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Tourette Syndrome In Children
Tourette syndrome (TS)
is a disorder that causes your child to have tics. A tic is when your child makes sudden, fast movements or sounds that he cannot control. The exact cause is not known, but it may be linked to genetic changes that cause problems with chemicals in the brain. These chemicals affect the nerves that help control your child's movements, behavior, emotions, and thoughts. TS begins before the age of 18 years, usually between 7 and 12 years of age.
Call 911 for any of the following:
- Your child tells you he feels like hurting himself or others.
- Your child has hurt himself or someone else.
Seek care immediately if:
- Your child gets very upset, threatens someone, or is violent. This may include talking loudly, shouting, or becoming very demanding.
- Your child has a high fever, muscle stiffness, and problems thinking.
- Your child has new changes in his vision.
Contact your child's healthcare provider if:
- Your child is having side effects from his medicine, or his medicine is not helping.
- Your child is not sleeping well or sleeps more than usual.
- Your child has trouble in school or becomes depressed or anxious.
- Your child is having muscle spasms (twitching) or trouble walking.
- Your child has new tics, or his tics are getting worse or preventing him from doing his normal activities.
Kinds of tics your child may have:
Your child will have at least 2 kinds of motor tics and at least 1 kind of vocal tic. The motor and vocal tics might happen at the same time, but they might happen separately. Your child will need to have the tics for at least 1 year before his healthcare provider will diagnose TS. Your child may have any of the following several times every day:
- Motor tics can be simple or complex. Simple motor tics are short, quick, uncontrolled movements of one body area. Complex motor tics occur when your child has many simple motor tics at one time. Common examples include eye blinking, teeth grinding, or foot tapping. He may also bite or punch himself, shrug his shoulders, or twitch his nose.
- Vocal tics can be simple or complex. Simple vocal tics are when your child makes uncontrolled noises and sounds. Complex vocal tics are when your child speaks words or phrases without having control over what he is saying. Common examples include barking, throat clearing, or shouting. He may also make a sucking noise, curse, or say inappropriate things.
What you need to know about tics:
- Your child's tics may be worse when he is alone, stressed, tired, excited, or worried.
- Your child may have warning signs before his tics begin, such as feeling cold, warm, itchy, tingly, or heavy. When the tic occurs, these feelings go away.
- Your child may have fewer tics when he is concentrating, doing activities, or sleeping.
- At times, your child may be able to stop a tic from occurring. This may cause discomfort or a feeling of pressure in his body, causing him to have many tics afterwards.
- As your child grows older, his tics may go away on their own.
Treatment for TS
may include any of the following:
- Medicines may be given if your child's tics are painful, harmful, or make it hard for him to do his normal activities. The medicines used to treat your child will depend on what other conditions he has. Medicines may be given to help decrease your child's tics. Some of the medicines may also help control anxiety, mood swings, or aggressive behavior. Some medicines may also help your child sleep.
- Give your child's medicine as directed. Call your child's healthcare provider if you think the medicine is not working as expected. Tell him if your child is allergic to any medicine. Keep a current list of the medicines, vitamins, and herbs your child takes. Include the amounts, and when, how, and why they are taken. Bring the list or the medicines in their containers to follow-up visits. Carry your child's medicine list with you in case of an emergency.
- Biofeedback training helps your child to control how his body reacts to stress or pain. This training can help reduce tics by helping your child manage triggers that can lead to a tic.
- Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) helps your child learn to control his behavior, thoughts, and emotions. CBT may help your child understand the tic disorder and help him cope with his symptoms.
- Habit reversal therapy helps your child learn new behaviors to take the place of his tics. Your child learns to recognize when the urge to have a tic is building. He learns to choose an action he can do that will interrupt the tic. He may need to do the action for up to 3 minutes before the tic urge stops.
- Relaxation therapy helps decrease your child's physical and emotional stress. Relaxation therapy may help your child learn to control his tics. Deep breathing, muscle relaxation, meditation, and listening to music can help your child cope with stressful events.
For support and more information:
- Tourette Syndrome Association
42-40 Bell Boulevard
Bayside , NY 11361-2820
Phone: 1- 718 - 224-2999
Web Address: http://www.tsa-usa.org
Follow up with your child's healthcare provider as directed:
Write down your questions so you remember to ask them during your visits.
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The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.