Skip to main content

Sacred Lotus

Scientific Name(s): Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.
Common Name(s): Chinese water lily, Indian lotus, Kamala, Lotus plumule, Padma, Sacred lotus

Medically reviewed by Last updated on Jun 1, 2022.

Clinical Overview


Sacred lotus has been investigated (primarily in vitro and in animal studies) for various activities, including antioxidant, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, anti-infective, hyperlipidemic, and psychopharmacologic. However, clinical trial data are lacking to recommend use for any indication.


Clinical trials are lacking to provide dosing recommendations for sacred lotus.


Avoid use if hypersensitivity exists to any constituents of sacred lotus. A case of anaphylactic reaction has been reported.


Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.


None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Due to potential for drug interactions, sacred lotus should be used cautiously in individuals receiving treatment for diabetes, high cholesterol, psychiatric or cardiac conditions, or erectile dysfunction.


No data. The plant species may contain high levels of cadmium, copper, and lead.

Scientific Family


N. nucifera is an aquatic plant native to eastern Asia and northern Australia.(Kreunen 1999, Masuda 2006, Mukherjee 2009) The plant has long stems with leaves and flowers, requires plenty of space and sun, and grows up to 5.7 m in height. The ovoid fruit is a collection of indehiscent nutlets growing 1 m in length and 1.5 cm in width, with a brown to black pericarp. The seeds fill the innermost portion of the flower. The chemical composition of the fruit wall and seed coat enhances the longevity of the fruits.(Van Bergen 1997) The leaves are either aerial and cup-shaped or floating and flat, with the aerial leaves ranging from 24 to 33 cm in length, and the floating leaves ranging from 23 to 30 cm. The leaves are large in diameter, ranging from 20 to 90 cm.(Mukherjee 2009) The white to pinkish flowers are solitary and range from 10 to 25 cm in diameter,(Li 2009b) with sepals, petals, and stamens grouped in a spiral pattern. The sacred lotus is the national flower of India and is cultivated for its elegant scent. The white to yellowish brown rhizome is 60 to 140 cm in length and 0.5 to 2.5 cm in diameter, with a tough, fibrous outer layer, dense middle layer, and spongy, inner layer.(Mukherjee 2009, Van Bergen 1997) A synonym of N. nucifera is Nelumbinis plumula.


The sacred lotus has been cultivated in eastern Asia for more than 3,000 years and has been used medicinally, as food, and in religious and cultural activities. The Egyptians worshiped the flowers, fruits, and sepals of the plant, commonly found along the banks of the Nile River. In addition to being consumed throughout the world as a dietary staple, the plant is used ornamentally, and all parts have medicinal uses.(Mukherjee 2009) Sacred lotus has also been used as an ingredient in cosmetics.(Kim 2015)

The seeds and fruits have been used in Asia to treat GI conditions (eg, poor digestion, enteritis, chronic diarrhea), insomnia, cardiovascular disease (eg, heart palpitations, hypertension, arrhythmia), nervous disorders, skin conditions (eg, dermatopathy, leprosy, tissue inflammation), halitosis, cancer, and high fevers; as an antiemetic, poison antidote, and diuretic; and in men's health (eg, spermatorrhea) and women's health (ie, leucorrhea, menorrhagia). The seeds have also been used for hemostasis function. Honey mixed with the seed powder is reputedly useful in treating cough.(Jung 2010, Liao 2008, Mukherjee 2009, Rai 2006, Shim 2009)

The leaf juice has been used to treat diarrhea, and when mixed with a leaf decoction, to treat sunstroke. Alleviation of sweating and fever has been attributed to the diuretic and astringent activities of the leaf extract. Medicinally, the leaves have been used to treat various bleeding conditions, including hematemesis, epistaxis, hemoptysis, hematuria, and metrorrhagia. The leaves and leaf extract have also been used to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia. The stem has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine as an anthelmintic and to treat strangury. Lotus leaf is a major ingredient of antioxidant beverages and teas in China, with annual production exceeding 800,000 tons.(Huang 2010a, Jung 2010, Liao 2008, Mukherjee 2009, Ono 2006, Rai 2006, Shim 2009)

Sacred lotus flowers have traditionally been used to treat various bleeding disorders, cholera, fever, vascular disorders of the liver, hyperdipsia, and abdominal cramps, and as a cardiac tonic. Eye infections have been treated with lotus honey.(Jung 2010, Liao 2008, Mukherjee 2009, Rai 2006, Shim 2009)

The rhizome has been used as a tonic and to treat bleeding disorders (ie, nasal bleeding, hemoptysis, hematuria, bleeding of the uterus) and is included in Chinese herbal formulations to treat cancer, chronic liver cirrhosis, and tissue inflammation. Hemorrhoids, dysentery, and dyspepsia have been treated with powdered formulations of the rhizome. An external paste formulation has been effective in treating scabies and ringworm.(Jung 2010, Liao 2008, Mukherjee 2009, Rai 2006, Shim 2009)


Pharmacologically active constituents have been isolated from the seed, leaf, flower, and rhizome. The chemical constituents include alkaloids, steroids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, and polyphenols, as well as a variety of minerals.(Kunitomo 1973, Lim 2006, Luo 2005, Mukherjee 2009, Nishibe 1986, Zheng 2010)

The seeds are rich in protein, amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, minerals, starch, and tannins. Numerous alkaloids are the major secondary metabolites in the seeds.(Mukherjee 2009, Nishibe 1986) A description of the chemical composition of the seed polysaccharides is also available.(Mukherjee 2009, Van Bergen 1997)

N-nornuciferine, O-nornuciferine, nuciferine, and roemerine are the 4 main aporphine alkaloids responsible for the pharmacological properties of the plant.(Luo 2005) Numerous chemical analyses document a number of alkaloids in the leaves.(Kunitomo 1973, Lim 2006, Luo 2005, Mukherjee 2009, Zheng 2010) Several flavonoids are located in the leaves and stamens; the stamens contain kaempferol and 7 of its glycosides.(Mukherjee 2009) Higenamine, liensinine, dauricine, isoliensinine, neferine, and nuciferine are found in the green embryo of lotus seeds (known as lotus plumule or N. plumula) and exhibit high bioactivity. In 2017, higenamine was added to the World Anti-Doping Agency’s prohibited list as a nonselective beta-2 agonist.(Yang 2021, Yen 2020)

The starch in the rhizomes is comparable with maize and potato starch, with a fresh rhizome containing 31.2% of starch. Vitamin content includes the following: thiamine 0.22 mg per 100 g, riboflavin 0.6 mg per 100 g, niacin 2.1 mg per 100 g, and ascorbic acid 1.5 mg per 100 g. An asparagine-like amino acid (2%) has also been isolated in the rhizomes.(Mukherjee 2009)

Uses and Pharmacology

Numerous pharmacologic analyses of sacred lotus have been performed to investigate use as an antioxidant and hepatoprotective, as well as a treatment for diabetes, infectious disease, and hyperlipidemia. Immunomodulatory and psychopharmacologic activities have also been explored.

Antiarrhythmic effects

Animal data

Neferine antagonized arrhythmias induced by aconitine in rats, by calcium chloride in mice, and by coronary occlusion-reperfusion in dogs. Neferine's antiarrhythmic effect may involve blocking human-ether-à-go-go–related gene channels associated with repolarization of the cardiac action potential.(Gu 2009)

Antifertility effects

Animal data

In mice, antiestrogenic, antiprogestational, and contraceptive activities were observed with a petroleum ether seed extract dose of 3 mg/kg body weight.(Mazumder 1992)

Antifungal/Antibacterial activity

In vitro data

Antifungal activity (against Candida albicans) and antimalarial activity of various leaf constituents have been observed, with no cytotoxicity.(Agnihotri 2008) A rhizome extract had antifungal and antiyeast activity comparable with griseofulvin against 5 different strains of fungi and yeast, including C. albicaus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Trichophytum mentagopyhtes.(Mukherjee 2009) Antibacterial activity has been documented for rhizome extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.(Mukherjee 2009) The leaf extract demonstrated anticariogenic activity most effectively against Streptococcus anginosus and least effectively against Streptococcus oralis, with actions against Streptococcus sobrinus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus criceti, and Streptococcus ratti falling somewhere in between.(Lee 2019)

Antioxidant activity

Although the mechanism is not completely understood, antioxidant activity may be due to the presence of phenolics, alkaloids, and saponins.(Rai 2006)

Animal and in vitro data

Four different chemical analyses document high antioxidant activity of the N. nucifera rhizome knot. A whole rhizome extract had significant scavenging activity for small carbon-centered radicals.(Hu 2002) A hydroalcoholic seed extract exhibited strong free radical scavenging activity in rats comparable with that of standard vitamin E treatment at 50 mg/kg.(Rai 2006) Chemical constituents from the seed pod have lipid auto-oxidative, lipoxygenase, and free radical scavenging activity.(Ling 2005) Lotus germ oil inhibited lipid peroxidation in mouse liver and kidney tissues and blocked autohemolysis of mouse red blood cells in a dose-dependent manner.(Li 2009b) High antioxidant activity was also found in the germ oil in a lipid system (ie, lard peroxidation). The phenolic compounds and tocopherols may contribute to the antioxidant activity of lotus germ oil.(Li 2009b) A leaf methanol extract(Wu 2003) exhibited concentration-dependent antioxidant activity against hemoglobin-induced linoleic acid peroxidation, which may be related to its flavonoid content.(Lin 2009a) The highest antioxidant activity has been demonstrated in vitro with extracts from the stamen, with respective decreasing activity found in old leaf, seed embryo, petal, flower stalk, and then leaf stalk.(Temviriyanukul 2020)

Antipyretic effects

Animal data

In rats, ethanol stalk extract 200 mg/kg reduced normal body temperature for up to 3 hours and for up to 6 hours at 400 mg/kg, activity that was comparable with paracetamol.(Sinha 2000)

Antiviral activity

Animal and in vitro data

Ethanol seed extracts inhibited herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) multiplication in HeLa cells without cytotoxicity by inhibiting gene expression of HSV-1.(Kuo 2005) Alkaloids and flavonoids from ethanol leaf 95% extract had anti-HIV activity.(Kashiwada 2005)

Anti-inflammatory effects

Animal and in vitro data

A methanol rhizome extract at dosages of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg inhibited induced inflammation in rats. The observed anti-inflammatory activity was comparable with that of phenylbutazone and dexamethasone.(Mukherjee 1997a) Kaempferol, isolated from sacred lotus, reduced the influx of cytokines and reactive oxygen species in aged rat gingival tissues.(Kim 2007) Isoliensinine isolated from the seeds reduced bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice, a protective effect associated with antioxidant activity and reduced expression of inflammatory mediators.(Xiao 2005)

In orbital fibroblasts derived from patients with Graves disease, neferine suppressed interleukin 13 (IL-13)–induced autophagy by upregulating nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (antioxidant pathway) as well as IL-13–induced inflammation and adipocyte differentiation.(Li 2021) In an atopic dermatitis mouse model, neferine 3 mg/kg reduced symptoms related to inflammation, producing a response similar to that of dexamethasone 0.2 mg/kg. Inhibition of inflammation and swelling of the spleen was also documented.(Yang 2021)


The mechanism of action in parameters of diabetes may involve reducing release of tumor necrosis factor alpha by activating the gamma peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor as well as decreasing insulin compensatory release from pancreatic islet cells.(Pan 2009) Quercetin and glycosides in the leaves may inhibit lens aldose reductase, an enzyme associated with diabetic complications.(Jung 2008, Lim 2006)

Animal data

An ethanol rhizome extract reduced the blood sugar level of normal rats and glucose-fed hyperglycemic and diabetic (streptozotocin-induced) rats. In normal rats, the rhizome extract improved glucose tolerance and increased the effectiveness of injected insulin. The activity of the extract was comparable with that of the sulfonylurea oral hypoglycemic drug tolbutamide (ie, at 73% and 67% that of tolbutamide in normal and diabetic rats, respectively).(Mukherjee 1997b) Neferine, isolated from the green seed embryo, was comparable with rosiglitazone in enhancing insulin sensitivity and improving fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, and inflammatory cytokines in insulin-resistant rats.(Pan 2009)

Diuretic effects

Animal data

A methanol rhizome extract in rats produced natriuretic and chloruretic activity. Dose-dependent effects were documented in urine volume and electrolyte excretion.(Mukherjee 1996a)

Erectile dysfunction

In vitro data

Neferine isolated from green seed embryo increased the concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate in rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue by inhibiting phosphodiesterase activity.(Chen 2008)

GI effects

Animal data

A rhizome extract was effective in reducing diarrhea in rats.(Talukder 1998)

Hepatoprotective effects

Animal and in vitro data

Ethanol seed extracts exhibited hepatoprotective effects against production of serum enzymes and cytotoxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride. The extract also protected against the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1.(Sohn 2003) Armepavine, an active compound in sacred lotus, has shown antifibrotic effects in rats by activating the anti–NF-kappaB pathway. Armepavine yielded better results compared with silymarin (ie, milk thistle) in reducing certain metabolic parameters in hepatic fibrosis.(Weng 2009) In rats, lotus leaf extract doses of 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg were comparable with silymarin 100 mg/kg against liver-induced injury by carbon tetrachloride.(Huang 2010b)


Animal and in vitro data

In a high-fat diet animal model, a flavonoid-enriched leaf extract produced reductions in blood and liver lipids, lipid peroxidation, release of the liver enzymes AST and ALT, LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio, and lipid accumulation in the liver.(Lin 2009b, Wu 2010) The effect of the leaf extract on high-fat–induced lipid metabolic disorder was comparable with results of silymarin and simvastatin treatment. The flavonoids from the leaf extract may exert antiatherogenic properties by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration.(Ho 2010)

Immunomodulatory effects

Animal and in vitro data

A lotus seed ethanol extract inhibited cell-cycle progression, cytokine gene expression, and cell proliferation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).(Liu 2004) The immunomodulatory activity of (S)-armepavine from sacred lotus includes the following: inhibition of concanavalin A–induced splenocyte proliferation; suppression of cytokine mRNA expression in splenocytes; improved kidney function with reduction of immune complex deposition and glomerular hypercellularity; and reduced autoantibody and T-cell–mediated cytokine production in sera.(Liu 2006, Liu 2007)

(S)-armepavine also inhibits IL-2 and interferon-gamma transcripts in human PBMCs without direct cytotoxicity.(Liu 2006, Liu 2007) Hydroalcoholic rhizome and seed extracts altered total and differential white blood cell counts, improved phagocytosis, and potentiated immune inflammatory reactions.(Mukherjee 2010)

A stamen methanol extract containing kaempferol inhibited key receptors and attenuated immunoglobulin E–mediated allergic reactions.(Shim 2009, Toyoda 1997)


Animal data

The effects of the leaf extract on obesity, digestive enzymes, lipid metabolism, and thermogenesis were studied in mice with high-fat diet–induced obesity. The extract inhibited intestinal absorption of carbohydrates and lipids by inhibiting alpha-amylase and lipase; upregulated lipid metabolism in adipocytes; prevented increases in body weight; and increased thermogenesis.(Ono 2006)

Clinical data

In overweight Chinese participants with a body mass index between 23 and 30 kg/m2 enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, administration of a N. nucifera leaf extract beverage significantly reduced body fat, waist circumference, and visceral fat in men. Visceral fat was reduced by 6.5% and 9.4% (P=0.037, P=0.023) at weeks 6 and 12, respectively, with the 2 g/day dose. In women, body fat also significantly decreased by 10.5% (P=0.009) and by 8.6% (P=0.027) by week 12; however, no significant changes were observed in visceral fat or waist or hip circumference, possibly due to the lower ratio of visceral fat in women participants relative to that in men.(Ye 2021)


Animal data

In a postmenopausal (ovariectomized-induced) osteoporosis mouse model, neferine treatment for 4 weeks resulted in dose-dependent and significant improvements in bone volume and increases in serum alkaline phosphatase.(Chen 2019)

Photoaging effects

In vitro data

Antiphotoaging properties have been demonstrated with lower concentrations of neferine (ie, 0.2 mcM, 0.4 mcM, 0.8 mcM) in an in vitro model using human dermal fibroblasts. In contrast, at higher concentrations, neferine caused cell apoptosis and death.(Khan 2021)

Psychopharmacologic activity

Animal and in vitro data

The alkaloids asimilobine and lirinidine, isolated from the leaves of sacred lotus, inhibited serotonin-induced contraction of rabbit isolated aorta.(Shoji 1987) Neferine from lotus seed embryos may have antidepressant activity, as indicated by its anti-immobility effects in mice in a forced swimming test.(Sugimoto 2010) Neferine is a direct 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT1A) receptor agonist and may inhibit 5-HT reuptake or activation of 5-HT metabolism. The antidepressant effect was comparable with that of maprotiline and imipramine. Allantoin and neferine from the N. nucifera rhizome significantly improved neurogenesis and depressive symptoms in an irradiation-induced depression model in vivo.(Kang 2018)

In mice, a methanol rhizome extract may improve learning and memory by enhancing neurogenesis through increased cell proliferation and cell differentiation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus.(Yang 2008) Sacred lotus seed extract improved scopolamine-induced dementia in rats by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity and inducing choline acetyltransferase expression.(Oh 2009) One study documented cholinesterase inhibitory activities from sacred lotus stamen-derived compounds.(Jung 2010) In vitro, flower and leaf stalk extracts have been observed to have high inhibitory activity against key enzymes relevant to Alzheimer disease (ie, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, beta-secretase).(Temviriyanukul 2020)

Methanol seed extracts containing neferine inhibited locomotor activity at 50 mg/kg and elicited potent effects at 100 mg/kg. Neferine induced sedation, hypothermia, antifever effects, and anxiolytic effects comparable with those of diazepam but via a different mechanism.(Sugimoto 2008) Methanol rhizome extracts also have a minor sedative activity.(Mukherjee 1996b) Leaf extract administered to mice attenuated induced and long-term stress and appeared to have adaptogenic activity comparable with that of diazepam.(Kulkarni 2008)


Clinical trials are lacking to provide dosing recommendations for sacred lotus. Various formulations are available commercially, including powder, tincture, dried petal, seed, and leaf preparations, and combination products (eg, in capsule form).

Hygenamine misuse: Consumption of lotus plumule products was shown to produce higenamine levels that reached the "adverse analytical findings" criterion for doping according to the World Anti-Doping Agency. Within 3 hours of consuming lotus plumule extract powder that contained 679.6 mcg of higenamine per dose, urine specimens in 4 of 6 participants reached the positivity criterion of 10 ng/mL. Urinary concentrations of higenamine increased over the 3-day regimen.(Yen 2020)

Pregnancy / Lactation

Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.


Sacred lotus may interact with drugs used to treat diabetes, liver conditions, and infections, as well as with lipid-lowering, psychotropic, cardiac, or erectile dysfunction medications.

The glucose-lowering effect of metformin was reduced in mice with coadministration of nuciferine. A concentration-dependent reduction in the hepatic intracellular accumulation of metformin was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism involved inhibition of the organic cation transporter 1 and multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 hepatic enzymes.(Li 2018)

Adverse Reactions

Due to potential drug interactions, sacred lotus should be used cautiously in individuals receiving treatment for diabetes, high cholesterol, psychiatric or cardiac conditions, or erectile dysfunction.

Avoid use if hypersensitivity exists to any constituents of sacred lotus. A case of anaphylactic reaction has been reported.(Nishimura-Tagui 2020)


In acute toxicity studies in mice, no mortality or behavioral changes were observed with an alcoholic seed extract at a dose up to 1,000 mg/kg body weight for 24 hours.(Rai 2006) The plant species may contain high levels of cadmium, copper, and lead.(Ebrahimpour 2008)

In 2017, higenamine was added to the World Anti-Doping Agency's prohibited list as a nonselective beta-2 agonist.(Yang 2021, Yen 2020)



This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product.

This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age.

More about sacred lotus

Related treatment guides

Agnihotri VK, ElSohly HN, Khan SI, et al. Constituents of Nelumbo nucifera leaves and their antimalarial and antifungal activity. Phytochem Lett. 2008;1(2):89-93. doi:10.1016/j.phytol.2008.03.00329152009
Chen J, Liu JH, Wang T, Xiao HJ, Yin CP, Yang J. Effects of plant extract neferine on cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels in rabbit corpus cavernosum in vitro. Asian J Androl. 2008;10(2):307-312. doi:10.1111/j.1745-7262.2008.00342.x18097520
Chen S, Chu B, Chen Y, et al. Neferine suppresses osteoclast differentiation through suppressing NF-κB signal pathway but not MAPKs and promote osteogenesis. J Cell Physiol. 2019;234(12):22960-22971. doi:10.1002/jcp.2885731127627
Ebrahimpour M, Mushrifah I. Heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, and Pb) in five aquatic plant species in Tasik China, Malaysia. Environ Geol. 2008;54(4):689-698.
Gu DF, Li XL, Qi ZP, et al. Blockade of HERG K+ channel by isoquinoline alkaloid neferine in the stable transfected HEK293 cells. Naunyn Schmeidebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2009;380(2):143-151. doi:10.1007/s00210-009-0419-719424681
Ho HH, Hsu LS, Chan KC, Chen HM, Wu CH, Wang CJ. Extract from the leaf of nucifera reduced the development of atherosclerosis via inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48(1):159-168. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2009.09.03319799955
Hu M, Skibsted L. Antioxidative capacity of rhizome extract and rhizome knot extract of edible lotus (Nelumbo nuficera). Food Chem. 2002;76(3):327-333.
Huang B, Ban X, He J, Tong J, Tian J, Wang Y. Comparative analysis of essential oil components and antioxidant activity of extracts of Nelumbo nucifera from various areas of China. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58(1):441-448. doi:10.1021/jf902643e19919095
Huang B, Ban X, He J, Tong J, Tian J, Wang Y. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of edible lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) leaves. Food Chem. 2010;120(3):873-878.
Jung HA, Jung YJ, Hyun SK, et al. Selective cholinesterase inhibitory activities of a new monoterpene diglycoside and other constituents from Nelumbo nucifera stamens. Biol Pharm Bull. 2010;33(2):267-272. doi:10.1248/bpb.33.26720118551
Jung HA, Jung YJ, Yoon NY, et al. Inhibitory effects of Nelumbo nucifera leaves on rat lens aldose reductase, advanced glycation endproducts formation, and oxidative stress. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46(12):3818-3826. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2008.10.00418952135
Kang J, Kim W, Seo H, et al. Radiation-induced overexpression of transthyretin inhibits retinol-mediated hippocampal neurogenesis. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):8394. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-26762-129849106
Kashiwada Y, Aoshima A, Ikeshiro Y, et al. Anti-HIV benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and flavonoids from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera, and structure-activity correlations with related alkaloids. Bioorg Med Chem. 2005;13(2):443-448. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2004.10.02015598565
Khan A, Bai H, Shu M, Chen M, Khan A, Bai Z. Antioxidative and antiphotoaging activities of neferine upon UV-A irradiation in human dermal fibroblasts. Biosci Rep. 2018;38(6):BSR20181414. Erratum in: Biosci Rep. 2021;41(7). doi:10.1042/BSR2018141430355644
Kim HK, Park HR, Lee JS, Chung TS, Chung HY, Chung J. Down-regulation of iNOS and TNF-alpha expression by kaempferol via NF-kappaB inactivation in aged rat gingival tissues. Biogerontology. 2007;8(4):399-408. doi:10.1007/s10522-007-9083-917278014
Kim SY, Moon GS. Photoprotective effect of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seed tea against UVB irradiation. Prev Nutr Food Sci. 2015;20(3):162-168. doi:10.3746/pnf.2015.20.3.16226451352
Kreunen SS, Osborn JM. Pollen and anther development in Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae). Am J Bot. 1999;86(12):1662-1676.10602759
Kulkarni MP, Juvekar AR. Attenuation of acute and chronic restraint stress-induced perturbations in experimental animals by Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2008;70(3):327-332. doi:10.4103/0250-474X.4298220046740
Kunitomo J, Yoshikawa Y, Tanaka S, Imori Y, Isol K, Masada K, et al. Alkaloids of Nelumbo nucifera. Phytochemistry. 1973;12(3):699-701.
Kuo YC, Lin YL, Liu CP, Tsai WJ. Herpes simplex virus type 1 propagation in HeLa cells interrupted by Nelumbo nucifera. J Biomed Sci. 2005;12(6):1021-1034. doi:10.1007/s11373-005-9001-616132118
Lee HE, Han MS, Nam SH. Anticariogenic activity of Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract in oral healthcare. Technol Health Care. 2019;27(5):487-497. doi:10.3233/THC-191732.31127738
Li H, Gao L, Min J, Yang Y, Zhang R. Neferine suppresses autophagy-induced inflammation, oxidative stress and adipocyte differentiation in Graves' orbitopathy. J Cell Mol Med. 2021;25(4):1949-1957. doi:10.1111/jcmm.1593133443817
Li J, Zhang M, Zheng T. The in vitro antioxidant activity of lotus germ oil from supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction. Food Chem. 2009;115(3):939-944.
Li JK, Huang SQ. Flower thermoregulation facilitates fertilization in Asian sacred lotus. Ann Bot. 2009;103(7):1159-1163. doi:10.1093/aob/mcp05119282320
Li L, Lei H, Wang W, et al. Co-administration of nuciferine reduces the concentration of metformin in liver via differential inhibition of hepatic drug transporter OCT1 and MATE1. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2018;39(9):411-419. doi:10.1002/bdd.215830294927
Liao H, Banbury LK, Leach DN. Antioxidant activity of 45 Chinese herbs and the relationship with their TCM characteristics. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2008;5(4):429-434. doi:10.1093/ecam/nem05418955214
Lim SS, Jung YJ, Hyun SK, Lee YS, Choi JS. Rat lens aldose reductase inhibitory constituents of Nelumbo nucifera stamens. Phytother Res. 2006;20(10):825-830. doi:10.1002/ptr.184716881021
Lin HY, Kuo YH, Lin YL, Chiang W. Antioxidative effect and active components from leaves of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera). J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57(15):6623-6629. doi:10.1021/jf900950z19572539
Lin MC, Kao SH, Chung PJ, Chan KC, Yang MY, Wang CJ. Improvement for high fat diet-induced hepatic injuries and oxidative stress by flavonoid-enriched extract from Nelumbo nucifera leaf. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57(13):5925-5932. doi:10.1021/jf901058a19499892
Ling ZQ, Xie BJ, Yang EL. Isolation, characterization, and determination of antioxidative activity of oligomeric procyanidins from the seedpod of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53(7):2441-2445. doi:10.1021/jf040325p15796576
Liu CP, Kuo YC, Shen CC, et al. (S)-armepavine inhibits human peripheral blood mononuclear cell activation by regulating Itk and PLCg activation in a PI-3K-dependent manner. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;81(5):1276-1286. doi:10.1189/jlb.010605617284681
Liu CP, Tsai WJ, Lin YL, Liao JF, Chen CF, Kuo YC. The extracts from Nelumbo nucifera suppress cell cycle progression, cytokine genes expression, and cell proliferation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Life Sci. 2004;75(6):699-716.
Liu CP, Tsai WJ, Shen CC, et al. Inhibition of (S)-armepavine from Nelumbo nucifera on autoimmune disease of MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;531(1-3):270-279. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.11.06216413531
Luo X, Chen B, Liu J, Yao S. Simultaneous analysis of n-nornuciferine, o- nornuciferine, nuciferine, and roemerine in leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-electrospray mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta. 2005;538(1-2):129-133.
Masuda J, Urakawa T, Ozaki Y, Okubo H. Short photoperiod induces dormancy in Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera). Ann Bot. 2006;97(1):39-45. doi:10.1093/aob/mcj00816287906
Mazumder UK, Gupta M, Pramanik G, Mukhopadhyay RK, Sarkar S. Antifertility activity of seed of Nelumbo nucifera in mice. Indian J Exp Biol. 1992;30(6):533-534.1506038
Mukherjee D, Khatua TN, Venkatesh P, Saha BP, Mukherjee PK. Immunomodulatory potential of rhizome and seed extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;128(2):490-494. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2010.01.01520079418
Mukherjee PK, Mukherjee D, Maji AK, Rai S, Heinrich M. The sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)—phytochemical and therapeutic profile. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009;61(4):407-422. doi:10.1211/jpp/61.04.000119298686
Mukherjee PK, Pal M, Saha K, Saha BP, Das J. Diuretic activity of extract of the rhizomes of Nelumbo nucifera Faertn. (Fam. Nymphaeaceae). Phytother Res. 1996;10(5):424-425.
Mukherjee PK, Saha K, Balasubramanian R, Pal M, Saha BP. Studies on psychopharmacological effects of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. rhizome extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 1996;54(2-3):63-67. doi:10.1016/s0378-8741(96)01455-98953419
Mukherjee PK, Saha K, Das J, Pal M, Saha BP. Studies on the anti-inflammatory activity of rhizomes of Nelumbo nucifera. Planta Med. 1997;63(4):367-369. doi:10.1055/s-2006-9577059270384
Mukherjee PK, Saha K, Pal M, Saha BP. Effect of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract on blood sugar level in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1997;58(3):207-213. doi:10.1016/s0378-8741(97)00107-49421256
Nishibe S, Tsukamoto H, Kinoshita H, Kitagawa S, Sakushima A. Alkaloids from embryo of the seed of Nelumbo nucifera. J Nat Prod. 1986;49(3):547-548.
Nishimura-Tagui M, Hayama K, Fujita H, et al. Case of anaphylaxis due to lotus root. J Dermatol. 2020;47(6):e227-e228. doi:10.1111/1346-8138.1532932232879
Oh JH, Choi BJ, Chang MS, Park SK. Nelumbo nucifera semen extract improves memory in rats with scopolamine-induced amnesia through the induction of choline acetyltransferase expression. Neurosci Lett. 2009;461(1):41-44. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2009.05.04519463889
Ono Y, Hattori E, Fukaya Y, Imai S, Ohizumi Y. Anti-obesity effect of Nelumbo nucifera leaves extract in mice and rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;106(2):238-244. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.12.03616495025
Pan Y, Cai B, Wang K, et al. Neferine enhances insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;124(1):98-102. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.04.00819527823
Rai S, Wahile A, Mukherjee K, Saha BP, Mukherjee PK. Antioxidant activity of Nelumbo nucifera (sacred lotus) seeds. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;104(3):322-327. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.09.02516239089
Shim SY, Choi JS, Byun DS. Kaempferol isolated from Nelumbo nucifera stamens negatively regulates FcepsilonRI expression in human basophilic KU812F cells. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;19(2):155-160. doi:10.4014/jmb.0804.25919307764
Shoji N, Umeyama A, Saito N, et al. Asimilobine and lirinidine, serotonergic receptor antagonists, from Nelumbo nucifera. J Nat Prod. 1987;50(4):773-774. doi:10.1021/np50052a0443430176
Sinha S, Mukherjee PK, Mukherjee K, Pal M, Mandal SC, Saha BP. Evaluation of antipyretic potential of Nelumbo nucifera stalk extract. Phytother Res. 2000;14(4):272-274. doi:10.1002/1099-1573(200006)14:4<272::aid-ptr556>;2-h10861971
Sohn DH, Kim YC, Oh SH, Park EJ, Li X, Lee BH. Hepatoprotective and free radical scavenging effects of Nelumbo nucifera. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(2-3):165-169. doi:10.1078/09447110332165988912725571
Sugimoto Y, Furutani S, Itoh A, et al. Effects of extracts and neferine from the embryo of Nelumbo nucifera seeds on the central nervous system. Phytomedicine. 2008;15(12):1117-1124. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2008.09.00519010651
Sugimoto Y, Furutani S, Nishimura K, et al. Antidepressant-like effects of neferine in the forced swimming test involve the serotonin1A (5-HT1A) receptor in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;634(1-3):62-67. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.02.01620176013
Talukder MJ, Nessa J. Effect of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract on the gastrointestinal tract of rat. Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull. 1998;24(1):6-9.9776868
Temviriyanukul P, Sritalahareuthai V, Promyos N, et al. The effect of sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) and its mixtures on phenolic profiles, antioxidant activities, and inhibitions of the key enzymes relevant to Alzheimer's disease. Molecules. 2020;25(16):3713. doi:10.3390/molecules2516371332824050
Toyoda M, Tanaka K, Hoshino K, Akiyama H, Tanimura A, Saito Y. Profiles of potentially antiallergic flavonoids in 27 kinds of health tea and green tea infusions. J Agric Food Chem. 1997;45:2561-2564.
Van Bergen PFV, Hatcher PG, Boon JJ, Collinson ME, de Leeuw JW. Macromolecular composition of the propagule wall of Nelumbo nucifera. Phytochemistry. 1997;45(3):601-610.
Weng TC, Shen CC, Chiu YT, Lin YL, Kuo CD, Huang YT. Inhibitory effects of armepavine against hepatic fibrosis in rats. J Biomed Sci. 2009;16(1):78. doi:10.1186/1423-0127-16-7819723340
Wu CH, Yang MY, Chan KC, Chung PJ, Ou TT, Wang CJ. Improvement in high-fat diet-induced obesity and body fat accumulation by a Nelumbo nucifera leaf flavonoid-rich extract in mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58(11):7075-7081. doi:10.1021/jf101415v20481471
Wu MJ, Wang L, Weng CY, Yen JH. Antioxidant activity of methanol extract of the lotus leaf (Nelumbo nucifera Gertn.). Am J Chin Med. 2003;31(5):687-698. doi:10.1142/S0192415X0300142914696672
Xiao JH, Zhang JH, Chen HL, Feng XL, Wang JL. Inhibitory effects of isoliensinine on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Planta Med. 2005;71(3):225-230.15770542
Yang CC, Hung YL, Ko WC, et al. Effect of neferine on DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis in HaCaT cells and BALB/c mice. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(15):8237. doi:10.3390/ijms2215823734361003
Yang WM, Shim KJ, Choi MJ, et al. Novel effects of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract on memory and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampus. Neurosci Lett. 2008;443(2):104-107. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2008.07.02018638527
Ye L, Wang X, Konno T, et al. Fat reducing effects of Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract in overweight patients [published online ahead of print, 2021 Dec 2]. Nat Prod Res. 2021;1-6. doi:10.1080/14786419.2021.201019634852695
Yen CC, Tung CW, Chang CW, Tsai CC, Hsu MC, Wu YT. Potential risk of higenamine misuse in sports: evaluation of lotus plumule extract products and a human study. Nutrients. 2020;12(2):285. doi:10.3390/nu1202028531973198
Zheng Z, Wang M, Wang D, Duan W, Wang X, Zheng C. Preparative separation of alkaloids from Nelumbo nucifera leaves by conventional and pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2010;878(19):1647-1651. doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2010.04.02020451476

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.