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tetracaine and oxymetazoline (Nasal route)

TE-tra-kane hye-droe-KLOR-ide, Oxymetazoline Hydrochloride

Commonly used brand name(s)

In the U.S.

  • Kovanaze

Available Dosage Forms:

  • Solution

Therapeutic Class: Anesthetic, Local

Chemical Class: Tetracaine

Uses For tetracaine and oxymetazoline

Tetracaine and oxymetazoline combination nasal spray is used to numb the affected tooth (Teeth 4-13 and A-J) before a dental procedure in adults and children who weigh 40 kilograms (kg) or more.

tetracaine and oxymetazoline is to be given by or under the direct supervision of your dentist or other health care professional.

Before Using tetracaine and oxymetazoline

In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For tetracaine and oxymetazoline, the following should be considered:

Allergies

Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to tetracaine and oxymetazoline or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.

Pediatric

Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of tetracaine and oxymetazoline combination nasal spray in children younger than 3 years of age and in children weighing less than 40 kg. Safety and efficacy have not been established.

Geriatric

Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of tetracaine and oxymetazoline combination nasal spray in the elderly. However, elderly patients are more likely to have increased blood pressure and kidney, liver, or heart problems, which may require caution in patients receiving tetracaine and oxymetazoline.

Breast Feeding

There are no adequate studies in women for determining infant risk when using this medication during breastfeeding. Weigh the potential benefits against the potential risks before taking this medication while breastfeeding.

Interactions with Medicines

Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are receiving tetracaine and oxymetazoline, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.

Using tetracaine and oxymetazoline with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Amineptine
  • Amitriptyline
  • Amitriptylinoxide
  • Amoxapine
  • Carteolol
  • Carvedilol
  • Clomipramine
  • Desipramine
  • Dibenzepin
  • Doxepin
  • Fentanyl Citrate
  • Furazolidone
  • Hyaluronidase
  • Imipramine
  • Iproniazid
  • Isocarboxazid
  • Labetalol
  • Levobunolol
  • Linezolid
  • Lofepramine
  • Melitracen
  • Methylene Blue
  • Metipranolol
  • Moclobemide
  • Nadolol
  • Nialamide
  • Nortriptyline
  • Opipramol
  • Oxprenolol
  • Penbutolol
  • Phenelzine
  • Pindolol
  • Practolol
  • Procarbazine
  • Propranolol
  • Protriptyline
  • Rasagiline
  • Safinamide
  • Selegiline
  • Sotalol
  • St John's Wort
  • Tianeptine
  • Timolol
  • Tranylcypromine
  • Trimipramine

Interactions with Food/Tobacco/Alcohol

Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco.

Other Medical Problems

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of tetracaine and oxymetazoline. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:

  • Congenital or idiopathic methemoglobinemia (blood disorder), history of or
  • Epistaxis (nosebleeds), frequent or
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure), uncontrolled or
  • Thyroid disease, inadequately controlled—Use is not recommended in patients with these conditions.
  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency or
  • Liver disease or
  • Pseudocholinesterase deficiency (a genetic disease)—Use with caution. May increase risk for more serious side effects.
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure) or
  • Trouble swallowing—Use with caution. May make these conditions worse.

Proper Use of tetracaine and oxymetazoline

A dentist will give you or your child tetracaine and oxymetazoline in a dental clinic. tetracaine and oxymetazoline is given as a spray into your nose on the same side to the maxillary tooth on which the dental procedure will be done.

After 10 minutes of receiving the medicine, the dentist needs to perform a test drill to make sure that the affected tooth is already numb (anesthetized) before starting the dental procedure.

Precautions While Using tetracaine and oxymetazoline

Your doctor will check your or your child's progress closely while you are receiving tetracaine and oxymetazoline. This will allow your doctor to see if the medicine is working properly and to decide if you should continue to receive it.

Call your dentist or doctor right away if you or your child have stuffy or runny nose, mild nose bleeds, dizziness, or trouble swallowing after receiving tetracaine and oxymetazoline.

Tetracaine may cause methemoglobinemia. Tell your doctor right away if you or your child have bluish-colored lips, fingernails, palms, dark urine, difficulty breathing, dizziness or lightheadedness, fever, headache, pale skin, rapid heart rate, sore throat, unusual bleeding or bruising, or unusual tiredness or weakness.

tetracaine and oxymetazoline may cause serious allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention. Tell your dentist or doctor right away if you or your child have a rash, itching, trouble breathing, trouble swallowing, or any swelling of your hands, face, or mouth while you are using tetracaine and oxymetazoline.

Avoid using other products containing oxymetazoline (eg, Afrin®) within 24 hours before the scheduled dental procedure. Do not use other inhaled medicines while using Kovanaze™.

Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This includes prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicines and herbal or vitamin supplements.

tetracaine and oxymetazoline Side Effects

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor or nurse immediately if any of the following side effects occur:

Less common
  • Bloody nose
  • blurred vision
  • chest pain or discomfort
  • difficulty swallowing
  • dizziness
  • headache
  • lightheadedness, dizziness, or fainting
  • nervousness
  • pounding in the ears
  • shortness of breath
  • slow or fast, irregular heartbeat
  • ulcers in the nose
  • unusual tiredness
Incidence not known
  • Bluish-colored lips, fingernails, or palms
  • cough
  • dark urine
  • difficulty breathing
  • dizziness or lightheadedness
  • fever
  • hives or welts, itching, or skin rash
  • large, hive-like swelling on the face, eyelids, lips, tongue, throat, hands, legs, feet, or sex organs
  • noisy breathing
  • pale skin
  • puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue
  • rapid heart rate
  • redness of the skin
  • sore throat
  • tightness in the chest
  • unusual bleeding or bruising

Get emergency help immediately if any of the following symptoms of overdose occur:

Symptoms of overdose
  • Blurred or loss of vision
  • chest pain or discomfort
  • confusion
  • difficulty in speaking
  • disturbed color perception
  • dizziness
  • dizziness, faintness, or lightheadedness when getting up suddenly from a lying or sitting position
  • double vision
  • fainting
  • fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat
  • halos around lights
  • headache
  • inability to move the arms, legs, or facial muscles
  • inability to speak
  • lightheadedness
  • nausea
  • nervousness
  • night blindness
  • no blood pressure or pulse
  • overbright appearance of lights
  • pain or discomfort in the arms, jaw, back, or neck
  • pounding in the ears
  • slow speech
  • stopping of heart
  • stuffy nose
  • sweating
  • tunnel vision
  • unconsciousness
  • unusual tiredness or weakness
  • vomiting

Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

More common
  • Burning, crawling, itching, numbness, prickling, "pins and needles", or tingling feelings in the nose
  • change in taste
  • loss of taste
  • sore throat
  • stuffy or runny nose
  • watering of the eyes

Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

See also: Side effects (in more detail)

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