Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Apr 15, 2020.
Scientific Name(s): Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br.
Common Name(s): Capitana, Contragavilana, Cow-gall bitter, Gavilana, Herbe-a-pique, Inaciabi, Jackass bitters, Mano de lagarto, Tres puntas, Zeb-a-pique
The plant species has numerous ethnomedicinal uses. Medical literature documents in vitro and animal studies on the plant's antibacterial, antimalarial, antiplasmodial, anthelminthic, and hypoglycemic activity, but there are no clinical trials to support its use for any indication.
None validated by clinical data. Ethnomedicinal resources vary for dosage of an N. lobata leaf decoction in treating malaria, ranging from 3 glasses daily for 4 days to 1 glass daily before breakfast for 7 days.
Patients with known hypersensitivity reactions to any of the components of the plant species.
Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.
None well documented.
None well documented.
Chemical analysis revealed the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. No toxicity was observed with oral doses up to 5,000 mg/kg in mice.
- Asteraceae (daisy)
The weedy herbaceous plant N. lobata grows in northwestern South America through Central America and into southern Mexico. The plant species also is found throughout the Caribbean islands. It grows 1 to 2 m tall and has alternate trilobed leaves. The yellow flowers grow in compact groups at the end of the branches. All portions of the plant have a bitter taste. When handled, the fresh leaves and stems stain the skin yellow.Borges-del-Castillo 1982, Manchand 1978, Passreiter 1995, USDA 2017
The plant species has numerous ethnomedicinal uses. In Mesoamerica, the herb was used to treat several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, dysentery (amebiasis), and malaria. In Panama, an infusion of the leaves was used to treat diabetes, hypertension, and hepatic ailments. In the Panamanian province of Darian, it is used for malaria and as an insect repellent. In Caribbean folk medicine, the herb was used medicinally to treat skin diseases, gastric pain, ulcers, and as a general pain reliever. In Guatemala, the plant has been used to treat malaria, anemia, and nervous weakness. It also has been used as a tonic and an antipyretic.Borges-del-Castillo 1982, Caceres 1998, Franssen 1997, Giron 1991, Gracioso 1998, Passreiter 1995, Passreiter 1997
The primary medicinal components, the sesquiterpene lactones, are found in the leaf. The germacranolide sesquiterpene lactones include neurolenins A, B, C, D, E, and F and lobatin A. The neurolenins are found in the leaves in high concentrations and may be involved with the plant's medicinal use in treating dysentery. The neurolenins are extremely bitter substances. The germacranolide sesquiterpene lactones possess the structural requirements for cytotoxic and anticancer activities; however, neurolenins A and B were inactive in an animal model against sarcoma-180. Examples of isolated furanoheliangolides from N. lobata include lobatins B and C. The sesquiterpene content also is associated with the plant's antimalarial activity and activity against insects. N. lobata plants of different geographical origin show some qualitative and quantitative variations in their sesquiterpene lactone content. Flavonoids, coumarins, thymols, mellilotic acid, iridoids, and alkaloids also have been identified. More than 12 flavonoids have been isolated.Bohimann 9789, Borges-del-Castillo 1982, Castro 1996, Kerr 1981, Manchand 1978, Passreiter 1995, Passreiter 1997, Passreiter 1998, Passreiter 1999, Passreiter 1998, Todorova 1997
Uses and Pharmacology
Clinical studies are lacking.
Research reveals no clinical studies regarding the use of N. lobata for anti-inflammatory effect.
Based on in vitro studies, some animal experiments have been conducted.Berger 1998, Caceres 1998, Franssen 1997, Fujimaki 2005 in vitro antibacterial activity has been reported.Lentz 1998 Antiplasmodial effects of chemical constituents neurolenins, and of ethanol and methanol extracts have been demonstrated in rodents.Berger 2001, Francois 1996
Hypoglycemic activity in mice was demonstrated in an older study; however this line of research does not appear to have been further pursued.Gupta 1984
Various fractions of a hydroalcoholic extract of N. lobata aerial parts reduced gastric lesion formation in rodent models. Researchers suggest the mechanism of action may be associated with mucus production and prostaglandin synthesis.Gracioso 2000 Wound healing in a study in rats was improved with extracts of the leaves of the plant.Nayak 2014
Extracts of the branches, leaves, and stems of N. lobata had moderate neutralization activity at doses up to 4 mg per mouse against the hemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox snake venom of from Antioquia and Chocó, northwestern Colombia.Otero 2000
None has been validated by clinical data. Ethnomedicinal resources vary for dosage of an N. lobata leaf decoction in treating malaria, ranging from 3 glasses daily for 4 days to 1 glass daily before breakfast for 7 days.Berger 1998, Giron 1991
Pregnancy / Lactation
Avoid use during pregnancy and lactation because of lack of clinical studies.Francois 1996
None validated by clinical data. The herb has the potential to produce additive effects in patients also taking analgesics, diuretics, or antimalarial medications.
None well documented.
Chemical analysis revealed the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids; however, toxic necine pyrrolizidines were not present. No toxicity was observed with oral doses up to 5,000 mg/kg in mice. Gracioso 1998, Gracioso 1996
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