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WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW:
What is a venous thromboembolism?
A venous thromboembolism (VTE) is when a blood clot (thrombus) has formed in a vein. A VTE can form anywhere in your body and block blood flow. A VTE in the deep veins in the legs, thighs, pelvis, or arms is called a deep venous thrombosis (DVT). If a blood clot breaks loose, it can travel to your lungs and cause a life-threatening pulmonary embolism (PE). You may need treatment to prevent or to treat a VTE.
What increases my risk for a VTE?
- Recent surgery
- Sitting or lying in one position for a long time
- Pregnancy and childbirth
- History of a VTE or a clotting disorder
- Medical conditions, such as obesity or cancer
- Hormone replacement therapy or birth control pills
What are the signs and symptoms of a VTE?
Your symptoms will depend on the location of the clot. You may have any of the following:
- Warmth, pain, or tenderness
How is a VTE diagnosed?
- A D-dimer blood test may be done to check for signs of a blood clot.
- An ultrasound uses sound waves to show pictures on a monitor. An ultrasound may be done to show a clot in your vein.
- Contrast venography is an x-ray of a vein. Contrast liquid is used to make the vein easier to see on the x-ray. Tell a healthcare provider if you have ever had an allergic reaction to contrast liquid.
How is a VTE treated?
- Blood thinners help prevent the VTE from getting bigger and prevent new clots from forming. Examples of blood thinners include heparin, rivaroxaban, apixiban, and warfarin. The following are general safety guidelines to follow while you are taking a blood thinner:
- Watch for bleeding and bruising. Watch for bleeding from your gums or nose. Watch for blood in your urine and bowel movements. Use a soft washcloth on your skin, and a soft toothbrush to brush your teeth. This can keep your skin and gums from bleeding. If you shave, use an electric shaver. Do not play contact sports.
- Tell your dentist and other healthcare providers that you take a blood thinner. Wear a bracelet or necklace that says you take this medicine.
- Do not start or stop any medicines unless your healthcare provider tells you to. Many medicines cannot be used with blood thinners.
- Tell your healthcare provider right away if you forget to take the blood thinner , or if you take too much.
- Warfarin is a blood thinner that you may need to take. The following are additional things you should be aware of if you take warfarin:
- Foods and medicines can affect the amount of warfarin in your blood. Do not make major changes to your diet. Warfarin works best when you eat about the same amount of vitamin K every day. Vitamin K is found in green leafy vegetables and certain other foods. Ask for more information about what to eat or not to eat.
- You will need to see your healthcare provider for follow-up visits. You will need regular blood tests to decide how much warfarin you need.
- Clot busters are emergency medicines that work to dissolve blood clots. They cannot be used during pregnancy or in people with medical conditions that increase their risk of bleeding.
- A vena cava filter may be placed inside your vena cava to treat your VTE. The vena cava is a large vein that brings blood from your lower body up to your heart. The filter traps blood clots and prevents them from going into your lungs.
- Surgery , called a thrombectomy, may be done to remove the clot. A procedure called thrombolysis may instead be done to inject a clot buster that helps break the clot apart.
How can I manage my VTE?
- Wear pressure stockings. The stockings are tight and put pressure on your legs. This improves blood flow and helps prevent clots. Wear the stockings during the day. Do not wear them when you sleep.
- Elevate your legs above the level of your heart as often as you can. This will help decrease swelling and pain. Prop your legs on pillows or blankets to keep them elevated comfortably.
- Maintain a healthy weight. Ask your healthcare provider how much you should weigh. Ask him to help you create a weight loss plan if you are overweight.
- Exercise regularly. Ask about the best exercise plan for you. When you travel by car or plane, take breaks to stand up and move around as much as possible. Rotate your feet in circles often if you sit for a long period of time.
- Do not smoke. Nicotine and other chemicals in cigarettes and cigars can damage blood vessels and make it more difficult to manage your VTE. Ask your healthcare provider for information if you currently smoke and need help to quit. E-cigarettes or smokeless tobacco still contain nicotine. Talk to your healthcare provider before you use these products.
Call 911 for any of the following:
- You feel lightheaded, short of breath, and have chest pain.
- You cough up blood.
- You have a severe headache or a seizure.
When should I seek immediate care?
- Your arm or leg feels warm, tender, and painful. It may look swollen and red.
- You have sudden abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea.
When should I contact my healthcare provider?
- You have a sore on your leg that does not heal.
- You have more bruises than usual.
- Your gums or nose bleed.
- You see blood in your urine or bowel movements.
- Your bowel movements are black or darker than normal.
- You have questions or concerns about your conditions or care.
Care AgreementYou have the right to help plan your care. Learn about your health condition and how it may be treated. Discuss treatment options with your caregivers to decide what care you want to receive. You always have the right to refuse treatment. The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.
Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.