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Prilocaine and epinephrine (Injection)

PRIL-oh-kane hye-droe-KLOR-ide, ep-i-NEF-rin bye-TAR-trate

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Dec 21, 2019.

Commonly used brand name(s)

In the U.S.

  • Citanest Forte Dental

Available Dosage Forms:

  • Solution

Therapeutic Class: Anesthetic, Amino Amide Combination

Pharmacologic Class: Epinephrine

Chemical Class: Prilocaine

Uses for prilocaine and epinephrine

Prilocaine and epinephrine combination injection is used to numb the mouth before a dental procedure.

Prilocaine and epinephrine is to be given by or under the direct supervision of your dentist.

Before using prilocaine and epinephrine

In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For prilocaine and epinephrine, the following should be considered:

Allergies

Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to prilocaine and epinephrine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.

Pediatric

Because of prilocaine and epinephrine's toxicity, it should be used with extreme caution in children. Recommended doses should not be exceeded, and the patient should be carefully monitored during treatment.

Geriatric

No information is available on the relationship of age to the effects of prilocaine and epinephrine combination injection in geriatric patients. However, because of prilocaine and epinephrine's toxicity, it should be used with caution. Recommended doses should not be exceeded, and the patient should be carefully monitored during treatment.

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category Explanation
All Trimesters B Animal studies have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus, however, there are no adequate studies in pregnant women OR animal studies have shown an adverse effect, but adequate studies in pregnant women have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus.

Breastfeeding

There are no adequate studies in women for determining infant risk when using this medication during breastfeeding. Weigh the potential benefits against the potential risks before taking this medication while breastfeeding.

Interactions with medicines

Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are receiving prilocaine and epinephrine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.

Using prilocaine and epinephrine with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.

  • Dihydroergotamine
  • Isocarboxazid
  • Linezolid
  • Phenelzine
  • Tranylcypromine

Using prilocaine and epinephrine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Amineptine
  • Amitriptyline
  • Amitriptylinoxide
  • Amoxapine
  • Benperidol
  • Bromperidol
  • Bucindolol
  • Bupivacaine Liposome
  • Carteolol
  • Carvedilol
  • Clomipramine
  • Desipramine
  • Dibenzepin
  • Digoxin
  • Dilevalol
  • Disopyramide
  • Dixyrazine
  • Doxepin
  • Droperidol
  • Encainide
  • Entacapone
  • Ergonovine
  • Fexofenadine
  • Flecainide
  • Fluphenazine
  • Furazolidone
  • Haloperidol
  • Halothane
  • Hyaluronidase
  • Imipramine
  • Iobenguane I 123
  • Iproniazid
  • Levalbuterol
  • Levobunolol
  • Lofepramine
  • Loxapine
  • Melitracen
  • Melperone
  • Methdilazine
  • Methotrimeprazine
  • Methylene Blue
  • Methylergonovine
  • Metipranolol
  • Metopimazine
  • Mexiletine
  • Moricizine
  • Nadolol
  • Nialamide
  • Nortriptyline
  • Opipramol
  • Oxprenolol
  • Penbutolol
  • Perazine
  • Periciazine
  • Perphenazine
  • Pindolol
  • Pipamperone
  • Pipotiazine
  • Practolol
  • Procainamide
  • Procarbazine
  • Prochlorperazine
  • Promazine
  • Promethazine
  • Propafenone
  • Propiomazine
  • Propranolol
  • Protriptyline
  • Quinidine
  • Rasagiline
  • Selegiline
  • Sotalol
  • St John's Wort
  • Terfenadine
  • Tertatolol
  • Thiethylperazine
  • Thioproperazine
  • Thioridazine
  • Tianeptine
  • Timolol
  • Tocainide
  • Trifluoperazine
  • Triflupromazine
  • Trimipramine

Using prilocaine and epinephrine with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Labetalol
  • Nitric Oxide

Interactions with food/tobacco/alcohol

Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco.

Other medical problems

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of prilocaine and epinephrine. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:

  • Asthma or
  • Blood vessel disease or
  • Heart block—Use with caution. May increase risk for more side effects.
  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) or
  • Heart problems or
  • Lung or breathing problems—Use with caution. May increase risk of having methemoglobinemia.
  • Kidney disease or
  • Liver disease, severe—Use with caution. The effects may be increased because of slower removal of the medicine from the body.
  • Methemoglobinemia (blood disorder), hereditary or idiopathic (unknown cause) or
  • Sulfite allergy—Should not be used in patients with these conditions.

Proper use of prilocaine and epinephrine

Your dentist or other trained health professional will give you prilocaine and epinephrine in a medical facility. It is given through a needle placed into the head and neck area or injected directly into your gums.

Prilocaine and epinephrine should cause numbness only to the area where it is injected. You may experience temporary loss of sensation or movement in the injected area. This type of numbing procedure is called local anesthesia. It is not meant to cause you to fall asleep or become unconscious.

Your mouth may be numb for several hours. To avoid injury after dental work, do not chew solid foods until normal feeling has returned to the area. Do not test the feeling in your mouth by biting or poking the treated area.

Precautions while using prilocaine and epinephrine

It is very important that your doctor check your or your child's progress closely while receiving prilocaine and epinephrine to see if it is working properly. Blood tests may be needed to check for any unwanted effects.

Prilocaine and epinephrine may cause a rare, but serious blood problem called methemoglobinemia. The risk may be increased in children younger than 6 months of age, elderly patients, or patients with certain inborn defects. It is more likely to occur in patients receiving too much of the medicine, but can also occur with small amounts. Check with your doctor right away if you or your child has the following symptoms after receiving prilocaine and epinephrine: pale, gray, or blue-colored skin, lips, or nails, confusion, headache, lightheadedness, fast heartbeat, or unusual tiredness or weakness.

Tell your doctor or nurse right away if you have the following symptoms with prilocaine and epinephrine: anxiety, blurred vision, depression, drowsiness, lightheadedness, nausea or vomiting, numbness and tingling of the mouth or lips, restlessness, ringing in the ears, speech problems, or tremors.

Prilocaine and epinephrine may cause serious allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, which can be life-threatening and require immediate medical attention. Call your doctor right away if you have a rash, itching, hoarseness, trouble breathing, trouble swallowing, or any swelling of your hands, face, mouth, or throat after receiving prilocaine and epinephrine.

Prilocaine and epinephrine may also increase your risk of having serious heart and blood vessel problems such as a heart attack, heart rhythm changes, or low blood pressure. Check with your doctor if you have chest pain or discomfort, pain or discomfort in the arms, jaw, back, or neck, dizziness, fainting, pounding, slow heartbeat, troubled breathing, or unusual tiredness or weakness.

Before you have any medical tests, tell the medical doctor in charge that you are receiving prilocaine and epinephrine. The results of some tests may be affected by prilocaine and epinephrine.

Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This includes prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicines and herbal or vitamin supplements.

Prilocaine and epinephrine side effects

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor or nurse immediately if any of the following side effects occur:

Incidence not known

  • Blurred vision
  • burning, crawling, itching, numbness, prickling, "pins and needles", or tingling feelings in the lips or mouth
  • chest pain or discomfort
  • cold, clammy, pale skin
  • confusion
  • continuing ringing or buzzing or other unexplained noise in the ears
  • cough
  • difficulty swallowing
  • discouragement
  • dizziness, faintness, or lightheadedness when getting up suddenly from a lying or sitting position
  • drowsiness
  • excitement
  • false or unusual sense of well-being
  • fast or irregular heartbeat
  • feeling sad or empty
  • general feeling of illness
  • hearing loss
  • hives, itching, skin rash
  • irritability
  • lack of appetite
  • loss of consciousness
  • loss of interest or pleasure
  • nausea
  • puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue
  • restlessness
  • seizures
  • severe headache
  • shivering
  • slow heart rate
  • slowing of labor
  • stiff neck or back
  • sweating
  • tightness in the chest
  • trouble concentrating
  • trouble sleeping
  • unusual tiredness or weakness
  • vomiting
  • weakness of the muscles in your face

Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

Incidence not known

  • Feeling of heat
  • numbness

Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

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