Skip to main content


Scientific Name(s): Garcinia mangostana
Common Name(s): Mangostan, Mangosteen, Purple mangosteen

Medically reviewed by Last updated on Feb 1, 2023.

Clinical Overview


Mangosteen has been investigated for potential anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and metabolic effects; however, clinical trial data are lacking to recommend use for any indication.


Clinical data are lacking to provide dosing recommendations. Mangosteen is available as various oral and topical formulations and has also been used as an ingredient in nutraceutical beverages.


Avoid use in individuals hypersensitive to any constituents of mangosteen.


Avoid use. Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.


Potential inhibition of hepatic CYP-450 enzymes has been reported.

Adverse Reactions

None well documented.


No data.

Scientific Family

  • Clusiaceae (mangosteen)


The genus Garcinia comprises nearly 400 species of evergreen trees and shrubs. Mangosteen is a slow-growing and shallow-rooted evergreen tree reaching up to 25 m in height. The leaves are thick and leathery, and the flowers are fleshy, 4 to 5 cm in diameter, and often green on the outside and yellow to red on the inside with 4 sepals and 4 petals.(Akao 2008, Chin 2008, Ramage 2004)

Many of the species of the Clusiaceae family bear edible fruit; however, mangosteen is considered the most valued tropical fruit of the Clusiaceae family. The fruit is round, 2.5 to 7.5 cm in diameter, and weighs about 75 to 150 g. The rind is smooth and 0.6 to 1 cm thick. The exterior is pale green when immature and dark purple when fully ripe. The inner pulp contains 4 to 8 juicy white segments that are sweet and faintly aromatic. The fruits may or may not contain seeds.(Akao 2008, Chin 2008, Ramage 2004)

Mangosteen is thought to be native to Southeast Asia or Indonesia and remains largely indigenous to the Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and the Moluccas. During the past 2 centuries, mangosteen has been cultivated in tropical areas such as India, Honduras, Brazil, and Australia. The species thrives in warm and humid or tropical climates and has a narrow range of adaptability.(Akao 2008, Chin 2008, Ramage 2004)

Mangosteen species are of economic and commercial interest, with tremendous demand for the fruit in domestic and export markets. Thailand is responsible for approximately 85% of the total production of 150,000 tons per year. Depending on the growth cycle, a single tree may produce 500 to 800 fruits in 1 year. Other commercial uses include natural dye for cotton and silk yarn.(Akao 2008, Chairat 2007, Chin 2008, Ramage 2004)


The rind, leaves, fruit, and bark of mangosteen have been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years. The rind and leaves have been used medicinally to treat thick mucus, cystitis, diarrhea, dysentery, fever, and thrush, as well as intestinal and skin conditions such as eczema and pruritus.(Akao 2008, Chin 2008, Chomnawang 2007, Gopalakrishnan 1997, Ji 2007, Suksamrarn 2003, Yu 2007) Concentrates of mangosteen bark have been used medicinally to treat GU disorders, including gonorrhea and stomatitis.(Akao 2008, Chin 2008, Yu 2007)


Numerous mangosteen studies have found high concentrations of xanthones, a class of polyphenolic compounds.(Fu 2007, Ji 2007, Mahabusarakam 1987, Nilar 2002, Nilar 2005) Xanthones have antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antiplatelet aggregation, antithrombotic, and vasorelaxant properties. They also prevent oxidative damage of LDL, histamine, and serotonin receptor blocker activity and inhibit HIV.(Ji 2007) The xanthones and tannins of the mangosteen pericarp protect against insects, fungi, plant viruses, bacteria, and animals while the fruit is still immature. Of the 200 known xanthones, nearly 50 are found in mangosteen.(Akao 2008) The major xanthones are alpha-mangostin, beta-mangostin, gamma-mangostin, and methoxy-beta-mangostin,(Akao 2008) with the most abundant being alpha-mangostin.(Chin 2008, Ji 2007) Alpha-Mangostin is a potent phytochemical and has received attention specifically for use as an anticancer agent in numerous cancer cell studies and animal cancer models.(Nauman 2022)

Calcium, phosphorus, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and ascorbic acid are also found in mangosteen.

Uses and Pharmacology

Antibacterial activity

Animal and in vitro data

Mangosteen has strong antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus.(Iinuma 1996) Alpha-mangostin from the stem bark of mangosteen was active against vancomycin-resistant Enterococci and methicillin-resistant S. aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 6.25 to 12.5 mcg/mL.(Sakagami 2005) Activity against the acne-inducing bacteria Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis is also documented.(Chomnawang 2005, Chomnawang 2007)

The xanthones alpha- and beta-mangostins and garcinone B isolated from the fruit hulls and the edible arils and seeds of mangosteen exhibited strong inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with an MIC value of 6.25 mcg/mL.(Suksamrarn 2003)

Dairy cattle fed a mangosteen peel liquid added to soybean meal were found to have increased milk production as well as a reduction of methanogenic rumen bacteria.(Phesatcha 2022)

Clinical data

A small study (N=10) evaluating the nanoparticulate delivery of mangostin extract in patients with acne vulgaris caused by P. acnes noted a significant improvement in acne vulgaris after 4 weeks.(Pan-In 2015)

Antifungal effects

In vitro data

Several xanthones isolated from the fruit hulls of mangosteen have demonstrated antifungal activity against 3 phytopathogenic fungi: Fusarium oxysporum vasinfectum, Alternaria tenuis, and Dreschlera oryzae.(Gopalakrishnan 1997) Mangosteen also has activity against the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, and Epidermophyton floccosum.(Mahabusarakam 1983, Mahabusarakam 1986)

Antihistaminic activity

In vitro data

Several studies show potent inhibitory activity of mangosteen fruit extract on both histamine release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis. In one study, a crude methanolic extract of the fruit hull of mangosteen inhibited contractions of isolated thoracic rabbit aorta induced by histamine and serotonin.(Chairungsrilerd 1996) In another study in rat glioma cells, gamma-mangostin demonstrated potent inhibitory activity of induced prostaglandin E2 synthesis.(Nakatani 2002) A pharmacological study of G. mangostana showed that alpha-mangostin is a selective and competitive H1 receptor antagonist, while gamma-mangostin is a selective and competitive 5-hydroxytriptamine2A receptor antagonist.(Chairungsrilerd 1996, Furukawa 1997) Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-mangostin suppressed the upstream degranulation (release of allergic mediators) process in rat basophilic leukemia cells.(Itoh 2008)

Anti-inflammatory activity

Reviews of the anti-inflammatory activities of mangosteen xanthones have been published.(Gutierrez-Orozco 2013, Obolskiy 2009) The relationship between nuclear factor kappa B (NF-ĸB)–mediated chronic inflammatory responses and oxidative stress present in both type 2 diabetes mellitus and beta-amyloid accumulation in Alzheimer disease could allow for the creation of a polyvalent treatment for patients with both diseases.(Ovalle-Magallanes 2017)

Animal and in vitro data

In C6 rat glioma cells, the xanthone gamma-mangostin potently inhibited prostaglandin E2 release and competitively inhibited the activities of cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) and COX-2 enzymes, which are major mediators in regulating inflammation.(Nakatani 2002) Gamma-mangostin also inhibited inhibitor kappa B kinase activity associated with expression of the COX-2 enzyme.(Nakatani 2004) In addition, alpha-mangosteen has potent inhibitory activity against prostaglandin E2 release from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.(Chen 2008) Both alpha- and gamma-mangostin inhibited nitrite production of lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage cells.(Wang 2004) In studies of induced paw edema or asthma in rodents, positive findings were observed with mangosteen xanthones.(Gutierrez-Orozco 2013, Obolskiy 2009)

Clinical data

Mangosteen juice has been evaluated for its effect on biomarkers of inflammation, with reduced C-reactive protein reported in 44 individuals with body mass index 30 to 45 kg/m2.(Udani 2009)

Antioxidant activity

Animal and in vitro data

The phenolic compounds from the hull of mangosteen had strong antioxidant activity in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assays.(Yu 2007) One study documented neuroprotective activity of extracts of the fruit hull.(Weecharangsan 2006) Similar studies document antioxidant and ferric-reducing activity of mangosteen compared with various fruits.(Okonogi 2007, Patthamakanokporn 2008) A study in rats fed high-cholesterol diets noted positive effects of mangosteen on plasma lipid levels and plasma antioxidant activity.(Leontowicz 2007) Mangosteen concentrate drink supplementation promoted antioxidant effects and lactate clearance in rats after exercise.(Chang 2020)

In another study in rats, mangosteen peel infusion, especially at a concentration of 2%, showed potential to improve liver and kidney structure and function after hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induction. This is believed to be due to various antioxidants that may scavenge free radicals produced by H2O2.(Rusman 2021)

Antiplasmodial activity

In vitro data

Prenylated xanthones from mangosteen exhibited potent antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum.(Mahabusarakam 2006) Additionally, mangosteen rind extract demonstrated synergistic effects against P. falciparum when used with artemisinin.(Tjahjani 2017)

Antiviral activity

In vitro data

Noncompetitive inhibition against HIV-1 protease is documented for mangostin and gamma-mangostin.(Chen 1996)


Reviews on the anticancer activities of mangosteen xanthones have been published.(Gutierrez-Orozco 2013, Obolskiy 2009) Nanoformulations of alpha-mangostin offer a promising tool as a cancer drug delivery system to enhance alpha-mangostin cellular uptake, efficacy, and accumulation in cancer cells.(Meylina 2021)

Animal and in vitro data

Alpha-mangostin, mangostanol, and garcinone D extracts from the stem and root bark of G. mangostana were cytotoxic against the CEM-SS cell line.(Ee 2008, Ee 2006)

The efficacy and potency of garcinone E, a xanthone from mangosteen, was compared with 6 chemotherapeutic drugs used to treat 4 hepatoma cell lines. Garcinone E is equal to or more potent than mitoxantrone in terms of cytotoxicity against hepatoma cell lines, and may be more effective than methotrexate, vincristine, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and cisplatin.(Ho 2002) Six xanthones were extracted from the pericarps of mangosteen and examined for cell growth inhibition of the human leukemia cell line HL60. All xanthones had documented inhibitory effects on growth, but alpha-mangostin showed the most potent inhibitory activity.(Matsumoto 2003) In another study, both mangosteen peel extract and alpha-mangostin were selective for leukemia HL60 and K562 cell lines.(Novilla 2016) The mechanism of action is associated with activation ofcaspase-9 and caspase-3 (but not caspase-8) and mediation of the mitochondrial pathway during apoptosis.(Chiang 2004, Matsumoto 2004)

Alpha-mangostin inhibited growth of DLD-1 human colon cancer cells with potency similar to 5-FU. The mechanism of action of xanthones from mangosteen is associated with cell cycle arrest by affecting expression of cyclins, cdc2, and p27; G1 cell cycle arrest by alpha-mangostin and beta-mangostin; and S cycle arrest by gamma-mangostin. Alpha-mangostin also induces apoptosis that is mediated by the intrinsic pathway through mitochondria and modulates growth-related signal transduction pathways.(Akao 2008) Another study noted a synergistic growth reduction in human colon cancer DLD-1 cells with combined treatment of alpha-mangostin and 5-FU.(Nakagawa 2007)

In one study, an extract from the pericarp of mangosteen inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells through apoptosis.(Moongkarndi 2004) In another experiment, alpha-mangostin exhibited the most potent effects among the isolates studied.(Suksamrarn 2006)

In one study in mice with induced skin cancer, tumor formation and growth was suppressed and incidence reduced by alpha-mangostin.(Wang 2017) A study on putative preneoplastic lesions in rat colon carcinogenesis found that dietary administration of alpha-mangostin inhibited the development of aberrant crypt foci (P<0.05 for 0.02% crude alpha-mangostin; P<0.01 for 0.05% crude alpha-mangostin). Rats treated with 0.05% crude alpha-mangostin showed decreased dysplastic foci (P<0.05) and beta-catenin accumulated crypts (P<0.05).(Nabandith 2004)

In another study, alpha-mangostin treatment (20 mg/kg/day) significantly increased the survival rate of mice carrying mammary tumors, and greatly suppressed tumor volume and the multiplicity of lymph node metastases. In vitro studies showed that alpha-mangostin induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and G1- and S-phase cell cycle arrest and decreased levels of phospho-Akt-threonine 308.(Li 2017)

Cardiovascular disease

Animal and in vitro data

A study in rats documented efficacy of alpha-mangostin against cardiotoxicity and beta-adrenergic catecholamine–induced myocardial toxicity and oxidative stress.(Sampath 2008) In another study, mangostin inhibited oxidative changes in human LDL by acting as a free radical scavenger to protect LDL.(Williams 1995)

CNS effects

Research demonstrates that the neurobiological properties of the mangosteen pericarp are well aligned with the current understanding of the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Mangosteen pericarp has antioxidant, putative neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and putative mitochondrial-enhancing properties.

Animal data

Animal studies demonstrate favorable pharmacotherapeutic benefits with respect to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.(Ashton 2019)

Clinical data

A 24-week double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled efficacy trial (N=148) concluded that despite promising preclinical and clinical work, results do not support 1,000 mg/day of mangosteen pericarp extract as an adjunctive treatment for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.(Turner 2021)

Dental health

Clinical data

A study reported clinical improvement in periodontal inflammation following topical application of mangosteen pericarp extract.(Gutierrez-Orozco 2013, Obolskiy 2009) In one study of 60 individuals with mild or moderate chronic gingivitis, an herbal mouthwash containing a pericarp extract of mangosteen had beneficial effects on volatile sulfur compound levels (compared to placebo) and plaque index and papillary bleeding index (compared to baseline), suggesting a role in treating oral malodor.(Rassameemasmaung 2007)

A placebo-controlled, split-mouth trial in 25 patients demonstrated clinical and antioxidant efficacy of a mangosteen 4% gel in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. After 3 months, the full-mouth plaque index and gingival bleeding index values were significantly improved. There was also a significantly greater reduction in the probing depth and relative attachment level scores compared with control.(Manjunatha 2022)

An 8-week multicentered randomized controlled clinical trial (N=104) concluded that oral administration of mangosteen and propolis extracts (MAEC) have the potential to reduce gingival inflammation clinically and immunologically in patients with gingivitis and incipient periodontitis; dosage used in the study was a single capsule containing 194 mg of MAEC daily for 8 weeks.(Park 2021)

Hepatic steatosis

Animal data

In rats with high-fat diet–induced hepatic steatosis, alpha-mangostin significantly reduced triglyceride levels.(Tsai 2016)


Animal data

In a 9-week study in rats fed a high-calorie diet, the 2 groups treated with mangosteen extract (200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of body weight) demonstrated reduced weight gain compared to control groups (orlistat-treated and normally fed).(Abuzaid 2016)

Clinical data

An herbal combination formulation containing extracts obtained from mangosteen and Sphaeranthus indicus has been evaluated for weight loss. Although positive findings have been reported, attributing the findings to either of the individual constituent extracts is difficult.(Kudiganti 2016, Stern 2013) Alpha-mangostin reduces tumor necrosis factor alpha in adipose tissue, which leads to amelioration of insulin sensitivity, a target for treating obesity and diabetes.(Ovalle-Magallanes 2017) A review concluded that mangosteen and its xanthones have a potential role in controlling and modifying metabolic syndrome and its related disorders (eg, obesity, disrupted lipid profile, diabetes and diabetes-related complications).(Tousian Shandiz 2017)

Osteoclast-related disease

In vitro and in vivo data

Both in vitro and in vivo, alpha-mangostin was observed to inhibit osteoclast production and reduce bone resorption.(Zhang 2022)

Prostatic hyperplasia

Animal data

In rats, mangosteen pericarp components alleviated progression of prostatic hyperplasia due to antiproliferative effects (eg, via improvement in mitochondrial function of prostate tissues); further research is needed regarding underlying mechanisms.(Tsai 2020)


Clinical data are lacking to provide dosing recommendations. Mangosteen is available as various oral and topical formulations and has also been used as an ingredient in various nutraceutical beverages. Numerous patents exist for mangosteen nutraceutical applications in beverages,(Fugal 2006, Garrity 1996) animal products,(Wadsworth 2007) and cosmetic and dermatological preparations.(Gupta 2004, Moffett 2006)

Pregnancy / Lactation

Avoid use. Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.


Potential mangosteen components-drug interactions and adverse reactions should be considered before consumption of beverages containing mangosteen pulp and pericarps as complementary therapy, mainly regarding the potential of mangosteen juices to inhibit hepatic CYP-450 enzyme activities, thus interfering with drug metabolism.(Ovalle-Magallanes 2017)

Mangosteen products have antioxidant activity and may interact with chemotherapeutic drugs such anthracyclines, platinum compounds, and alkylating agents. Individuals taking antihistamines may note an additive effect with mangosteen.

Adverse Reactions

Avoid use if hypersensitive to any constituents of mangosteen. Individuals with diabetes should be aware of the high sugar content in mangosteen juice. Theoretically, mangosteen may interfere with the action of certain chemotherapeutic drugs and radiation therapy.

Severe lactic acidosis was reported in a 58-year-old male ingesting mangosteen juice daily for 12 months, possibly resulting from alpha-mangostin–associated mitochondrial dysfunction.(Wong 2008)


Mangosteen products appear safe and have been well tolerated in clinical trials.(Naumann 2022)

In one experiment, the seed oil was not toxic to the liver, heart, or spleen when administered to rats. Kidney lesions observed in some rats were mild and not limited to the test rats.(Ajayi 2007) An older report showed decreased serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase levels in rodents administered mangostin.(Obolskiy 2009)



This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product.

This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age.

Abuzaid AS, Iskandar EY, Kurniati NF, Adnyana IK. Preventative effect on obesity of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp ethanolic extract by reduction of fatty acid synthase level in monosodium glutamate and high-calorie diet-induced male wistar [sic] rats. Asian J Pharmaceutical Clin Res. 2016;9:3.
Ajayi IA, Oderinde RA, Ogunkoya BO, Egunyomi A, Taiwo VO. Chemical analysis and preliminary toxicological evaluation of Garcinia mangostana seeds and seed oil. Food Chem. 2007;101(3):999-1004.
Akao Y, Nakagawa Y, Iinuma M, Nozawa Y. Anti-cancer effects of xanthones from pericarps of mangosteen. Int J Mol Sci. 2008;9(3):355-370.19325754
Ashton MM, Dean OM, Walker AJ, et al. The therapeutic potential of mangosteen pericarp as an adjunctive therapy for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Front Psychiatry. 2019;10:115. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2019.0011530918489
Chairat M, Bremner JB, Chantrapromma K. Dyeing of cotton and silk yarn with the extracted dye from the fruit hulls of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana Linn. Fibers Polym. 2007;8(6):613-619.
Chairungsrilerd N, Furukawa K, Ohta T, Nozoe S, Ohizumi Y. Histaminergic and serotonergic receptor blocking substances from the medicinal plant Garcinia mangostana. Planta Med. 1996;62(5):471-472.8923814
Chairungsrilerd N, Furukawa K, Ohta T, Nozoe S, Ohizumi Y. Pharmacological properties of alpha-mangostin, a novel histamine H1 receptor antagonist. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996;314(3):351-356.8957258
Chang CC, Chen CW, Owaga E, Lee WT, Liu TN, Hsieh RH. Mangosteen concentrate drink supplementation promotes antioxidant status and lactate clearance in rats after exercise. Nutrients. 2020;12(5):1447. doi:10.3390/nu1205144732429510
Chen LG, Yang LL, Wang CC. Anti-inflammatory activity of mangostins from Garcinia mangostana. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46(2):688-693.
Chen SX, Wan M, Loh BN. Active constituents against HIV-1 protease from Garcinia mangostana. Planta Med. 1996;62(4):381-382.
Chiang LC, Cheng HW, Liu MC, Chiang W, Chun-Ching Lin CC. In vitro evaluation of antileukemic activity of 17 commonly used fruits and vegetables in Taiwan. Lebensm Wiss Technol. 2004;37(5):539-544.
Chin YW, Jung HA, Chai H, Keller WJ, Kinghorn AD. Xanthones with quinone reductase-inducing activity from the fruits of Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen). Phytochemistry. 2008;69(3):754-758.17991497
Chomnawang MT, Surassmo S, Nukoolkarn VS, Gritsanapan W. Antimicrobial effects of Thai medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;101(1-3):330-333.16009519
Chomnawang MT, Surassmo S, Nukoolkarn VS, Gritsanapan W. Effect of Garcinia mangostana on inflammation caused by Propionibacterium acnes. Fitoterapia. 2007;78(6):401-408.17644272
Ee GC, Daud S, Izzaddin SA, Rahmani M. Garcinia mangostana: a source of potential anti-cancer lead compounds against CEM-SS cell line. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2008;10(5-6):475-479. doi:10.1080/1028602080194849018464091
Ee GCL, Izzaddin SA, Rahmani M, Sukari MA, Lee HL. Gamma-mangostin and rubraxanthone, two potential lead compounds for anti-cancer activity against CEM-SS cell line. Nat Prod Sci. 2006;12(3):138-143.
Fu C, Loo AE, Chia FP, Huang D. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins from mangosteen pericarps. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55(19):7689-7694.17715900
Fugal KB, Mccausland TL, Kou X, Keller WJ, inventors. Neutraceutical composition containing mangosten pericarp extract. US patent application 2004-975243. April 27, 2006.
Furukawa K, Chairungsrilerd N, Ohta T, Nozoe S, Ohizumi Y. Novel types of receptor antagonists from the medicinal plant Garcinia mangostana. Article in Japanese. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 1997;110(suppl 1):153P-158P.9503424
Garrity AR, Morton JC, Morrison P, De La Huerga V. Nutraceutical mangosteen tea. Planta Med. 1996;62(4):381-382.
Gopalakrishnan G, Banumathi B, Suresh G. Evaluation of the antifungal activity of natural xanthones from Garcinia mangostana and their synthetic derivatives. J Nat Prod. 1997;60(5):519-524.9213587
Gupta SK, inventor. Skin firming anti-aging cosmetic mask compositions. US patent application 20040161435. August 19, 2004.
Gutierrez-Orozco F, Failla ML. Biological activities and bioavailability of mangosteen xanthones: a critical review of the current evidence. Nutrients. 2013;5(8):3163-3183. doi:10.3390/nu508316323945675
Ho CK, Huang YL, Chen CC. Garcinone E, a xanthone derivative, has potent cytotoxic effect against hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Planta Med. 2002;68(11):975-979.12451486
Iinuma M, Tosa H, Tanaka T, et al. Antibacterial activity of xanthones from guttiferaeous plants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1996;48(8):861-865.8887739
Itoh T, Ohguchi K, Iinuma M, Nozawa Y, Akao Y. Inhibitory effect of xanthones isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. on rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cell degranulation. Bioorg Med Chem. 2008;16(8):4500-4508. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2008.02.05418328716
Ji X, Avula B, Khan IA. Quantitative and qualitative determination of six xanthones in Garcinia mangostana L. by LC-PDA and LC-ESI-MS. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007;43(4):1270-1276.17129697
Kudiganti V, Kodur RR, Kodur SR, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of Meratrim for weight management: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy overweight human subjects. Lipids Health Dis. 2016;15(1):136. doi:10.1186/s12944-016-0306-427558585
Leontowicz M, Leontowicz H, Drzewiecki J, Jastrzebski Z, Haruenkit R, Poovarodom S. Two exotic fruits positively affect rats plasma composition. Food Chem. 2007;102(1):192-200.Leontowicz.2007
Li P. Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract, its extraction and medical application. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshy. AN 2006:1003483.Li.2006
Li Y, Li S, Meng X, Gan RY, Zhang JJ, Li HB. Dietary natural products for prevention and treatment of breast cancer. Nutrients. 2017;9(728):1-38. doi:10.3390/nu907072828698459
Mahabusarakam W, Kuaha K, Wilairat P, Taylor WC. Prenylated xanthones as potential antiplasmodial substances. Planta Med. 2006;72(10):912-916.16902859
Mahabusarakam W, Phongpaichit S, Wiriyachitra P. Screening of antifungal activity of chemicals from Garcinia mangostana. Warasan Songkhia Nakkharin. 1983;5(4):341-342.
Mahabusarakam W, Wiriyachitra P, Phongpaichit S. Antimicrobial activities of chemical constituents from Garcinia mangostana Linn. J Sci Soc Thailand. 1986;12(4):239-243.
Mahabusarakam W, Wiriyachitra P, Taylor WC. Chemical constituents of Garcinia mangostana. J Nat Prod. 1987;50(3):474-478.
Manjunatha VA, Vemanaradhya GG, Gowda TM. Clinical and antioxidant efficacy of 4% mangosteen gel as a local drug delivery in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A placebo-controlled, split-mouth trial. Dent Med Probl. 2022;59(1):111-119.
Matsumoto K, Akao Y, Kobayashi E, et al. Induction of apoptosis by xanthones from mangosteen in human leukemia cell lines. J Nat Prod. 2003;66(8):1124-1127.12932141
Matsumoto K, Akao Y, Yi H, et al. Preferential target is mitochondria in alpha-mangostin-induced apoptosis in human leukemia HL60 cells. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004;12(22):5799-5806.15498656
Meylina L, Muchtaridi M, Joni IM, Mohammed AFA, Wathoni N. Nanoformulations of α-mangostin for cancer drug delivery system. Pharmaceutics. 2021;13(12):1993. doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics1312199334959275
Moffett A, Shah P, inventors. Pharmaceutical and therapeutic compositions derived from Garcinia manostana L. plant. US patent 20060292255. December 28, 2006.
Moongkarndi P, Kosem N, Kaslungka S, Luanratana O, Pongpan N, Neungton N. Antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction of apoptosis by Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) on SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;90(1):161-166.14698525
Nabandith V, Suzui M, Morioka T, et al. Inhibitory effects of crude alpha-mangostin, a xanthone derivative, on two different categories of colon preneoplastic lesions induced by 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine in the rat. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2004;5(4):433-438.15546251
Nakagawa Y, Iinuma M, Naoe T, Nozawa Y, Akao Y. Characterized mechanism of alpha-mangostin-induced cell death: caspase-independent apoptosis with release of endonuclease-G from mitochondria and increased miR-143 expression in human colorectal cancer DLD-1 cells. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007;15(16):5620-5628.17553685
Nakatani K, Atsumi M, Arakawa T, et al. Inhibitions of histamine release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by mangosteen, a Thai medicinal plant. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002;25(9):1137-1141.12230104
Nakatani K, Nakahata N, Arakawa T, Yasuda H, Ohizumi Y. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by gamma-mangostin, a xanthone derivative in mangosteen, in C6 rat glioma cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002;63(1):73-79.11754876
Nakatani K, Yamakuni T, Kondo N, et al. Gamma-mangostin inhibits inhibitor-kappaB kinase activity and decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in C6 rat glioma cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2004;66(3):667-674.15322259
Nauman MC, Johnson JJ. The purple mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana): Defining the anticancer potential of selected xanthones. Pharmacol Res. 2022;175:106032. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2021.10603234896543
Nilar, Harrison LJ. Xanthones from the heartwood of Garcinia mangostana. Phytochemistry. 2002;60(5):541-548.12052521
Nilar, Nguyen LH, Venkatraman G, Sim KY, Harrison LJ. Xanthones and benzophenones from Garcinia griffithii and Garcinia mangostana. Phytochemistry. 2005;66(14):1718-1723.Nilar.2005
Novilla A, Djamhuri DS, Fauziah N, Maesaroh M, Balqis B, Widowati W. Cytotoxic activity of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) peel extract and α-mangostin toward leukemia cell lines (HL-60 and K-562). J Natural Remedies. 2016;16(2):52-59. doi:10.18311/jnr/2016/842.
Obolskiy D, Pischel I, Siriwatanametanon N, Heinrich M. Garcinia mangostana L.: a phytochemical and pharmacological review. Phytother Res. 2009;23(8):1047-1065. doi:10.1002/ptr.273019172667
Okonogi S, Duangrat C, Anuchpreeda S, Tachakittirungrod S, Chowwanapoonpohn S. Comparison of antioxidant capacites and cytotoxicities of certain fruit peels. Food Chem. 2007;103(3):839-846.
Ovalle-Magallanes B, Eugenio-Pérez D, Pedraza-Chaverri J. Medicinal properties of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.): A comprehensive update. Food Chem Toxicol. 2017;109(pt 1):102-122. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2017.08.02128842267
Pan-In P, Wongsomboon A, Kokpol C, Chaichanawongsaroj N, Wanichwecharungruang S. Depositing α-mangostin nanoparticles to sebaceous gland area for acne treatment. J Pharmacol Sci. 2015;129(4):226-232. doi:10.1016/j.jphs.2015.11.00526701606
Park JY, Ko KA, Lee JY, et al. Clinical and immunological efficacy of mangosteen and propolis extracted complex in patients with gingivitis: A multi-centered randomized controlled clinical trial. Nutrients. 2021;13(8):2604. doi:10.3390/nu1308260434444764
Patthamakanokporn O, Puwastien P, Nitithamyong A, Sirichakwal PP. Changes of antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds during storage of selected fruits. J Food Compost Anal. 2008;21(3):241-248.
Phesatcha K, Phesatcha B, Wanapat M. Mangosteen peel liquid-protected soybean meal can shift rumen microbiome and rumen fermentation end-products in lactating crossbred Holstein Friesian cows. Front Vet Sci. 2022;8:772043. doi:10.3389/fvets.2021.77204335146011
Ramage CM, Sando L, Peace CP, Carroll BJ, Drew RA. Genetic diversity revealed in the apomictic fruit species Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen). Euphytica. 2004;136:1-10.
Rassameemasmaung S, Sirikulsathean A, Amornchat C, Hirunrat K, Rojanapanthu P, Gritsanapan W. Effects of herbal mouthwash containing the pericarp extract of Garcinia mangostana L on halitosis, plaque and papillary bleeding index. J Int Acad Periodontol. 2007;9(1):19-25.17274236
Rusman JRA, Sundari SA, Nuriliani A, Saragih HT. Ameliorative effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) peel infusion on the histopathological structures of the liver and kidney of rats (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769) after H2O2 induction. Vet World. 2021;14(6):1579-1587. doi:10.14202/vetworld.2021.1579-158734316206
Sakagami Y, Iinuma M, Piyasena KG, Dharmaratne HR. Antibacterial activity of alpha-mangostin against vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) and synergism with antibiotics. Phytomedicine. 2005;12(3):203-208.15830842
Sampath PD, Vijayaragavan K. Ameliorative prospective of alpha-mangostin, a xanthone derivative from Garcinia mangostana against beta-adrenergic cathecolamine-induced myocardial toxicity and anomalous cardiac TNF-alpha and COX-2 expressions in rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2008;60(4-5):357-364.18424012
Stern JS, Peerson J, Mishra AT, Sadasiva Rao MV, Rajeswari KP. Efficacy and tolerability of a novel herbal formulation for weight management. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21(5):921-927.23784895
Suksamrarn S, Komutiban O, Ratananukul P, Chimnoi N, Lartpornmatulee N, Suksamrarn A. Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones from the young fruit of Garcinia mangostana. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2006;54(3):301-305.16508181
Suksamrarn S, Suwannapoch N, Phakhodee W, et al. Antimycobacterial activity of prenylated xanthones from the fruits of Garcinia mangostana. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2003;51(7):857-859.12843596
Tjahjani S. Antimalarial activity of Garcinia mangostana L rind and its synergistic effect with artemisinin in vitro. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17(1):131. doi:10.1186/s12906-017-1649-828241761
Tousian Shandiz H, Razavi BM, Hosseinzadeh H. Review of Garcinia mangostana and its xanthones in metabolic syndrome and related complications. Phytother Res. 2017;31(8):1173-1182. doi:10.1002/ptr.586228656594
Tsai HH, Chen CW, Yu PL, Lin YL, Hsieh RH. Mangosteen pericarp components alleviate progression of prostatic hyperplasia and mitochondrial dysfunction in rats. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):322. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-56970-231941927
Tsai SY, Chung PC, Owaga EE, et al. Alpha-mangostin from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) pericarp extract reduces high fat-diet induced hepatic steatosis in rats by regulating mitochondria function and apoptosis. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2016;13:88.27980597
Turner A, Baker A, Dean OM, et al. Adjunctive Garcinia mangostana Linn. (mangosteen) pericarp for schizophrenia: A 24-week double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled efficacy Trial. Can J Psychiatry. 2021;66(4):354-366. doi:10.1177/070674372098243733355478
Udani JK, Singh BB, Barrett ML, Singh VJ. Evaluation of Mangosteen juice blend on biomarkers of inflammation in obese subjects: a pilot, dose finding study. Nutr J. 2009;8:48. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-8-4819843321
Wadsworth JW, Story SP, Zhou BN, et al, inventors. Garcinia mangostana L. enhanced animal food product. US patent 07244463. July 17, 2007.Wadsworth.2007
Wang CC, Chen LG, Lin LH, Yang LL. Inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors of Chinese herbs IV: Garcinia mangostana. American Chemical Society. 2004;AN 2004:655096.Wang.2004
Wang F, Ma H, Liu Z, Huang W, Xu X, Zhang X. α-Mangostin inhibitis DMBA/TPA-induced skin cancer through inhibiting inflammation and promoting autophagy and apoptosis by regulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in mice. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;92:672-680. doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2017.05.12928582759
Weecharangsan W, Opanasopit P, Sukma M, Ngawhirunpat T, Sotanaphun U, Siripong P. Antioxidative and neuroprotective activities of extracts from the fruit hull of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.). Med Princ Pract. 2006;15(4):281-287.16763395
Williams P, Ongsakul M, Proudfoot J, Croft K, Beilin L. Mangostin inhibits the oxidative modification of human low density lipoprotein. Free Radic Res. 1995;23(2):175-184.7581813
Wong LP, Klemmer PJ. Severe lactic acidosis associated with juice of the mangosteen fruit Garcinia mangostana. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008;51(5):829-833. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2007.12.04318436094
Yu L, Zhao M, Yang B, Zhao Q, Jiang Y. Phenolics from hull of Garcinia mangostana fruit and their antioxidant activities. Food Chem. 2007;104(1):176-181.
Zhang W, Jian G, Zhou X, et al. α-Mangostin inhibits LPS-induced bone resorption by restricting osteoclastogenesis via NF-ĸB and MAPK signaling. Chin Med. 2022;17(1):34. doi:10.1186/s13020-022-00589-535248101

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.