Skip to Content

Sour Cherry

Scientific Name(s): Prunus cerasus L.
Common Name(s): Montmorency cherry, Morello cherry, Pie cherry, Red cherry, Sour cherry, Tart cherry

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Feb 1, 2019.

Clinical Overview

Use

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities have been demonstrated in animal studies. A small number of clinical trials evaluating sour cherry juice have shown limited or equivocal results in arthritis and in alleviating muscle inflammation after strenuous exercise. Limited studies also suggest a possible hypotensive effect and a role in the management of gout and insomnia. Larger, higher-quality clinical trials are needed before sour cherry can be recommended for these uses.

Dosing

Limited clinical trials have evaluated oral administration of various formulations of sour cherry juice, juice blend, or concentrate, the majority of which were made from Montmorency cherries. Anthocyanin concentrations varied among products and formulations.

Contraindications

Anaphylaxis to cherries has been reported. In individuals allergic to cherries, sour cherries or derived products are not recommended.

Pregnancy/Lactation

Sour cherry has generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status when used as food. Avoid dosages above those found in food because safety and efficacy are unproven.

Interactions

None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical studies generally report tolerability of sour cherry fruit juice and concentrate. A case report described a decline in renal function (which was reversible) attributed to daily ingestion of cherry juice concentrate.

Toxicology

Data regarding toxicity with the use of sour cherry are limited.

Scientific Family

  • Rosaceae (rose)

Botany

There are about 270 varieties of sour cherries, a few of which are of commercial importance (eg, Montmorency, Richmond, English Morello, Balaton). ­­­Multiple synonyms exist for this species, including Cerasus vulgaris Mill. The sour cherry tree is smaller than the sweet cherry tree (Prunus avium) and is more tolerant of temperature extremes. The sour cherry, a member of the plum genus, originated in Europe, but is widely cultivated in America. The trees may reach about 12 m in height, with a trunk diameter of 30 to 45 cm. The bark is a grayish-brown and the flowers are white to pale pink; the ovate leaves have serrated edging. Sour cherry fruits are cordate drupes that can grow to 20 mm in length and 18 mm in width; the cherry color changes from green to red as the chlorophyll content declines and polyphenol content increases during ripening. The drupe envelops a light brown seed.Cambridge 2000, Ensminger 1993, USDA 2018, Yilmaz 2018

History

The Greek botanist Theophrastus described the cherry circa 300 BC, but it is believed to have been cultivated even earlier. In 70 AD, the Roman naturalist Pliny indicated that cherry trees were located in Rome, Germany, England, and France. By the mid-1800s, cherries were being cultivated in Oregon, with the first commercial cherry orchard planted in the late 1800s. By the early 1900s, the US sour cherry industry was flourishing; countries of eastern and central Europe continue to be the primary culinary source. The juice of sour cherries is used in the formulation of cherry syrup as a vehicle for unpleasant-tasting drugs.Cambridge 2000, Ensminger 1993, Osol 1960

Chemistry

Nutrients and other constituents of sour cherry fruit include potassium, vitamins A and C, calcium, iron, phosphorus, sugars, fiber, and carbohydrates. Citric acid, amygdalin, malic acid, tannin, dextrose, sucrose, quercetin, and anthocyanin are all present in juice prepared from the fruit.Yilmaz 2018

Sour cherries are rich sources of polyphenols, including anthocyanins, flavonols, and hydroxycinnamic acids, with higher concentrations occurring in sour cherries than in sweet cherries. The anthocyanin pigment content, concentrated mainly in the skin of the fruit, has been described and consists mainly of cyanidin compounds, primarily cyanidin-3-glucosyl-rutinoside (60% to 70% of total anthocyanin content) and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (25% to 33%).Szaloki 2015, Yilmaz 2018 The presence of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) has been quantified in at least 2 different cultivars, with levels of approximately 13 ng of melatonin per gram of fruit tissue reported in Montmorency cherries.Burkhardt 2001

Sour cherry seed (referred to as the "pit" or "stone") accounts for up to 15% of the whole fruit and contains protein, dietary fiber, lipid, and polyphenolics within the shell and kernel parts. The kernel itself has a high oil content, including unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and linoleic acids), saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids, and lesser amounts of arachidic and myristic acids), as well as resveratrol, anthocyanidins, glucose, stilbenes, and catechins.Csiki 2015, Mahmoud 2014, Yilmaz 2018

Uses and Pharmacology

Anti-inflammatory effects

Cherry-derived anthocyanins have anti-inflammatory effects that are likely related to inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 enzymes, and to antioxidant activity.Saric 2009, Vitale 2017, Walzer 2015 Sweet cherries may demonstrate greater COX inhibition than sour cherries; the anthocyanins from sweet and sour cherries possess varying levels of activity compared to the conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen and naproxen.Mulabagal 2009, Ou 2012, Seeram 2001, Tall 2004

Animal and in vitro data

In rats and in vitro, inhibition of prostaglandin E2 has been described for sour cherry.He 2006, Khoo 2012 Studies have also evaluated the effect of sour cherry on C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukins (IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha).He 2006, Nguyen 2018, Walzer 2015

Clinical data

Arthritis

A small, possibly underpowered (N=58) crossover study evaluated the effects of 240 mL of a sour cherry juice blend twice daily for 6 weeks in patients with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis. Although CRP levels decreased, resulting in Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score improvement in the study group, no difference in symptomatic relief compared with placebo could be determined. Treatment with the tart cherry juice blend did not affect acetaminophen use, walking time, plasma urate, or serum creatinine.Schumacher 2013, Walzer 2015 Another clinical study (N=20) evaluated the efficacy of 315 mL of sour cherry fruit juice twice daily over 21 days in women with osteoarthritis. The study reported a significant reduction in CRP with sour cherry juice (P<0.05); however, there was no change in other biomarkers (interleukins or TNF-alpha).Kuehl 2012 A phase 1 clinical trial evaluated topical application of a sour cherry seed extract emulsion over 2 months in 20 adults with osteoarthritis. Reduced joint pain was reported as well as decreased inflammatory biomarkers.Mahmoud 2015

Exercise-induced inflammation

A literature review evaluated clinical studies (published through December 2016) of sour cherry juice use in athletes.Vitale 2017 Despite heterogeneity in patient population, sport/activity, and intervention protocols, the authors concluded that anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects were attributed to the observed reductions in pain and improved recovery of muscle strength after strenuous exercise.Vitale 2017 While sour cherry juice is unlikely to enhance athletic performance,Vitale 2017 findings from a study conducted after the review inclusion date (N=10) suggest "end-sprint performance" in the participating cyclists may have improved due to acute supplementation with sour cherry juice. Time to exhaustion was not different between intervention and control arms of the study.Keane 2018 Further studies provide support for a role in attenuating the symptoms of muscle damage and improving recovery following exercise.Brown 2018 However, concerns that inhibiting the initial inflammatory response (adaptation) and thereby preventing muscle protein synthesis after exercise via excessive antioxidant ingestion exist.Vitale 2017

Cardiovascular effects

Documented antioxidant activity may suggest a cardioprotective role, including antihyperlipidemic effects possibly related to polyphenolic composition of the fruit juice.Bialasiewicz 2018, Papp 2015

Animal and in vitro data

Limited studies in rats report protective effects of sour cherry seed extract on reperfusion-related injury, with a decrease in infarct size observed in one,Czompa 2014 and potential capacity to prevent ischemia/reperfusion–induced retinal damage in the diabetic setting suggested in another.Varga 2017 Positive effects with respect to anti-atherosclerotic markers were demonstrated in vitro.Keane 2016

Clinical data

Limited small clinical studies report positive effects, mainly on systolic blood pressure (BP). A small clinical study (N=37) of older adults (65 to 80 years of age) reported decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol, and systolic BP following 12 weeks of supplementation with sour cherry juice. Blood glucose levels and body mass index (BMI) increased, with no effect on diastolic BP or insulin resistance.Chai 2018 In a study of healthy adults (N=11), Montmorency tart cherry juice consumed over 20 days showed no effect on BP, glucose, or lipid profiles, aside from a decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL). There was also no effect on fat oxidation.Desai 2018 A 12-week randomized controlled trial assessed the effect of daily sour cherry fruit juice in elderly patients (older than 70 years) with mild to moderate dementia (N=49). A reduction in systolic BP was noted, with a trend toward decreased diastolic BP; however, markers of inflammation (CRP and IL-6) were unchanged.Kent 2017

In studies in men with mild hypertension (N=15Keane 2016 and N=27Keane 2016), single doses of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate 60 mL decreased systolic BP, with no impact on arterial stiffness.

CNS

Cognitive function

Clinical data

Limited clinical studies evaluating use of sour cherry juice to improve cognitive performance have been conducted. A 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled trial assessed the effects of daily sour cherry fruit juice in elderly patients (older than 70 years) with mild to moderate dementia (N=49). Improvements were reported for verbal fluency and short- and long-term memory.Kent 2017 Single-dose studies reported no effect on cognitive performance; in a small clinical study, cognitive function and mood of middle-aged volunteers 45 to 60 years of age (N=27) were not affected by a single 60 mL dose of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate.Keane 2016

Insomnia

Sour cherries may have beneficial effects in sleep disorders and insomnia by providing a dietary source of melatonin, possibly via interference with inflammatory cytokines that modulate sleep.Burkhardt 2001, Howatson 2012, Pigeon 2010

Clinical data

Limited and small clinical studies evaluating effects of sour cherry on insomnia report positive findings.Howatson 2012, Losso 2018, Pigeon 2010 All the studies employed a double-blind, crossover design with small numbers of participants (elderly patients [65 years of age and older] with insomnia [N=15],Pigeon 2010 healthy volunteers with insomnia [N=20],Howatson 2012 and adults with chronic insomnia [N=8]Losso 2018). All studies used sour (tart) cherry juice as the intervention, with dosages of 240 mL twice daily for 2 weeksLosso 2018, Pigeon 2010 or 30 mL of the juice concentrate twice daily over 7 days.Howatson 2012 Outcomes based on sleep diaries generally improved against baseline measures.Howatson 2012 Actigraphy showed an increase in time in bed, total sleep time, and total sleep efficiency,Howatson 2012 while polysomnography showed increased sleep time (by 84 minutes).Losso 2018 Sour cherry juice increased total urinary melatonin but did not affect melatonin circadian rhythmHowatson 2012, Losso 2018; in the study of healthy volunteers, sour cherry juice also increased tryptophan levels.Losso 2018 Fatigue, depression, and anxiety did not improve with sour cherry juice.Pigeon 2010

Diabetes

Animal and in vitro data

In vitro, the juice extract has demonstrated activity against alpha-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase IV, enzymes implicated in diabetes.Casedas 2016 Studies in rodents suggest a protective role of extracts of sour cherry (both fruit and seed extracts) on diabetes.Saleh 2017, Snyder 2016, Varga 2017 In a study of Zucker diabetic fatty rats, a protective effect of sour cherry seed extract on recovery of ischemia/reperfusion–induced retinal damage was suggested.Varga 2017

Clinical data

Clinical trials specifically designed to evaluate the effects of sour cherry fruit or seed extract in diabetes are lacking. In a small clinical study (N=37) of subjects 65 to 80 years of age designed to evaluate the effects of supplemental sour cherry juice for 12 weeks on dyslipidemia and hypertension, increases in blood glucose levels and BMI were observed, with no effect on measures of insulin resistance.Chai 2018

Gout

Anthocyanins in sour cherries have a potential role in treatment of gout via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The anti-inflammatory effects of sour cherry anthocyanins may be mediated by COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition.Seeram 2001 Macrophages modulate the inflammatory response in acute gout by releasing nitric oxide and other proinflammatory substances.

Animal and in vitro data

In vitro, anthocyanins from sour cherries strongly inhibited nitric oxide production from macrophages, with inhibitory activity comparable with quercetin.Wang 1999 In a study of hyperuricemic rats, sour cherry juice inhibited xanthine oxidase and reduced serum uric acid levels, but allopurinol had more potent effects on both measures.Haidari 2009

Clinical data

Limited small clinical studies have reported reductions in plasma uric acid levels, increases in urinary urate excretion, and reduced rates of gout exacerbation with consumption of sour cherry fruit or juice extract.Gelber 2012, Jacob 2003, Schlesinger 2012 A larger internet-based study (N=633) was conducted over 1 year to examine the relationship between cherry intake and the risk for recurrent gout attacks, with participants acting as their own controls. However, type of cherry used in this study was not specified. Cherry fruit (10 to 12 cherries) or cherry extract consumption was associated with a reduction in the risk of recurrent gout attacks. A modest dose response to cherry consumption was reported, with benefit observed with 4 or more servings per day.Zhang 2012

The 2012 American College of Rheumatology guideline for the management of gout notes that a variety of complementary or alternative medicine regimens, including cherry juice, are inappropriate for the management of an acute gout attack.Khanna 2012, Khanna 2012 This guideline is due for update in 2019.

Hematological parameters

Clinical data

Healthy volunteers consuming a sour cherry seed extract preparation showed hematological changes, including increased mean cell volume, serum transferrin, and mean peroxidase index, and decreases in circulating neutrophils and ferritin levels. The study sample size was too small to make clinical inferences.Csiki 2015

Dental carries

Clinical data

Sour cherry fruit extract decreased levels of Streptococcus mutans in human saliva and also reduced salivary alpha-amylase activity.Homoki 2018

Dosing

Limited clinical trials have evaluated oral administration of various formulations of sour cherry juice, juice blend, or concentrate, the majority of which were made from Montmorency cherries. Anthocyanin concentrations varied among products and formulations.

Clinical trials evaluating use in a variety of conditions (eg, arthritis, muscle strength recovery in athletes, insomnia) employed juice or juice blend dosages ranging from 240 to 360 mL twice daily (anthocyanins 60 to 180 mg/day) for up to 6 weeks. The most common volume of concentrate used was 30 mL twice daily; treatment durations varied and concentrate was typically diluted before administration.Howatson 2012, Kuehl 2012, Losso 2018, Pigeon 2010, Schumacher 2013, Vitale 2017

A phase 1 clinical trial evaluated topical application of a sour cherry seed extract emulsion in adults with osteoarthritis.Mahmoud 2015

Pregnancy / Lactation

Sour cherry has GRAS status when used as food. Avoid dosages above those found in food because safety and efficacy are unproven.

A study in mice reported an increased expression of progesterone receptors and of hyaluronan synthase within cumulus cells as a result of sour cherry consumption, as well as an increased oocyte fertilization rate. The study did not identify whether the whole fruit was used or the fleshy parts only.Namvar Vansofla 2016

Interactions

Case reports are lacking. The potential for alterations in hematological laboratory indices (mean cell volume, serum transferrin, and neutrophil and ferritin levels) may exist due to consumption of sour cherry seed extract.Csiki 2015

In vitro, sour cherry juice inhibited monoamine oxidase A.Casedas 2016

A case report theorized the potentiation of adverse effects of anti-inflammatory COX inhibitors by cherry juice concentrate.Luciano 2014

Adverse Reactions

Allergy to cherries, including anaphylaxis has been reported.ACAAI 2006, Escribano 1996 In patients with oral allergy syndrome, crossreactivity has been reported between apricot, cherry, and plum.ACAAI 2006

In clinical studies, sour cherry fruit juice and the concentrate were generally well tolerated.Schumacher 2013

A case of reversible acute renal failure was attributed to daily ingestion of cherry juice concentrate. An elderly man with stage 3 nonproteinuric chronic kidney disease (epidermal growth factor receptor [eGFR] 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) was hospitalized with hyperkalemia (6 mEq/L) and an acute decline in renal function (eGFR 16 mL/min/1.73 m2). The only recognized change in the patient's routine was that a month earlier, he started drinking 60 to 120 mL of cherry juice concentrate daily to prevent gout. After discontinuation of the cherry juice concentrate, renal function gradually returned to baseline over the following month. The case report did not indicate whether the product consumed was a concentrate of sweet or sour cherries. It reported the anthocyanin content to be 6 mg per 30 mL. The authors proposed that inhibition of renal COX enzymes by anthocyanins in the cherry juice concentrate led to a decrease in renal prostaglandin function, analogous to reversible renal impairment induced by NSAIDs.Luciano 2014

Toxicology

Data regarding toxicity with clinical use of sour cherry fruit products are limited. Limited studies evaluating toxicity of the seed extract report no adverse effects in rodents or healthy volunteers based on kidney and liver function evaluations.Csiki 2015

Index Terms

  • Cerasus avium
  • Cerasus vulgaris Mill.
  • Prunus avium

References

American College of Allergy, Asthma, Immunology. Food allergy: a practice parameter. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006;96(3)(suppl 2):S1-S68.
Azaryan E, Malekaneh M, Shemshadi Nejad M, Haghighi F. Therapeutic effects of aqueous extracts of Cerasus avium stem on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats. Urol J. 2017;14(4):4024-4029.28670670
Bajerska J, Mildner-Szkudlarz S, Górnaś P, Seglina D. The effects of muffins enriched with sour cherry pomace on acceptability, glycemic response, satiety and energy intake: a randomized crossover trial. J Sci Food Agric. 2016;96(7):2486-2493.26250501
Bell PG, Stevenson E, Davison GW, Howatson G. The effects of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate supplementation on recovery following prolonged, intermittent exercise. Nutrients. 2016;8(7).27455316
Bell PG, Walshe IH, Davison GW, Stevenson EJ, Howatson G. Recovery facilitation with Montmorency cherries following high-intensity, metabolically challenging exercise. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2015;40(4):414-423.25794236
Bialasiewicz P, Prymont-Przyminska A, Zwolinska A, et al. Sour cherries but not apples added to the regular diet decrease resting and fMLP-stimulated chemiluminescence of fasting whole blood in healthy subjects. J Am Coll Nutr. 2018;37(1):24-33.28985142
Brown MA, Stevenson EJ, Howatson G. Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) supplementation accelerates recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage in females. Eur J Sport Sci. 2018:1-8.3005846010.1080/17461391.2018.1502360
Burkhardt S, Tan DX, Manchester LC, Hardeland R, Reiter RJ. Detection and quantification of the antioxidant melatonin in Montmorency and Balaton tart cherries (Prunus cerasus). J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49(10):4898-4902.11600041
Cásedas G, Les F, Gómez-Serranillos MP, Smith C, López V. Bioactive and functional properties of sour cherry juice (Prunus cerasus). Food Funct. 2016;7(11):4675-4682.27775125
Chai SC, Davis K, Wright RS, Kuczmarski MF, Zhang Z. Impact of tart cherry juice on systolic blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Food Funct. 2018;9(6):3185-3194.29862410
Coelho Rabello Lima L, Oliveira Assumpção C, Prestes J, Sérgio Denadai B. Consumption of cherries as a strategy to attenuate exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation in humans. Nutr Hosp. 2015;32(5):1885-1893.26545642
Csiki Z, Papp-Bata A, Czompa A, et al. Orally delivered sour cherry seed extract (SCSE) affects cardiovascular and hematological parameters in humans. Phytother Res. 2015;29(3):444-449.25640007
Czompa A, Gyongyosi A, Czegledi A, et al. Cardioprotection afforded by sour cherry seed kernel: the role of heme oxygenase-1. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2014;64(5):412-419.24949584
Desai T, Bottoms L, Roberts M. The effects of Montmorency tart cherry juice supplementation and FATMAX exercise on fat oxidation rates and cardio-metabolic markers in healthy humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2018;118(12):2523-2539.30173287
Dimitriou L, Hill JA, Jehnali A, et al. Influence of a Montmorency cherry juice blend on indices of exercise-induced stress and upper respiratory tract symptoms following marathon running--a pilot investigation. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12:22.25983669
Ensminger ME, Ensminger AH. Foods and Nutrition Encyclopedia. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1993:386-389.
Escribano MM, Muñoz FJ, Velázouez E, González J, Conde J. Anaphylactic reaction caused by cherry ingestion. Allergy. 1996;51(10):756-757.8905007
Ferretti G, Bacchetti T, Belleggia A, Neri D. Cherry antioxidants: from farm to table. Molecules. 2010;15(10):6993-7005.20944519
Gelber AC, Solomon DH. If life serves up a bowl of cherries, and gout attacks are "the pits": implications for therapy. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64(12):3827-3830.23023794
Haidari F Jr, Mohammad Shahi M, Keshavarz SA, Rashidi MR. Inhibitory effects of tart cherry (Prunus cerasus) juice on xanthine oxidoreductase activity and its hypouricemic and antioxidant effects on rats. Malays J Nutr. 2009;15(1):53-64.22691805
He YH, Zhou J, Wang YS, et al. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of cherries on Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Scand J Rheumatol. 2006;35(5):356-358.17062434
Homoki J, Gyémánt G, Balogh P, et al. Sour cherry extract inhibits human salivary α-amylase and growth of Streptococcus mutans (a pilot clinical study). Food Funct. 2018;9(7):4008-4016.29978173
Howatson G, Bell PG, Tallent J, Middleton B, McHugh MP, Ellis J. Effect of tart cherry juice (Prunus cerasus) on melatonin levels and enhanced sleep quality. Eur J Nutr. 2012;51(8):909-916.22038497
Jacob RA, Spinozzi GM, Simon VA, et al. Consumption of cherries lowers plasma urate in healthy women. J Nutr. 2003;133(6):1826-1829.12771324
Keane KM, Bailey SJ, Vanhatalo A, Jones AM, Howatson G. Effects of Montmorency tart cherry (L. Prunus cerasus) consumption on nitric oxide biomarkers and exercise performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2018;28(7):1746-1756.29566443
Keane KM, George TW, Constantinou CL, Brown MA, Clifford T, Howatson G. Effects of Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) consumption on vascular function in men with early hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103(6):1531-1539.27146650
Keane KM, Bell PG, Lodge JK, et al. Phytochemical uptake following human consumption of Montmorency tart cherry (L. Prunus cerasus) and influence of phenolic acids on vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. Eur J Nutr. 2016;55(4):1695-1705.26163338
Keane KM, Haskell-Ramsay CF, Veasey RC, Howatson G. Montmorency tart cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) modulate vascular function acutely, in the absence of improvement in cognitive performance. Br J Nutr. 2016;116(11):1935-1944.27989253
Kent K, Charlton K, Roodenrys S, et al. Consumption of anthocyanin-rich cherry juice for 12 weeks improves memory and cognition in older adults with mild-to-moderate dementia. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56(1):333-341.26482148
Khanna D, Fitzgerald JD, Khanna PP, et al; American College of Rheumatology. 2012 American College of Rheumatology guidelines for management of gout. Part 1: systematic nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapeutic approaches to hyperuricemia. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012;64(10):1431-1446.23024028
Khanna D, Khanna PP, Fitzgerald JD, et al; American College of Rheumatology. 2012 American College of Rheumatology guidelines for management of gout. Part 2: therapy and anti-inflammatory prophylaxis of acute gouty arthritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012;64(10):1447-1461.23024029
Khoo GM, Clausen MR, Pedersen BH, Larsen E. Bioactivity of sour cherry cultivars grown in Denmark. Phytother Res. 2012;26(9):1348-1351.22294298
Kuehl KS, Sleigh AE, Smith JL. Efficacy of tart cherry juice to reduce inflammation biomarkers among women with inflammatory osteoarthritis (OA). J Food Studies. 2012;1(1):14-25.
Le Phuong Nguyen T, Fenyvesi F, Remenyik J, et al. Protective effect of pure sour cherry anthocyanin extract on cytokine-induced inflammatory caco-2 monolayers. Nutrients. 2018;10(7).2997086910.3390/nu10070861
Levers K, Dalton R, Galvan E, et al. Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on acute endurance exercise performance in aerobically trained individuals. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016;13:22.27231439
Levers K, Dalton R, Galvan E, et al. Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on an acute bout of intense lower body strength exercise in resistance trained males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12:41.26578852
Losso JN, Finley JW, Karki N, et al. Pilot study of the tart cherry juice for the treatment of insomnia and investigation of mechanisms. Am J Ther. 2018;25(2):e194-e201.28901958
Luciano RL. Acute kidney injury from cherry concentrate in a patient with CKD. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014;63(3):503-505.24290246
Mahmoud F, Haines D, Al-Awadhi R, et al. Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed extract increases heme oxygenase-1 expression and decreases proinflammatory signaling in peripheral blood human leukocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients. Int Immunopharmacol. 2014;20(1):188-196.24631368
Mahmoud FF, Al-Awadhi AM, Haines DD. Amelioration of human osteoarthritis symptoms with topical 'biotherapeutics': a phase I human trial. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2015;20(2):267-276.25427747
McCormick R, Peeling P, Binnie M, Dawson B, Sim M. Effect of tart cherry juice on recovery and next day performance in well-trained Water Polo players. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016;13:41.27895542
Mulabagal V, Lang GA, DeWitt DL, Dalavoy SS, Nair MG. Anthocyanin content, lipid peroxidation and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory activities of sweet and sour cherries. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57(4):1239-1246.19199585
Namvar Vansofla F, Roshangar L, Montaseri A, Soleimani Rad J. Impact of Prunus cerasus on PGR and HAS2 in cumulus cells and fertility outcome. Adv Pharm Bull. 2016;6(1):65-69.27123419
Nguyen TLP, Fenyvesi F, Remenyik J, et al. Protective effect of pure sour cherry anthocyanin extract on cytokine-induced inflammatory caco-2 monolayers. Nutrients. 2018;10:861.10.3390/nu10070861
Osol A, et al. The Dispensatory of the United States of America. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott Co; 1960:272-273.
Ou B, Bosak KN, Brickner PR, Iezzoni DG, Seymour EM. Processed tart cherry products--comparative phytochemical content, in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. J Food Sci. 2012;77(5):H105-H112.23163942
Papp N, Blázovics A, Fébel H, et al. Antihyperlipidemic effects of sour cherries characterized by different in vitro antioxidant power and polyphenolic composition. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2015;70(4):408-413.26449220
Pigeon WR, Carr M, Gorman C, Perlis ML. Effects of a tart cherry juice beverage on the sleep of older adults with insomnia: a pilot study. J Med Food. 2010;13(3):579-583.20438325
Prunus cerasus L. Sour Cherry. USDA, NRCS. 2018. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 2018). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.
Saleh FA, El-Darra N, Raafat K. Hypoglycemic effects of Prunus cerasus L. pulp and seed extracts on alloxan-induced diabetic mice with histopathological evaluation. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;88:870-877.28178616
Sarić A, Sobocanec S, Balog T, et al. Improved antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in mice consuming sour cherry juice (Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska). Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2009;64(4):231-237.19763832
Schlesinger N, Rabinowitz R, Schlesinger M. Pilot studies of cherry juice concentrate for gout flare prophylaxis. J Arthritis. 2012;1(1):1-5.
Schumacher HR, Pullman-Mooar S, Gupta SR, Dinnella JE, Kim R, McHugh MP. Randomized double-blind crossover study of the efficacy of a tart cherry juice blend in treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013;21(8):1035-1041.23727631
Seeram NP, Momin RA, Nair MG, Bourquin LD. Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant cyanidin glycosides in cherries and berries. Phytomedicine. 2001;8(5):362-369.11695879
Snyder SM, Zhao B, Luo T, et al. Consumption of quercetin and quercetin-containing apple and cherry extracts affects blood glucose concentration, hepatic metabolism, and gene expression patterns in obese C57BL/6J high fat-fed mice. J Nutr. 2016;146(5):1001-1007.27052533
Sour Cherry. In Kiple KF, Ornela KC, eds. Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge UK; 2000.
Szalóki-Dorkó L, Végvári G, Ladányi M, Ficzek G, Stéger-Máté M. Degradation of anthocyanin content in sour cherry juice during heat treatment. Food Technol Biotechnol. 2015;53(3):354-360.27904369
Tall JM, Seeram NP, Zhao C, Nair MG, Meyer RA, Raja SN. Tart cherry anthocyanins suppress inflammation-induced pain behavior in rat. Behav Brain Res. 2004;153(1):181-188.15219719
Varga B, Priksz D, Lampé N, et al. Protective effect of Prunus cerasus (sour cherry) seed extract on the recovery of ischemia/reperfusion-induced retinal damage in Zucker diabetic fatty rat. Molecules. 2017;22(10).29065463
Vitale KC, Hueglin S, Broad E. Tart cherry juice in athletes: A literature review and commentary. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2017;16(4):230-239.28696985
Walzer SM, Weinmann D, Toegel S. Medical plant extracts for treating knee osteoarthritis: A snapshot of recent clinical trials and their biological background. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2015;17(8):54.26163305
Wang H, Nair MG, Strasburg GM, Booren AM, Gray JI. Novel antioxidant compounds from tart cherries (Prunus cerasus). J Nat Prod. 1999;62(1):86-88.9917288
Yılmaz FM, Görgüç A, Karaaslan M, et al. Sour cherry by-products: Compositions, functional properties and recovery potentials - a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2018:1-15.3004043810.1080/10408398.2018.1496901
Zhang Y, Neogi T, Chen C, Chaisson C, Hunter DJ, Choi HK. Cherry consumption and decreased risk of recurrent gout attacks. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64(12):4004-4011.23023818

Disclaimer

This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product.

This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Hide