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Savory

Scientific Name(s): Satureja hortensis L. (summer savory), Satureja khuzestanica, Satureja macrostema, Satureja montana L. (winter savory), Satureja thymbra
Common Name(s): Savory, Summer savory, Winter savory

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Feb 14, 2019.

Clinical Overview

Use

In addition to being widely used as a condiment, savory has antispasmodic, antidiarrheal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemotherapeutic properties, although data supporting these properties are mostly limited to in vitro and in vivo studies.

Dosing

Limited clinical evidence is available to support specific doses of savory for therapeutic use.

Contraindications

Contraindications have not yet been identified.

Pregnancy/Lactation

Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.

Interactions

None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Research reveals little or no information regarding adverse reactions with the use of savory.

Toxicology

Savory is not associated with any significant toxicity.

Scientific Family

  • Lamiaceae (mint)

Botany

The genus Satureja L. contains over 30 species. S. montana contains numerous subspecies, and there is much variability in morphologic characteristics with the species S. montana L. The various species within the genus Satureja hortensis L. are primarily located in the eastern part of the Mediterranean region, but can be found throughout many parts of the world. Summer savory is an annual herb with oblong leaves that grow to about 0.7 m in height. Winter savory is a perennial shrub that grows to about the same height; the leaves of winter savory share some common characteristics with summer savory. Flowers of both species are pink to blue-white and flower from June to September.Schauenberg 1990, Simon 1984, Slavkovska 2001, USDA 2016 Synonyms include Calamintha hortensis Hort. (summer savory), and Satureja obovata Lag. and Calamintha montana (winter savory).

History

The savories have been used for centuries as cooking herbs and have flavors reminiscent of oregano and thyme. Because the flavor of summer savory is somewhat sweeter than that of winter savory, summer savory is used almost exclusively in commerce. The green leaves and stems, both fresh and dried, along with extracts, are used as flavors in the baking and food industries.Duke 2003, Simon 1984 The oil has been reported to possess an antidiuretic effect due to carvacrol.Duke 2003 Teas made with savory have been used traditionally in Europe to treat excessive thirst in diabetic patients, a use that may have some pharmacologic basis.Tyler 1987

Tertiary resources document both summer and winter savory having a history of use in traditional medicine as tonics, carminatives, astringents, and expectorants, and for the treatment of intestinal problems such as diarrhea and nausea. However, the scientific literature primarily documents S. hortensis as a folk remedy in treating various ailments such as cramps, muscle pains, nausea, indigestion, diarrhea, and infectious diseases. Tertiary resources also document summer savory as being an aphrodisiac, while winter savory is said to decrease libido.Duke 2003, Schauenberg 1990

Chemistry

Dried summer savory contains approximately 1% of a volatile oil composed primarily of carvacrol, thymol, and monoterpene hydrocarbons such as beta-pinene, p-cymene, limonene, and camphene. The leaves contain a variety of minor components including minerals and vitamins.

Winter savory contains about 1.6% of a volatile oil. Some authors document the dominant components of the oil as caryophyllene and geraniol or as carvacrol. Multiple compounds contained in the oil have been described in several reviews.Hamidpour 2014, Tepe 2016 The major compound was phenolic monoterpene thymol followed by monoterpenic hydrocarbons p-cymene, gamma-terpinene, oxygen-containing compounds carvacrol methyl ether, thymol methyl ether, carvacrol, geraniol, and borneol. It also contains triterpenic acids including ursolic and oleanolic acids. The relative composition of the volatile oil varies with location of cultivation, the species, and the strain.De Vincenzi 2004, Duke 2003, Khan 2009, Radonic 2003, Slavkovska 2001

Uses and Pharmacology

Anti-inflammatory activity

Animal data

S. hortensis polyphenolic fraction was observed to significantly inhibit carrageenan-induced rat paw edema.Babajafari 2015, Hajhashemi 2002, Uslu 2003 Significant anti-inflammatory effects were also noted with the hydroalcoholic extract and essential oils of S. khuzestanica. Similar anti-inflammatory activity to that of indomethacin was observed in a dose-dependent manner in rats given a single dose of 10 to 150 mg/kg, while the number of mucosal mast cells and inflammatory cells decreased significantly when essential oils were administered at 225 mg/kg for 28 days.Babajafari 2015

Clinical data

Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of Satureja species as anti-inflammatory agents.

Antioxidant activity

Animal studies

Reviews report antioxidant activity for extracts of various Satureja species, based on in vitro and animal studies.Babajafari 2015, Hamidpour 2014, Hansani-Ranjbar 2010, Jafari 2016, Safarnavadeh 2011, Tepe 2016

Clinical data

A small clinical study (n=21) evaluated the effects of 250 mg/day of dried S. khuzestanica leaves administered orally for 60 days to hyperlipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes with a mean age of 50 years. No change in lipid peroxidation compared to baseline levels was reported, while improved total antioxidant power as measured by ferric-reducing ability was found.Babajafari 2015, Vosough-Ghanbari 2010

Diabetes

Animal data

Several review articles of animal studies have evaluated the effectiveness of savory species in lowering blood glucose.Babajafari 2015, Hamidpour 2014, Jafari 2016, Tepe 2016

Clinical data

In a small clinical trial (n = 21) conducted in people with type 2 diabetes, 250 mg/day dried leaves of S. khuzestanica given for 60 days produced insignificant changes in blood glucose as compared with baseline indices.Vosough-Ghanbari 2010

Dyslipidemia

Animal data

Several review articles of animal studies have evaluated the effectiveness of savory species in dyslipidemia.Babajafari 2015, Hamidpour 2014, Hansani-Ranjbar 2010, Jafari 2016

Clinical data

In a small clinical trial (n = 21) conducted in people with type 2 diabetes, 250 mg/day dried leaves of S. khuzestanica given for 60 days produced significant improvements in low-density lipoprotein-, high density lipoprotein-, and total cholesterol as well as total antioxidant power. Blood glucose, triglycerides, creatinine, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were not altered.Vosough-Ghanbari 2010

Other uses

Vasodilatory properties have been suggested in limited studies and inhibition of platelet adhesion and aggregation has been reported in a single study.Babajafari 2015, Hamidpour 2014, Tepe 2016

Extracts of the Satureja plant species have demonstrated antimicrobial activity including antifungal and antiviral activity.Ciani 2000, Güllüce 2003, Sahin 2003, Yamasaki 1998 In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial (n = 80), the essential oil of S. hortensis applied as a 1% gel twice daily for 2 weeks was observed to reduce candida-related oral lesions.Sabzghabaee 2012

S. hortensis essential oil was shown to reduce ileum contraction and mediate the response of acetylcholine.Hajhashemi 2000 Furthermore, inhibition of castor oil-induced diarrhea qualitatively similar to dicyclomine were reported.Hajhashemi 2000, Khan 2009, Simon 1984

S. montana in combination with other natural products has been evaluated for it's effect on premature ejaculation,Sansalone 2016 while a review of oral antioxidants in infertility suggests the extracts of savory species may improve sperm quality.Safarnavadeh 2011

Cytotoxic activity has been reported based on in vitro studies.Babajafari 2015, Hamidpour 2014, Jafari 2016, Tepe 2016

Dosing

Limited clinical studies have been conducted on which to provide specific doses of savory for therapeutic use. The herb is widely used in foods as a condiment and seasoning.

Pregnancy / Lactation

Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.

Interactions

None well documented. A single study reported inhibition of platelet aggregation.Babajafari 2015, Hamidpour 2014, Tepe 2016

Adverse Reactions

Research reveals little or no information regarding adverse reactions with the use of savory.

The oil is strongly irritating in animal skin models, but is not phototoxic.Khan 2009 In diluted form, the oil is not irritating to human skin.

Toxicology

Savory is generally recognized as safe for use as a condiment and flavoring. When applied undiluted to the backs of hairless mice, summer savory oil was lethal to half of the animals within 48 hours.Khan 2009

Index Terms

  • Calamintha hortensis Hort.
  • Calamintha montana
  • Satureja obovata Lag.

References

Babajafari S, Nikaein F, Mazloomi SM, Zibaeenejad MJ, Zargaran A. A review of the benefits of Satureja species on metabolic syndrome and their possible mechanisms of action. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2015;20(3):212-223.25563729
Ciani M, Menghini L, Mariani F, Pagiotti R, Menghini A, Fatichenti F. Antimicrobial properties of essential oil of Satureja montana L. on pathogenic and spoilage yeasts. Biotechnol Lett. 2000;22:1007-1010.
De Vincenzi M, Stammati A, De Vincenzi A, Silano M. Constituents of aromatic plants: carvacrol. Fitoterapia. 2004;75(7-8):801-804.15567271
Duke JA. CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2003.
Güllüce M, Sökmen M, Daferera D, et al. In vitro antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of herbal parts and callus cultures of Satureja hortensis L. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51(14):3958-3965.12822930
Hajhashemi V, Ghannadi A, Pezeshkian SK. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Satureja hortensis L. extracts and essential oil. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;82(2-3):83-87.12241981
Hajhashemi V, Sadraei H, Ghannadi AR, Mohseni M. Antispasmodic and anti-diarrhoeal effect of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;71(1-2):187-192.10904162
Hamidpour R, Hamidpour S, Hamidpour M, et al. Summer savory: from the selection of traditional applications to the novel effect in relief, prevention, and treatment of a number of serious illnesses such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer. J Tradit Complement Med. 2014;4(3):140-144.25161917
Hansani-Ranjbar S, Nayebi N, Moradi L, Mehri A, Larijani B, Abdollahi M. The efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; a systematic review. Curr Pharmaceutical Des. 2010;16(26):2935-294720858178
Jafari F, Ghavidel F, Zarshenas MM. A critical overview on the pharmacological and clinical aspects of popular Satureja species. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2016;9(3):118-127.27342885
Khan IA, Abourashed EA. Leung's Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics. 3rd Ed. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley; 2009.
Radonic A, Milos M. Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant effect of free volatile compounds from Satureja montana L. Free Radic Res. 2003;37(6):673-679.12868494
Sabzghabaee AM, Davoodi N, Ebadian B, Aslani A, Ghannadi A. Clinical evaluation of the essential oil of "Satureja Hortensis" for the treatment of denture stomatitis. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2012;9(2):198-202.22623938
Safarnavadeh T, Rastegarpanah M. Antioxidants and infertility treatment, the role of Satureja khuzestanica: A mini-systematic review. Iran J Reprod Med. 2011;9(2):61-70.25587249
Sahin F, Karaman I, Güllüce M, et al. Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of Satureja hortensis L. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;87(1):61-65.12787955
Sansalone S, Russo GI, Mondaini N, Cantiello F, Antonini G, Cai T. A combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts is able to improve sexual quality of life in patient with premature ejaculation. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2016;88(3):171-176.27711088
Satureja species. USDA, NRCS. 2016. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, January 2017). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.
Schauenberg P, Paris F. Guide To Medicinal Plants. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing; 1990.
Simon JE. Herbs: An Indexed Bibliography, 1971-1980. Hamden, CT: Shoe String Press; 1984.
Slavkovska V, Jancic R, Bojovic S, Milosavljevic S, Djokovic D. Variability of essential oils of Satureja montana L. and Satureja kitaibelii Wierzb. ex Heuff. from the central part of the Balkan peninsula. Phytochemistry. 2001;57(1):71-76.11336264
Tepe B, Cilkiz M. A pharmacological and phytochemical overview on Satureja. Pharm Biol. 2016;54(3):375-412.25955956
Tyler VE. The New Honest Herbal. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: G.F. Stickley Co.; 1987.
Uslu C, Murat Karasen R, Sahin F, Taysi S, Akcay F. Effects of aqueous extracts of Satureja hortensis L. on rhinosinusitis treatment in rabbit. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;88(2-3):225-228.12963147
Vosough-Ghanbari S, Rahimi R, Kharabaf S, et al. Effects of Satureja khuzestanica on serum glucose, lipids and markers of oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2010;7(4):465-470.18955324
Yamasaki K, Nakano M, Kawahata T, et al. Anti-HIV-1 activity of herbs in Labiatae. Biol Pharm Bull. 1998;21(8):829-833.9743251

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