Acetaminophen / butalbital Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings
Acetaminophen / butalbital is also known as: Allzital, Axocet, Bucet, Bupap, Butex Forte, Cephadyn, Dolgic, Marten-Tab, Orbivan CF, Phrenilin, Phrenilin Forte, Promacet, Prominol, Sedapap, Tencon, Triaprin
Acetaminophen / butalbital Pregnancy Warnings
Acetaminophen-butalbital has been assigned to pregnancy category C by the FDA. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted on this combination product. There are no controlled data on this combination product in human pregnancy. Acetaminophen-butalbital should only be given during pregnancy when need has been clearly established.
Acetaminophen is routinely used for short-term pain relief and fever in all stages of pregnancy. Acetaminophen is believed to be safe in pregnancy when used intermittently for short durations. Two cases of acetaminophen overdose in late pregnancy have been reported. In both cases neither the neonate nor the mother suffered hepatic toxicity. Investigations have revealed conflicting results with regards to the pharmacokinetic disposition of acetaminophen in pregnant women. One study has suggested that the oral clearance of acetaminophen is 58% higher and the elimination half-life is 28% longer in pregnant women compared to nonpregnant women. Another study has suggested that the elimination half-life is not different in patients who are pregnant. That study also suggested that the volume of distribution of acetaminophen may be higher in pregnant women. One study has suggested that acetaminophen in typical oral doses may result in a reduced production of prostacyclin in pregnant women. That study also suggested that acetaminophen does not affect thromboxane production. Barbiturates in general have been reported to readily cross the placental barrier. Withdrawal seizures have been reported in a two day old infant whose mother had taken a butalbital containing drug during the last two months of pregnancy. Butalbital was found in the infant's serum.
Acetaminophen / butalbital Breastfeeding Warnings
One case of a rash has been reported in a nursing infant whose mother has taken acetaminophen. Acetaminophen is considered compatible with breast-feeding by the American Academy of Pediatrics. One small study has reported that following a 1000 mg dose of acetaminophen to nursing mothers, nursing infants receive less than 1.85% of the weight-adjusted maternal oral dose.
Acetaminophen is excreted into human milk in small concentrations. Barbiturates are excreted in breast milk in small amounts. The significance of the effects on nursing infants has not been reported. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from butalbital, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
References for pregnancy information
- Beaulac-Baillargeon L, Rocheleau S "Paracetamol pharmacokinetics during the first trimester of human pregnancy." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 46 (1994): 451-4
- Roberts I, Robinson MJ, Mughal MZ, Ratcliffe JG, Prescott LF "Paracetamol metabolites in the neonate following maternal overdose." Br J Clin Pharmacol 18 (1984): 201-6
- Rayburn W, Shukla U, Stetson P, Piehl E "Acetaminophen pharmacokinetics: comparison between pregnant and nonpregnant women." Am J Obstet Gynecol 155 (1986): 1353-6
- Rudolph AM "Effects of aspirin and acetaminophen in pregnancy and in the newborn." Arch Intern Med 141 (1981): 358-63
- Byer AJ, Traylor TR, Semmer JR "Acetaminophen overdose in the third trimester of pregnancy." JAMA 247 (1982): 3114-5
- Miners JO, Robson RA, Birkett DJ "Paracetamol metabolism in pregnancy." Br J Clin Pharmacol 22 (1986): 359-62
- Galinsky RE, Levy G "Absorption and metabolism of acetaminophen shortly before parturition." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 18 (1984): 977-9
- O'Brien WF, Krammer J, O'Leary TD, Mastrogiannis DS "The effect of acetaminophen on prostacyclin production in pregnant women." Am J Obstet Gynecol 168 (1993): 1164-9
- Levy G, Garrettson LK, Soda DM "Evidence of placental transfer of acetaminophen." Pediatrics 55 (1975): 895
References for breastfeeding information
- Committee on Drugs, 1992 to 1993 "The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk." Pediatrics 93 (1994): 137-50
- Matheson I, Lunde PK, Notarianni L "Infant rash caused by paracetamol in breast milk." Pediatrics 76 (1985): 651-2
- Roberts RJ, Blumer JL, Gorman RL, et al "American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs: Transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk." Pediatrics 84 (1989): 924-36
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