What are Antiemetic/antivertigo agents?
Vomiting is controlled by the vomiting center in the medulla. Vomiting center is activated by either one of four trigger zones: chemoreceptor trigger zone, vestibular nuclei, cerebral cortex and gastrointestinal tract. Vomiting center is controlled by serotonin (5-HT3), muscarinic and histamine (H1) receptors.
Chemoreceptor trigger zone is sensitive to chemical stimuli, such as opioids and cytotoxic drugs. It is under the control of dopamine, serotonin (5-HT3) and opioid receptors.
Cerebral cortex activates vomiting from smell, thought and so on. Gastrointestinal tract has serotonin (5-HT3) receptors, which are affected by chemotherapeutic drugs.
Different classes of drugs work on different receptors and act as antiemetics and antivertigo agents.