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Ethambutol Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings

Ethambutol is also known as: Myambutol

Ethambutol Pregnancy Warnings

Ethambutol has been assigned to a pregnancy category C by the FDA. There are no controlled data in human pregnancy. There are reports of ophthalmic abnormalities occurring in infants born to women on antituberculous therapy that included ethambutol. Ethambutol should only be given during pregnancy when benefit outweighs risk.

Ethambutol crosses the placenta. In one patient, maternal blood, placental blood and cord blood concentrations were 5.5, 5.0, and 4.1, respectively, immediately following delivery. No adverse effects were reported in the infant who had been exposed since 23 weeks gestation. Bobrowitz and colleagues studied 42 pregnancies which involved ethambutol exposure in addition to other antituberculous agents. The majority of these pregnancies were treated throughout gestation. No consistent pattern was noted in the reported fetal adverse effects, which included supernumerary nipple, small umbilical hernia, mild right tibial torsion, congenital dislocation of hips, left hydrocele, minimal metatarsus adductus, and skin tag on finger. Other reports also have not associated ethambutol with teratogenic effects. The initial therapy of active tuberculosis in pregnant patients recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention includes ethambutol. Ethambutol is also recommended by the American Thoracic Society in cases of suspected drug-resistant tuberculosis.

See references

Ethambutol Breastfeeding Warnings

Ethambutol is excreted into human milk. Ethambutol is considered compatible with breast-feeding by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

See references

References for pregnancy information

  1. Bobrowitz ID "Ethambutol in pregnancy." Chest 66 (1974): 20-4
  2. "Product Information. Myambutol (ethambutol)." Lederle Laboratories, Wayne, NJ.
  3. Lewit T, Nebel L, Terracina S, Karman S "Ethambutol in pregnancy: observations on embryogenesis." Chest 66 (1974): 25-6
  4. CDC "Initial therapy for tuberculosis in the era of multidrug resistance. Recommendations of the advisory council for the elimintion of tuberculosis." MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 42 (1993): 1-8
  5. Shneerson JM, Francis RS "Ethambutol in pregnancy--foetal exposure." Tubercle 60 (1979): 167-9
  6. American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control "Treatment of tuberculosis and tuberculosis infection in adults and children." Am Rev Respir Dis 134 (1986): 355-63
  7. Holdiness MR "Transplacental pharmacokinetics of the antituberculosis drugs." Clin Pharmacokinet 13 (1987): 125-9
  8. Medchill MT, Gillum M "Diagnosis and management of tuberculosis during pregnancy." Obstet Gynecol Surv 44 (1989): 81-4
  9. Snider DE Jr, Layde PM, Johnson MW, Lyle MA "Treatment of tuberculosis during pregnancy." Am Rev Respir Dis 122 (1980): 65-79

References for breastfeeding information

  1. Snider DE, Powell KE "Should women taking antituberculosis drugs breast-feed?" Arch Intern Med 144 (1984): 589-90
  2. Committee on Drugs, 1992 to 1993 "The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk." Pediatrics 93 (1994): 137-50
  3. "Product Information. Myambutol (ethambutol)." Lederle Laboratories, Wayne, NJ.

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