Scientific Name(s): Armoracia lapathiofolia Gilib., Armoracia rusticana Gaertn., Mey. and Scherb.
Common Name(s): Great raifort, Horseradish, Mountain radish, Pepperrot, Red cole
Horseradish is a large-leafed, hardy perennial native to eastern Europe and western Asia.Chevallier 1996, Weiss 1992 The plant is deep-rooted, can grow to 1 m in height, and develops clusters of 4-petaled white flowers during the spring.Weiss 1992 It is cultivated commercially for its thick, fleshy, white roots that have a strong, irritating, and intensely pungent taste. Some hybrids are sterile; therefore, the plant is generally propagated through root cuttings.
Horseradish has been cultivated and used as a medicine and condiment for at least 2,000 years.Blumenthal 2000, Chevallier 1996, Lininger 1998, Weiss 1992 Early settlers brought the horseradish plant to America, and the plant was commonplace in gardens by the early 1800s. Hardy varieties were obtained through plant selection and grown easily in the Midwest.
The root has a long history of use in traditional medicine. It has been used to treat bronchial and urinary infections, inflammation of the joints and tissues, sinus congestion, and edema.Yu 2001 Topically, it was applied to the skin to reduce pain from sciatica and facial neuralgia. Internally, it was used to expel afterbirth, relieve colic, increase urination, and kill intestinal worms in children.Chevallier 1996, Lininger 1998
The horseradish root is used as a condiment and may be grated and mixed with other flavorings to make sauce or relish.Lininger 1998 Young, tender leaves have been used as a potherb and as a salad green. Horseradish is 1 of the 5 bitter herbs (horseradish, coriander, horehound, lettuce, nettle) consumed during the Jewish holiday of Passover.
The medicinal component is the root, which contains mustard oil and mustard oil glycosides.Yu 2001 The pungency of horseradish is due to the release of allylisothiocyanate and butylthiocyanate that occurs in combination with glucosinolates sinigrinKorb 1989 and 2-phenylethylglycosinolate. The pungency is released only upon crushing. The isothiocyanates are released from glucosinolates by the action of thioglucosidases, which are commonly referred to as myrosinase.Grob 1980 More than 6 volatile glucosinolates have been identified using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis.Sahasrabudhe 1980 Other constituents of the root include asparagine, resin, ascorbic acid, and peroxidase enzymes.Weiss 1992
To preserve the quality of horseradish, the root is commonly dehydrated, freeze-dried, and powdered.Jamnicky 1988
Peroxidase enzyme is extracted from the root and is used as an oxidizer in commercial chemical tests, such as blood glucose determinations.Shiozawa 1983 The purified enzyme has a molecular weight of approximately 40 kDa.Liener 1980
Uses and Pharmacology
Horseradish is widely known for its pungent, burning flavor.
An extract of horseradish has been shown to inhibit the enzyme cholinesterase.Sjaastad 1984
The antibacterial properties of horseradish are attributed to the isothiocyanates (ie, mustard oils).Ward 1998 The growth of bacteria, such as Pseudomonas spp, Escherichia coli, Serratia grimesii, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterobacteriaceae, was inhibited on incubated slices of cooked roast beef that were exposed to horseradish essential oil and a distillated extract from fresh horseradish root.Delaquis 1999, Maslov 2002
Dried and grated horseradish root fed in dosages of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg with food inhibited the growth of Mycobacterium leprae in mice in 1 study. The authors concluded that dried and grated horseradish root increased myeloperoxidase activity of blood neutrophils, enhanced antimicrobial functions of phagocytes, decreased leukocytosis, and normalized total blood cell count in mice with experimental leprosy. The most efficacious dose was 300 mg/kg with food. Therapy duration of 5, 8, and 11 months produced no toxic effects on the functional activity of the liver (alanine and aspartate transaminases) in control and intact animals.Wardman 2002
In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients with chronic urinary tract infections (UTIs) were randomized to receive an herbal drug containing horseradish root 80 mg and nasturtium 200 mg at a dosage of 2 tablets twice daily or placebo for 90 days. The mean number of UTI relapses was 0.43 for the treatment group compared with 0.77 for the placebo group (1 side P-value = 0.035). However, a statistically significant difference was not found between the 2 groups in the intent-to-treat population. The number of patients experiencing adverse effects was similar between the groups. Thus, the combination of horseradish and nasturtium may be beneficial in the prophylaxis of UTIs.Albrecht 2007
Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of horseradish for antibacterial effects.
It is hypothesized that horseradish peroxidase acts by stimulating the synthesis of arachidonic acid metabolites.Albrecht 2007
Intravenous administration of horseradish peroxidase caused a marked hypotensive effect in cats. The hypotensive effect was completely blocked by aspirin and indomethacin, but not by antihistamines.
Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of horseradish for hypotensive effects.
Horseradish peroxidase in combination with the prodrug indole-3-acetic acid has demonstrated cytotoxic activity in vitro toward mammalian cells.Wu 2009 Isothiocyanates have demonstrated insecticidal activity.Simon 1984
In a small randomized, placebo-controlled, researcher-blind 5-way crossover study (n=25), administration of 8.3 g shredded horseradish in a standardized meal produced a statistically significant increase in diastolic blood pressure in healthy males compared with placebo (0.4 mm Hg, P=0.049). No other significant effects on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake, or energy balance were observed with horseradish. However, horseradish was found to have a significantly stronger aftertaste than mustard and black pepper and to be rated less liked than placebo. Mustard, black pepper, and ginger were the other 3 spices tested in the crossover that incorporated at least a 3-week washout.Gregerson 2013
Traditional use for colds and respiratory infections was 20 g/day of fresh or dried root.Blumenthal 1998 Some proposed doses include:
2 to 4 g before meals.
In 150 mL of boiled water, steep horseradish 2 g for 5 minutes; administer several times per day.
Fresh juice from 20 g.
Prepare a concentrated product by steeping horseradish root 2 g in 150 mL of boiled water in a covered container for 2 hours. After straining, add 150 g of sugar to 150 mL of liquid to thicken the preparation.Yu 2001
Pregnancy / Lactation
Documented adverse effects; avoid use.Newall 1996, Ernst 2002, Coumadin 2010 Use should be avoided during pregnancy and lactation because the allylisothiocyanates are toxic mucosal irritants. Horseradish has abortifacient effects.
Anticholinergic drugs, such as atropine, may antagonize the effects of horseradish. Horseradish may enhance the parasympathetic effects of cholinergic drugs, such as bethanecol or pyridostigmine, when given concomitantly.Simon 1984
Topical application may cause an erythematous rash or allergic reaction because of the glucosinolate content.Chevallier 1996 Horseradish is part of the cabbage and mustard family, so it may depress thyroid function. The isothiocyanates may irritate mucous membranes upon contact or inhalation.
Despite the potential for severe irritation, horseradish is generally recognized as safe for human consumption as natural seasoning and flavoring.FDA 2015 Ingestion of large amounts can cause bloody vomiting and diarrhea.Coumadin 2010
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