984; 91:969-76.

79. Duffin M, Weissman BA, Glasser DB et al. Flurbiprofen in the treatment of corneal neovascularization induced by contact lenses. Am J Ophthalmol. 1982; 93:607-14.

80. Cooper CA, Bergamini VW, Leopold IH. Use of flurbiprofen to inhibit corneal neovascularization. Arch Ophthalmol. 1980; 98:1102-5.

81. Robin JB, Regis-Pacheco LF, Kash RL et al. The histopathology of corneal neovascularization: inhibitor effects. Arch Ophthalmol. 1985; 103:284-7.

82. Weinberger M. Analgesic sensitivity in children with asthma. Pediatrics. 1978; 62(Suppl):910-5.

83. Pleskow WW, Stevenson DD, Mathison DA et al. Aspirin desensitization in aspirin-sensitive asthmatic patients: clinical manifestations and characterization of the refractory period. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1982; 69(1 Part 1):11-9.

84. Miller D, Gruenberg P, Miller R et al. Topical flurbiprofen or prednisolone: effect on corneal wound healing in rabbits. Arch Ophthalmol. 1981; 99:681-2.

85. Trousdale MD, Dunkel EC, Nesburn AB. Effect of flurbiprofen on herpes simplex keratitis in rabbits. Invest Ophthalmol. 1980; 19:267-70.

86. Cohen RD, Bateman ED, Potgieter PD. Near-fatal bronchospasm in an asthmatic patient following ingestion of flurbiprofen: a case report. S Afr Med J. 1982; 61:803.

87. Moebius UM. Adverse drug reactions. Lancet. 1986; 1:384.

88. Srinivasan BD, Kulkarni PS. The effect of steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents on corneal re-epithelialization. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1981; 20:688-91.

89. VanArsdel PP Jr. Aspirin idiosyncrasy and tolerance. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1984; 73:431-3.

90. Stevenson DD. Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of adverse reactions to aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1984; 74(4 Part 2):617-22.

91. Stevenson DD, Mathison DA. Aspirin sensitivity in asthmatics: when may this drug be safe? Postgrad Med. 1985; 78:111-3,116-9. (IDIS 205854)

92. Settipane GA. Aspirin and allergic diseases: a review. Am J Med. 1983; 74(Suppl):102-9.

93. Van Haeringen NJ, Oosterhuis JA, Van Delft JL et al. A comparison of the effects of nonsteroidal compounds on the disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier. Exp Eye Res. 1982; 35:271-7.

94. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc.. Medication teaching manual: a guide for patient counseling. 2nd ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Hospital Pharmacists; 1980:300.

95. Rome LH, Lands WEM. Structural requirements for time-dependent inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis by anti-inflammatory drugs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1975; 72:4863-5.

96. Bito LZ, Draga A, Blanco J et al. Long-term maintenance of reduced intraocular pressure by daily or twice daily topical application of prostaglandins to cat or rhesus monkey eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1983; 24:312-9.

97. Miyake K. Prophylaxis of aphakic cystoid macular edema using topical indomethacin. J Am Intraocul Implant Soc. 1978; 4:174-9.

98. Adams SS, Bresloff P, Risdall PC. The contribution of metabolites to the anti-inflammatory activity of flurbiprofen. Curr Med Res Opin. 1975; 3(Suppl 4):27-30.

99. Ishii Y, Sakai Y, Masumoto S et al. Absorption, distribution, excretion and anti-inflammatory effects of flurbiprofen in animals after rectal administration. Curr Med Res Opin. 1975; 3:31-8.

100. Anderson BD, Conradi RA. Predictive relationships in the water solubility of salts of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. J Pharm Sci. 1985; 74:815-20.

101. Allergan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Ocufen (flurbiprofen topical ophthalmic solution). Irvine, CA; 1987 Jan.

102. Allergan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Ocufen (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03% ophthalmic solution): inhibition of miosis during cataract surgery. Irvine, CA; 1987 Jan.

103. Reviewers’ comments (personal observations); 1987.

104. Cheetham JK, Chen CC, Sabiston DW. The concentration of flurbiprofen in the aqueous humor of humans after multiple topical or oral dosing. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1987; 28(Suppl):395.

105. Petrauskas J (Allergan Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Irvine, CA): Personal communication; 1987.

106. Bhattacherjee P, Williams RN, Eakins KE. A comparison of the ocular anti-inflammatory activity of steroidal and nonsteroidal compounds in the rat. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1983; 24:1143-6.

107. Hawkey CJ. COX-2 inhibitors. Lancet. 1999; 353:307-14.

108. Kurumbail RG, Stevens AM, Gierse JK et al. Structural basis for selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 by anti-inflammatory agents. Nature. 1996; 384:644-8.

109. Riendeau D, Charleson S, Cromlish W et al. Comparison of the cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitory properties of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and selective COX-2 inhibitors, using sensitive microsomal and platelet assays. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1997; 75:1088-95.

110. DeWitt DL, Bhattacharyya D, Lecomte M et al. The differential susceptibility of prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases-1 and -2 to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: aspirin derivatives as selective inhibitors. Med Chem Res. 1995; 5:325-43.

111. Cryer B, Dubois A. The advent of highly selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase—a review. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediators. 1998; 56:341-61.

112. Simon LS. Role and regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 during inflammation. Am J Med. 1999; 106(Suppl 5B):37-42S.

113. Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA: Personal communication; 2007 Mar 28.

114. Trousdale MD, Barlow WE, McGuigan LJB. Assessment of diclofenac on herpes keratitis in rabbit eyes. Arch Ophthalmol. 1989; 107: 1664-6.

115. Holmes JM, Jay WM. The effect of preoperative flurbiprofen on miosis produced by acetylcholine during cataract surgery. Am J Ophthalmol. 1991; 111:735-8.

116. Jackson H, Patel CK, Westcott M et al. Does topical flurbiprofen affect the pupillary response to acetylcholine?. Eye. 1994; 8 (Part 3):329-31.

117. Cox SR, Forbes KK. Excretion of flurbiprofen into breast milk. Pharmacotherapy. 1987; 7:211-5.

118. Smith IJ, Hinson JL, Johnson VA et al. Flurbiprofen in post-partum women: plasma and breast milk disposition. J Clin Pharmacol. 1989; 29:174-84.

119. Gimbel H, Van Westenbrugge J, Cheetham JK et al. Intraocular availability and pupillary effect of flurbiprofen and indomethacin during cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg. 1996; 22:474-9.

120. Solomon LD. Efficacy of topical flurbiprofen and indomethacin in preventing pseudophakic cystoid macular edema. Flurbiprofen-CME Study Group 1. J Cataract Refract Surg. 1995; 21:73-81.

121. Peyman GA, Kazi AA, Riazi-Esfahani M et al. The effect of combinations of flurbiprofen, low molecular weight heparin, and doxycycline on the inhibition of corneal neovascularization. Cornea. 2006; 25:582-5.