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Galangal

Scientific Name(s): Alpinia galanga., Alpinia officinarum Hance., Kaempferia galanga L.
Common Name(s): Ankaferd BloodStopper, Blue ginger, Chewing John, China root, Chinese ginger, East Indian root, Galanga, Galangal root, Greater galangal (A. galanga), Kulanjan, Laos, Lesser galangal (A. officinarum), Little John chew, Rhizoma galangae

Clinical Overview

Use

Clinical trials are lacking, with the majority of support for therapeutic use relying on in vitro and animal data or anecdotal and traditional claims. Potential applications may arise from antimicrobial and antioxidant effects.

Dosing

There are no clinical studies of galangal monotherapy to provide a basis for dosage recommendations. A combination of galangal and ginger rhizome extracts was used at a dose of 510 mg/day to improve pain in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

Contraindications

Contraindications have not yet been identified.

Pregnancy/Lactation

Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.

Interactions

None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical studies and case reports are lacking.

Toxicology

Information is limited.

Botany

Galangal is a reed-like perennial herb with stems growing up to 1 m high that are covered by sheaths of narrow lanceolate leaves. Its inflorescence is a short raceme of white flowers that are veined and shaded in dull red. The plant has been cultivated for the rhizomes in India, China, and Southeast Asia. Galangal rhizomes appear on the market as branched or simple rhizome fragments with wavy, reddish-brown annulations of the leaf bases that have an aromatic, spicy, and pungent odor and flavor. Galangal is from the same family as ginger, the Zingiberaceae, but the species are not equivalent, and also should not be confused with the unrelated "galingale" from the genus Cyperus.1, 2 A synonym is Languas galanga (L.) Stuntz.

History

The rhizomes of galangal and its derivatives have been used for their aromatic stimulant, carminative, and condiment properties, much like ginger, and are extensively used in Asian cuisine. Young inflorescences and leaves are eaten raw in salads in Asia. Galangal oil is used to flavor French liqueurs and is also used in some tobaccos. The "ginger" of Thailand is obtained from A. galanga. The large, ordinary, preserved ginger of China is also derived from A. galanga. A. galanga (greater galangal), containing the volatile oil essence d'Amali, is used in China and northern India for various respiratory complaints in children, particularly bronchial catarrh (mucous membrane inflammation). Other traditional uses include the treatment of rheumatism, ulcers, incontinence, fevers, microbial infections, bad breath, whooping cough, throat infections, and diabetes.2, 3

Chemistry

Galangal contains a greenish-yellow volatile oil composed of cineo; eugenol; sesquiterpenes; isomers of cadinene; a resin containing galangol, kaempferide, and galangin; as well as starch and other constituents. The rhizomes are abundant with flavonoids and phenolic acids, and reviews of the constituents have been published. 2, 3, 4

Uses and Pharmacology

Clinical trials are lacking, with the majority of support for galangal’s therapeutic use relying on in vitro or animal data or anecdotal and traditional claims.

Antimicrobial

In vitro antifungal activity has been described for galangal oils in older reports5, 6, 7, 8; however, a more recent in vitro study found no activity against Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans.9 Activity against a number of pathogenic bacteria has been shown in vitro for whole plant and crude rhizome extracts as well as for galangin and kaemferide,2, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and synergistic effects with antibiotics against resistant bacteria have also been demonstrated in vitro.16, 17, 18 The rhizome extract of K. galangal was also found to have some inhibitory activity on Helicobacter pylori in vitro with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 25 mcg/mL.44 In vitro experimentation was conducted in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells with 24 medicinal plants indigenous to Pakistan to evaluate their effect on secretion of interleukin (IL)-8 and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in order to assess anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects. Although no significant direct cytotoxic effects on the gastric cells or bactericidal effects on H. pylori were found, rhizome extract of A. galangal was observed to have moderate and strong inhibitory activity on IL-8 at 50 and 100 mcg/mL, respectively, in H. pylori-infected gastric cells.45

Animal data

In mice, a methanol extract of the rhizomes of A. galangal showed inhibitory activity against the malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei.19 Activity against the influenza virus was demonstrated in mice following oral administration of an A. officinarum extract.14

Clinical data

Research reveals no clinical data regarding the antimicrobial use of galangal.

Cancer

In vitro studies have shown activity of galangal extracts against a variety of cancer cell lines. Active chemical constituents identified include galangin, 4-hydroxycinnamaldehyde, curcuminiods, and diarylheptanoids. Direct cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of tumor growth have been demonstrated.20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 Cytotoxic diterpenes have been found in the seeds of A. galanga.3, 6

Animal data

A. galanga shows antitumor activity in mice.21, 23, 27

Clinical data

Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of galangal in cancer.

CNS

Animal data

The ethanol extract of A. galanga decreased amnesia induced in mice with neurotoxins. A decrease in acetylcholinesterase and monoamine oxidase enzyme activity was observed.28, 29 An analgesic effect of A. galanga extract was demonstrated in mice using the hot plate and writhing tests.30

Clinical data

Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of galangal for any central or peripheral nervous system condition.

Other uses

Antioxidant activity has been described for galanga crude extracts and for specific flavonols and phenols.9, 28, 29, 31

Anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating activity has been demonstrated for extracts of Alpinia rhizomes. Applications in arthritis have been suggested.32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37

A systematic review and meta-analysis of 8 randomized clinical trials (N = 734) published before December 2014 found an overall moderate to large effect of Zingiberaceae extracts (including turmeric, ginger, and galangal) on chronic pain compared with placebo; however, substantial heterogeneity was found. Significantly lower subjective pain was reported with the intervention (P = 0.004). A strong dose-response relationship was also demonstrated. Patient groups included 3 studies in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip, and 1 study each in patients with gonarthritis, irritable bowel syndrome, muscle soreness following exercise, postoperative pain, and primary dysmenorrhea. One of the osteoarthritis trials (n = 247) used 510 mg/day of mixed galangal and ginger rhizome extracts for 6 weeks and demonstrated significantly lower pain on walking in the treatment group.43

Limited studies in rats have shown improved lipid profiles and insulin resistance with galangal supplementation.38, 39

Dosing

There are no clinical studies of galangal to provide a basis for dosage recommendations.

Pregnancy / Lactation

Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.

Interactions

Case reports are lacking. Platelet-activating factor receptor binding activity has been reported for galangal as a component of the Turkish hemorrhage-impeding, medicinal herbal product Ankaferd BloodStopper. An interaction with hemostatic agents can therefore be theorized.4, 40, 41

Adverse Reactions

Research reveals little or no information regarding adverse reactions with the use of this product.

Toxicology

Acute oral toxicity in mice was absent at 300 mg/kg and lethal at 5,000 mg/kg in one study. Signs of toxicity included asthenia, anorexia, piloerection, urination, diarrhea, and coma.19

Another study found A. galanga–treated animals showed a rise in red blood cell levels, weight gain of sexual organs, and increased sperm motility and sperm counts. No spermatotoxic effects were noted.42

References

1. Alpinia officinarum Hance. USDA, NRCS. 2012. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 9 July 2012). National Plant Data Team. Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA. Accessed July 9, 2012.
2. Rao K, Chodisetti B, Gandi S, Mangamoori LN, Giri A. Direct and indirect organogenesis of Alpinia galanga and the phytochemical analysis. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2011;165(5-6):1366-1378.21892666
3. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience; 2003.
4. Kaushik D, Yadav J, Kaushik P, Sacher D, Rani R. Current pharmacological and phytochemical studies of the plant Alpinia galanga. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2011;9(10):1061-1065.22015185
5. Janssen AM, Scheffer JJ. Acetoxychavicol acetate, an antifungal component of Alpinia galanga1. Planta Med. 1985;51(6):507-511.17345272
6. Morita H, Itokawa H. Cytotoxic and antifungal diterpenes from the seeds of Alpinia galanga. Planta Med. 1988;54(2):117-120.3406169
7. Ray PG, Majumdar SK. Antifungal flavonoid from Alpinia officinarum Hance. Indian J of Exp Biol. 1976;14(6):712-714.1025003
8. Lima EO, Gompertz OF, Giesbrecht AM, Paulo MQ. In vitro antifungal activity of essential oils obtained from officinal plants against dermatophytes. Mycoses. 1993;36(9-10):333-336.8015567
9. Srividya AR, Dhanabal SP, Misra VK, Suja G. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Alpinia officinarum. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010;72(1):145-148.20582210
10. Kaur A, Singh R, Dey CS, Sharma SS, Bhutani KK, Singh IP. Antileishmanial phenylpropanoids from Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Willd. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48(3):314-317.21046987
11. Latha C, Shriram VD, Jahagirdar SS, Dhakephalkar PK, Rojatkar SR. Antiplasmid activity of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate from Alpinia galanga against multi-drug resistant bacteria. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;123(3):522-525.19501283
12. Vuddhakul V, Bhoopong P, Hayeebilan F, Subhadhirasakul S. Inhibitory activity of Thai condiments on pandemic strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Food Microbiol. 2007;24(4):413-418.17189767
13. Niyomkam P, Kaewbumrung S, Kaewnpparat S, Panichayupakaranant P. Antibacterial activity of Thai herbal extracts on acne involved microorganism. Pharm Biol. 2010;48(4):375-380.20645714
14. Sawamura R, Shimizu T, Sun Y, et al. In vitro and in vivo anti-influenza virus activity of diarylheptanoids isolated from Alpinia officinarum. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2010;21(1):33-41.21045258
15. Rao K, Ch B, Narasu LM, Giri A. Antibacterial activity of Alpinia galanga (L) Willd crude extracts. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2010;162(3):871-884.20387130
16. Eumkeb G, Sakdarat S, Siriwong S. Reversing β-lactam antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus with galangin from Alpinia officinarum Hance and synergism with ceftazidime. Phytomedicine. 2010;18(1):40-45.21036573
17. Eumkeb G, Siriwong S, Phitaktim S, Rojtinnakorn N, Sakdarat S. Synergistic activity and mode of action of flavonoids isolated from smaller galangal and amoxicillin combinations against amoxicillin-resistant Escherichia coli. J Appl Microbiol. 2012;112(1):55-64.2211196710.1111/j.1365-2672.2011.05190.x
18. Lee YS, Kang OH, Choi JG, et al. Synergistic effects of the combination of galangin with gentamicin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Microbiol. 2008;46(3):283-288.18604497
19. Al-Adhroey AH, Nor ZM, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Mahmud R. Median lethal dose, antimalarial activity, phytochemical screening and radical scavenging of methanolic Languas galanga rhizome extract. Molecules. 2010;15(11):8366-8376.21081857
20. Banjerdpongchai R, Punyati P, Nakrob A, Pompimon W, Kongtawelert P. 4'-hydroxycinnamaldehyde from Alpinia galanga (Linn.) induces human leukemic cell apoptosis via mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12(3):593-598.21627350
21. Jaiswal JV, Wadegaonkar PA, Hajare SW. The bioflavonoid galangin suppresses the growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice: a molecular insight [published online ahead of print March 21, 2012]. Appl Biochem Biotechnol.22434356
22. Lu YH, Lin-Tao, Wang ZT, Wei DZ, Xiang HB. Mechanism and inhibitory effect of galangin and its flavonoid mixture from Alpinia officinarum on mushroom tyrosinase and B16 murine melanoma cells. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2007;22(4):433-438.17847709
23. Matsuda H, Nakashima S, Oda Y, Nakamura S, Yoshikawa M. Melanogenesis inhibitors from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum in B16 melanoma cells. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17(16):6048-6053.19615910
24. An N, Zou ZM, Tian Z, Luo XZ, Yang SL, Xu LZ. Diarylheptanoids from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum and their anticancer activity. Fitoterapia. 2008;79(1):27-31.17916414
25. Panich U, Kongtaphan K, Onkoksoong T, et al. Modulation of antioxidant defense by Alpinia galanga and Curcuma aromatica extracts correlates with their inhibition of UVA-induced melanogenesis. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2010;26(2):103-116.19288216
26. Tabata K, Yamazaki Y, Okada M, et al. Diarylheptanoids derived from Alpinia officinarum induce apoptosis, S-phase arrest and differentiation in human neuroblastoma cells. Anticancer Res. 2009;29(12):4981-4988.20044605
27. Itokawa H, Morita H, Sumitomo T, Totsuka N, Takeya K. Antitumour principles from Alpinia galanga. Planta Med. 1987;53(1):32-33.3575509
28. Hanish Singh JC, Alagarsamy V, Sathesh Kumar S, Narsimha Reddy Y. Neurotransmitter metabolic enzymes and antioxidant status on Alzheimer's disease induced mice treated with Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd. Phytother Res. 2011;25(7):1061-1067.2128011110.1002/ptr.3364
29. Guo AJ, Xie HQ, Choi RC, et al. Galangin, a flavonol derived from Rhizoma Alpiniae officinarum, inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity in vitro. Chem Biol Interact. 2010;187(1-3):246-248.20452337
30. Acharya SD, Ullal SD, Padiyar S, et al. Analgesic effect of extracts of Alpinia galanga rhizome in mice. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2011;9(1):100-104.21227040
31. Puangsombat K, Jirapakkul W, Smith JS. Inhibitory activity of Asian spices on heterocyclic amines formation in cooked beef patties. J Food Sci. 2011;76(8):T174-T180.2191392010.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02338.x
32. Jantan I, Harun NH, Septama AW, Murad S, Mesaik MA. Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants. J Nat Med. 2011;65(2):400-405.21184195
33. Lee J, Kim KA, Jeong S, et al. Anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and anti-psychiatric effects by the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum on complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;126(2):258-264.19715749
34. Phitak T, Choocheep K, Pothacharoen P, Pompimon W, Premanode B, Kongtawelert P. The effects of p-hydroxycinnamaldehyde from Alpinia galanga extracts on human chondrocytes. Phytochemistry. 2009;70(2):237-243.19118849
35. Pothacharoen P, Choocheep K, Phitak T, Pompimon W, Kongtawelert P. Alpinia galanga extracts downregulate interleukin-1β-induced matrix metalloproteinases expression in human synovial fibroblasts. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2011;47(3):183-187.21132464
36. Yu ES, Min HJ, Lee K, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of p-coumaryl alcohol-gamma-O-methyl ether is mediated through modulation of interferon-gamma production in Th cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;156(7):1107-1114.19226286
37. Ageel AM, Mossa JS, al-Yahya MA, al-Said MS, Tariq M. Experimental studies on antirheumatic crude drugs used in Saudi traditional medicine. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1989;15(8):369-372.2598777
38. Xia DZ, Yu XF, Wang HM, Ren QY, Chen BM. Anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects of ethanolic extract from Alpinia officinarum Hance (Zingiberaceae) in rats fed high-fat diet. J Med Food. 2010;13(4):785-791.20482258
39. Sivakumar AS, Viswanathan P, Anuradha CV. Dose-dependent effect of galangin on fructose-mediated insulin resistance and oxidative events in rat kidney. Redox Rep. 2010;15(5):224-232.21062538
40. Goker H, Haznedaroglu IC, Ercetin S, et al. Haemostatic actions of the folkloric medicinal plant extract Ankaferd Blood Stopper. J Int Med Res. 2008;36(1):163-170.18304416
41. Fan GJ, Kang YH, Han YN, Han BH. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor binding antagonists from Alpinia officinarum. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007;17(24):6720-6722.17964782
42. Qureshi S, Shah AH, Ageel AM. Toxicity studies on Alpinia galanga and Curcuma longa. Planta Med. 1992;58(2):124-127.1529022
43. Lakhan SE, Ford CT, Tepper D. Zingiberaceae extracts for pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr J. 2015;14:50.25972154
44. Bhamarapravati S, Pendland SL, Mahady GB. Extractsof spice and food plants from Thai traditional medicine inhibit the growth of the human carcinogen Helicobacter pylori. In Vivo. 2003;17(6):541-544.
45. Zaidi SF, Muhammad JS, Shahryar S, et al. Anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of selected Pakistani medicinal plants in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141(1):403-410.

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