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Scientific Name(s): Brassica juncea L. Czern. et Cosson, Brassica nigra L. Koch, Sinapis alba L.
Common Name(s): Black mustard, Indian mustard, Leaf mustard, Mustard, Oriental mustard, True mustard, True oriental mustard, White mustard, Yellow mustard

Medically reviewed by Last updated on Oct 1, 2021.

Clinical Overview


Mustard is used as a food flavoring and as a forage crop. It has traditionally been used as an emetic and diuretic, as well as a topical treatment for inflammatory conditions such as arthritis and rheumatism. Mustard has been investigated, primarily in vitro and in animal studies, for its potential antibacterial/fungicidal, antiparasitic, cardiovascular, cytotoxic, hypoglycemic, and nociceptive effects; however, clinical trials are lacking to support use for any indication. Derivatives of the mustard constituent allyl isothiocyanate form the basis for toxic agents such as mustard gases and antineoplastic drugs (eg, bendamustine).


Limited clinical trials are available to guide dosage. Mustard oil 2.9 g/day orally for 12 months was evaluated in a study of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (MI).


None well documented. Avoid use in individuals hypersensitive to mustard or related plant species. Use of mustard oil in low-resource settings for massaging underdeveloped newborn infant skin to facilitate skin barrier development is not recommended.


Avoid dosages higher than those found in food. Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.


None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Allyl isothiocyanate, the chief component of mustard oil, is an irritant and can induce lacrimation, hyperalgesia, inflammation, and neuroexcitation. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)–mediated food allergy to mustard and other members of the mustard family, as well as cross-sensitivity to other plants, has been documented.


Data are limited.

Scientific Family

  • Brassicaceae (mustard)


The genus Brassica contains more than 150 species that are cultivated worldwide as oilseed crops or vegetables. The mustards are annual or biennial herbs that grow 1 to 3 m in height. The dried, ripe seed is used commercially. Ground mustard, derived from the powdered mustard seed, is known as mustard flour. Single or mixed white, black, or brown mustard seeds are the main types. More pungent mustards are derived from seeds from which the fixed oil has been removed.(USDA 2021, Velíśek 1995)


Mustard seed has been used internally and externally since ancient times. Mustard and its oil have traditionally been used as a topical treatment for rheumatism and arthritis, as a foot bath for foot pain, and in the form of plasters over the back and chest to treat bronchitis and pneumonia.(Felter 1983) Internally, mustard seeds have been used as appetite stimulants, emetics, and diuretics.(Leung 1980)

When black mustard is prepared as a condiment with vinegar, salt, and water, the product is known as German-prepared mustard. S. alba seed, when prepared in a similar manner but without spices, is known as English mustard. Mustards are grown extensively as forage crops.(Leung 1980)


Mustard seeds contain numerous chemical constituents, including phytoalexins (sinalexin, sinalbins A and B), sterols and steryl esters (primarily sitosterol and campesterol), and flavonoids (eg, apigenin, chalcone). Crude mucilage from mustard has been analyzed and contains 80% to 94% carbohydrates, 1.7% to 15% ash, and 2.2% to 4.4% protein.(Cui 1993) The flavor of mustard seeds is derived from glucosinolates, which are thiocyanate glycosides. Sinalbin is responsible for the flavor of white mustard seed; sinigrin is responsible for the sharper taste associated with black and brown mustard seeds. Volatile mustard oil is derived from steam distillation or by expression. The fixed oil does not contribute to the mustard's pungency, and ground mustard does not have a pungent aroma. The pungency is produced by glucosinolates, which are hydrolyzed by the enzyme myrosinase (a thioglucoside glucohydrolase) to flavor-active isothiocyanates (mustard oils). Sinalbin primarily yields the nonvolatile 4-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate, while sinigrin yields the volatile allyl isothiocyanate, which is responsible for the pungent aroma. Depending on the variety of mustard, the yield of allyl isothiocyanate is approximately 1%. Brassica species produce large quantities of isothiocyanates; more than 50 different isothiocyanates have been reported as glucosinolate hydrolysis products. Other components of the oil include fixed oil, proteins, sinapic acid, and sinapine.(Appelqvist 1981, Cui 1993, Olivier 1999, Pedras 2000, Ponce 2004, Velíśek 1995)

Uses and Pharmacology

Numerous phytochemical investigations of mustard seed have been conducted; however, few clinical trials exist to support clinical applications of mustard seed oil. Derivatives of allyl isothiocyanate have formed the basis for toxic agents such as mustard gases and antineoplastic drugs (eg, bendamustine).(Sahu 2020)

Antibacterial/Fungicidal activity

In vitro data

Allyl isothiocyanate has antimicrobial and antifungal activity; the antibacterial effect of mustard flour and oil has been evaluated for application in the processed meat industry for its inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli and Salmonella.(Graumann 2008, Nadarajah 2005, Olivier 1999, Turgis 2008)

Antiparasitic effects

Animal data

A study in a murine model investigated the effects of an 80% methanolic B. nigra seed extract against Plasmodium berghei. The extract exerted dose-dependent chemosuppressive and chemoprophylactic antimalarial effects.(Muluye 2015)


Animal and in vitro data

Numerous mechanisms of action are proposed for the potential cancer chemoprotective activity of organic isothiocyanates. The cytotoxicity of mustard derivatives on neuroblastoma cells has been investigated.(Coggiola 2005, Tseng 2002)

Mustard juice was protective against benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced DNA damage in human-derived cells in a dose-dependent manner. Chemoprotective properties may be associated with induction of detoxifying enzymes.(Uhl 2003) Another study examined the effects of organic isothiocyanates on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1)–mediated transport in multidrug-resistant (MDR) human cancer cell lines. Both P-gp and MRP1 are involved in the bioavailability, distribution, and elimination of many drugs. Dietary organic isothiocyanates inhibited the P-gp– and MRP1–mediated efflux of daunomycin and vinblastine in MDR human cancer cells, enhancing the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. The study also found evidence of organic isothiocyanates inhibiting tumor formation in breast, colon, lung, and skin tissue in animal models.(Tseng 2002)

An ethanolic B. nigra seed extract was assessed in an in vitro study of A549 and H1299 human non–small cell lung cancer cell lines. B. nigra induced apoptosis and caused cell cycle arrest in a concentration-dependent manner.(Ahmed 2020)

Mustard essential oil reduced tumor cell proliferation via apoptotic and antiangiogenesis mechanisms in mice, while the mucilage fraction of S. alba inhibited colonic preneoplastic changes in rats.(Eskin 2007, Kumar 2009)

Cardiovascular disease

Animal and in vitro data

The potential of B. juncea as a natural source of the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol has been described.(Yusuf 2007) In one study, aqueous extracts of mustard inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4-ascorbate on human erythrocyte membranes.(Sujatha 1995)

No difference was found in serum cholesterol or triglyceride levels in rats fed the mucilaginous fraction of mustard.(Eskin 2007); however, in another rat model of induced diabetes, mustard oil lowered triacylglycerols, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low–density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol while raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.(Sukanya 2020) Epidemiological studies suggest that higher levels of monounsaturated fats were associated with erucic acid–rich mustard seed oil intake.(Risé 2008)

Clinical data

A 12-month, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (N=360) examined the effects of fish oil or mustard oil in patients with suspected acute MI. Treatments were administered to all patients approximately 18 hours after symptoms of an acute MI. Patients in group A (n=122) received fish oil 1.08 g/day orally, group B (n=120) received mustard oil 2.9 g/day orally, and 118 patients received placebo. Results indicated a reduction in total cardiac events in patients treated with fish oil or mustard oil compared with placebo (24.5% and 28% vs 34.7%; P<0.01). Nonfatal infarctions also occurred less frequently in patients treated with fish oil or mustard oil compared with placebo (13% and 15% vs 25.4%; P<0.05); however, total cardiac deaths were not reduced in patients treated with mustard oil or fish oil. When compared with the placebo group, patients treated with fish oil or mustard oil showed a reduction in total angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmias, and left ventricular enlargement. Diene conjugates were reduced in both treatment groups, indicating antioxidant activity.(Singh 1997)

In another randomized, single-blind clinical trial enrolling patients with angina pectoris, MI, or surrogate risk factors for coronary heart disease (N=1,000), an intervention group consumed more fruits, vegetables, legumes, walnuts, almonds, and whole grains and mustard or soybean oil and were compared with a control group (local diet). Both groups demonstrated a reduction in serum cholesterol concentration and other risk factors, but the effects were greater in the intervention group. In patients with preexisting coronary artery disease, significantly greater benefits occurred in the treatment group compared with the control group.(Singh 2002)


Animal data

Studies in rats using both the whole plant and mucilaginous extracts demonstrated a hypoglycemic effect in healthy animals, as well as effects on postprandial glucose (decreased serum glucose and increased insulin response) in the animals with induced diabetes. Proposed mechanisms included modulation of gluconeogenic and glucolytic enzymes and upregulation of Glut 4 gene expression.(Anand 2009, Grover 2002, Grover 2003, Srinivasan 2005, Sukanya 2020, Yadav 2004)

Nociceptive effects

Because of its topical irritant effects, mustard has been used traditionally as a rubefacient and irritant.

Animal data

The ability of mustard oil to modulate nociception and hyperalgesia has been examined in analgesia experiments in animal models.(Albin 2008, Walker 2007)

Numerous studies elucidating the mechanism of action of nociceptive chemicals, including mustard oil, have been published and describe the transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 channel and related ion flow within specific neurons.(Caterina 2007, Cavanaugh 2008, De Petrocellis 2008, Gerhold 2009, Macpherson 2007, Ohta 2007)


Limited clinical trials are available to guide dosage. Numerous commercially available products contain mustard in capsule, powder, and tablet forms.

Mustard oil 2.9 g/day orally for 12 months was evaluated in a study of patients with suspected acute MI.(Singh 1997)

A study in humans determined that the major urinary metabolite of allyl isothiocyanate is excreted within 8 hours. A dose-dependent excretion of the metabolite was observed.(Jiao 1994)

Pregnancy / Lactation

Avoid dosages higher than those found in food. Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.


None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Allyl isothiocyanate, the chief component of mustard oil, is an irritant, inducing lacrimation, hyperalgesia, inflammation, and neuroexcitation.(Inoue 1997, Leung 1980, Simons 2004)

Food allergy to mustard and other members of the mustard family, as well as IgE-mediated cross-sensitivity to other plants, has been documented. Mustard allergies occur in 1.1% of children and represent 6% to 7% of all food allergies.(Sharma 2019) Rhinitis associated with S. alba has been reported,(Anguita 2007) as well as sensitization to mustard in atopic individuals.(Alenmyr 2009, Poikonen 2009) Mustard has also been shown to induce respiratory and dermal allergic reactions.(Sharma 2019) Allyl isothiocyanate, which is responsible for the odor and flavor of mustard, as well as proteolytic enzymes, may cause dermatitis and other allergic reactions.(Sharma 2019)


Toxicological studies of mustard oil are lacking.

Use of mustard oil in low-resource settings for massaging underdeveloped newborn infant skin to facilitate skin barrier development is not recommended, based on studies in mice with suboptimal skin barrier function, in which increases in transdermal water loss and structural changes in epidermal keratinocytes were observed.(Mullany 2005, Summers 2019)



This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product.

This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age.

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