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Cumin

Scientific Name(s): Cuminum cyminum L.
Common Name(s): Cumin, Cummin

Clinical Overview

Use

Cumin seeds are used in cooking and the oil is used to flavor food and scent cosmetics. Components may have antioxidant, anticancer, hypoglycemic, antiepileptic, antiosteoporotic, ophthalmic, antibacterial, and larvicidal effects; however, there is no clinical evidence to support these claims. Cumin is generally recognized as safe for human consumption as a spice and flavoring.

Dosing

Cumin powder 3 g/day (1.5 g twice daily with lunch and dinner) significantly improved lipid profiles and body composition parameters in overweight/obese women. At 300 mg/day, 8 weeks of cumin supplementation in overweight Iranian adults significantly improved weight, body mass index (BMI), insulin levels, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic beta-cell function.

Contraindications

Contraindications have not yet been identified.

Pregnancy/Lactation

Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.

Interactions

None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

The oil may have photosensitizing effects. Cumin may also cause hypoglycemia.

Toxicology

No data are available.

Botany

Cumin is a small annual plant native to the Mediterranean region, where it is cultivated extensively. The cumin seed is widely used in cooking. The dried seeds resemble those of caraway, but are straighter in form and have a coarser taste and odor.4 Major cumin seed producers include Egypt, Iran, India, and Morocco.5 The United States is one of the largest producers of cumin oil. This spice should not be confused with sweet cumin, which is a common name for anise (Pimpinella anisum).1 Black cumin (Bunium persicum ) has smaller and sweeter seeds than C. cyminum, but is not commercially important. Another black cumin (Nigella sativa) is not related to cumin.1, 3 Synonyms are Cuminum odorum Salisb, Cuminia cyminum J.F. Gmel, Cuminum hispanicum Bunge, and Ligusticum cuminum (L.) Crantz.

History

Traditional uses of cumin include anti-inflammatory, diuretic, carminative, and antispasmodic. It has also been used as an aid for treating dyspepsia, jaundice, diarrhea, flatulence, and indigestion. Cumin powder has been used as a poultice and suppository and has been smoked in a pipe and taken orally.6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 In addition, cumin has been used historically for the treatment of toothaches and epilepsy in Iran.12 Cumin is a major component of curry and chili powders and is used to flavor a variety of commercial food products.5 Cumin has also been crushed and mixed with foods such as fish and meat, and the seeds sprinkled on bread and cakes.2 The oil, derived by steam distillation3 is used to flavor alcoholic beverages, desserts, and condiments. It is also used as a fragrant component of creams, lotions, and perfumes.5

Chemistry

Cumin seeds contain up to 5% of a volatile oil composed primarily of aldehydes (up to 60%). In addition, the seeds yield about 22% fats, numerous free amino acids, and a variety of flavonoid glycosides, including derivatives of apigenin and luteolin.5, 7, 8, 13, 14 The cuminaldehyde content varies considerably, depending on the source of the oil (fresh vs ground seeds). Fine grinding of the seed can result in the loss of up to 50% of the volatile oil5 with the greatest loss occurring within 1 hour of milling. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are another major component of the oil; sesquiterpenes are minor constituents.8, 13

The chief components of the characteristic aroma of unheated whole seeds are 3p-menthen-7al and cuminaldehyde in combination with other related aldehydes. Cumin also contains safrole, a mutagen, which is degraded by cooking.15

Uses and Pharmacology

Cumin is generally recognized as safe for human consumption as a spice and flavoring.3

Antioxidant effects

Animal data

Cumin seeds contain flavonoids, many of which are now generally recognized to have antioxidant activity. The petroleum ether soluble fraction of cumin has shown antioxidant activity when mixed with lard.5 In studies in mice, cumin seed elevated levels of glutathione and stimulated other antioxidant systems.8

Conflicting evidence exists for the inhibition of hepatic peroxidation.8, 22 However, cuminaldehyde has been demonstrated to scavenge the superoxide anion.23

Clinical data

A double-blind, controlled trial randomized 78 overweight Iranian adults (BMI greater than 25) to cumin (300 mg/day essential oil), orlistat (360 mg/day), or placebo for 8 weeks to assess the effect of cumin on weight loss, metabolic profiles, and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Compared to placebo or orlistat, cumin supplementation provided no significant effect on oxidative stress as measured by total plasma glutathione.38

Anticancer effects

Animal data

In mice, cumin seeds demonstrated the ability to inhibit the induction of gastric squamous cell carcinomas.8, 24 Cumin also demonstrated a protective effect against induced colonic cancer in rats. Decreased beta-glucuronidase and mucinase activity was evident, and the rats had fewer papillae, no infiltration into the submucosa, and fewer morphological changes.25

Cumin seeds were not carcinogenic when tested by the reverse mutation Salmonella typhimurium (TA100) test, but demonstrated very weak oxidative mutagenicity with strain TA102.15, 26

Clinical data

No human clinical data are available regarding the use of cumin for the treatment of cancer.

Antiepileptic effects

Animal data

In garden snails, extracellular application of the essential oil of C. cyminum 1% and 3% dramatically reduced epileptic activity induced by pentylenetetrazol by decreasing the firing rate of F1 neuronal cells, causing a significant depolarization in the resting membrane potential (P < 0.05) and reducing the amplitude of after hyperpolarization potential as well as increasing the duration (P < 0.05).12

Clinical data

No human clinical data are available regarding the use of cumin for antiepileptic effects.

Antiosteoporotic effects

Animal data

Cumin is recognized as a phytoestrogen-rich plant containing estrogenic components, such as beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and the flavonoids luteolin and apigenin. Cumin may serve as a potential treatment option in estrogen-related conditions such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. A study was conducted using 40 virgin Sprague-Dawley rats in which 30 underwent bilateral ovariectomies (OVM) and 10 underwent a sham operation. The sham group (n = 10) and OVM control group (n = 10) received a vehicle while the other OVM rats received estradiol 0.15 mg/kg and 1 g/kg of methanolic extract of C. cyminum (MCC) in 2 divided doses for a period of 10 weeks. The administration of MCC was associated with reduced urinary calcium excretion and increased calcium content compared with OVM control group. Additionally, MCC was associated with greater bone density compared with the OVM group (13.21 ± 1.70 g/cc vs 8.72 ± 0.95 g/cc, mean ± SEM), although this was not statistically significant.27

Clinical data

No human clinical data are available regarding the use of cumin for treatment of osteoporosis.

Dyslipidemia

Clinical data

In a single-blind, randomized, controlled trial (N = 100), 3 g/day of cumin powder (1.5 g twice daily) significantly improved lipid and most body composition parameters compared with control in overweight/obese women (BMI greater than 25) 20 to 60 years of age. Patients consumed 150 mL low-fat yogurt (control) or yogurt plus cumin at lunch and dinner for 3 months; all patients received regular nutrition counseling during the 3-month study. Although body weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass index, and percentage of fat mass improved significantly in both groups ( P ≤ 0.005 for all), the improvements were even more significant in the cumin group. In contrast, significant improvements in lipid parameters were seen only in the cumin group and not the control: respectively, these mean changes were triglycerides (23.06 and −5.04 mg/dL; P = 0.02), cholesterol (−26.48 and −0.88 mg/dL; P < 0.005), low-density lipoprotein (−9.62 and 0.44 mg/dL; P = 0.001), and HDL (1.84 and −0.82 mg/dL; P = 0.049). Cumin allergy leading to study discontinuation occurred in 3 patients in the intervention group.37 A double-blind, controlled trial randomized 78 overweight Iranian adults (BMI greater than 25) to cumin (300 mg/day essential oil), orlistat (360 mg/day), or placebo for 8 weeks to assess the effect of cumin on weight loss, metabolic profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Cumin supplementation provided an effect equal to that of orlistat for improvements in weight and BMI, which was significantly better than placebo. No significant effect was observed on lipid profiles (ie, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, or triglycerides).38

Hypoglycemic effects

Animal data

In studies conducted on rats with induced diabetes, cumin reduced blood glucose levels.16, 17 One mechanism for this reduction suggests the inhibition of aldose reductase and alpha-glucosidase.18 In addition, reductions in plasma and tissue cholesterol, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and triglycerides (secondary to diabetes) were demonstrated in another animal study.6 Cumin, given at a level 5 times higher than the usual culinary intake, did not reduce serum or liver cholesterol levels in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet.19

Clinical data

A 1991 study suggested that cumin seeds may be beneficial when treating patients with diabetes.20, 21 However, there is limited information to support this finding. A double-blind, controlled trial randomized 78 overweight Iranian adults (BMI greater than 25) to cumin (300 mg/day essential oil), orlistat (360 mg/day), or placebo for 8 weeks to assess the effect of cumin on weight loss, metabolic profiles, and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Compared to orlistat and placebo, cumin supplementation led to significant improvements in serum insulin levels, as well as assessments in beta-cell function, and insulin sensitivity but not in fasting plasma glucose or insulin resistance measures.38

Ophthalmic effects

Animal data

Cumin may delay the development of cataracts as demonstrated in diabetic rats. An aqueous extract of cumin delayed progression and maturation of streptozotocin-induced cataracts in rats by preventing glycation of total soluble protein and alpha-crystallin in the lenses.28

Clinical data

No human clinical data are available regarding the use of cumin for treatment of cataracts.

Other uses

Stimulation of bile acid secretion and pancreatic enzymes has been demonstrated in rats given a continuous intake of dietary cumin. Variable results were obtained with a single dose of cumin.9, 10, 29 Cumin extract inhibited arachidonate-induced platelet aggregation in human platelets in a dose-dependent manner.11 Cumin oil and cuminaldehyde exhibited strong larvicidal and antibacterial activity. At in vitro concentrations of 300 or 600 ppm, cumin oil inhibited the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum.30 Cumin essential oil demonstrated activity comparable with standard antibiotics against common human pathogens in in vitro experiments31 and against gram-negative and gram-positive plant pathogens.32, 33C. cyminum essential oil may also be beneficial for the inhibition of supragingival dental plaque via antimicrobial effects and biofilm-formation prevention. Its bactericidal properties are believed to be caused by the monoterpene constituents pinene and cineole.34 An aqueous extract of cumin inhibited rat jejunal ATPase in an in vitro experiment.35

Dosing

Cumin powder 3 g/day (1.5 g twice daily with lunch and dinner) significantly improved lipid profiles and body composition parameters in overweight/obese women.37 At 300 mg/day, 8 weeks of cumin supplementation in overweight Iranian adults significantly improved weight, BMI, insulin levels, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic beta-cell function but not fasting plasma glucose, lipid profiles, thyroid hormones, insulin resistance, or glutathione levels.38

Pregnancy / Lactation

Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.

Interactions

In rat plasma, an aqueous extract from cumin seeds enhanced rifampin levels. Specifically, the maximum plasma concentration of rifampin was increased by 35% and the area under the curve by 53%, probably caused by the flavonoid glycoside, 3′,5-dihydroxyflavone 7-O-beta-D-galacturonide 4′-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. This pharmacokinetic interaction could be beneficial for patients receiving rifampin for the treatment of tuberculosis.36

Adverse Reactions

Cumin oil components are absorbed rapidly through shaved intact abdominal mouse skin. Undiluted cumin oil has phototoxic effects that are not related to cuminaldehyde, but to another photosensitizing component.5 Because cumin has demonstrated blood glucose-lowering properties in rats, it could theoretically cause hypoglycemia. Patients with diabetes who are receiving an oral hypoglycemic agent and insulin should use caution when coadministering cumin.16, 17, 18, 20, 21

Toxicology

No data are available.

References

1. Cuminum cyminum L. USDA, NRCS. 2005. The Plants Database (http://plants.usda.gov, July 2009). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
2. Duke JA, Duke PK, DuCellier JL, eds. Duke's Handbook of Medicinal Plants of the Bible. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2008:155-160.
3. Simon JE, Chadwick AF, Craker LE. Herbs: An Indexed Bibliography, 1971-1980. Hamden, CT: Archon Books; 1984.
4. Evans WC. Trease and Evans' Pharmacognosy. 13th ed. London, England: Bailliére Tindall; 1989.
5. Leung AY. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics. New York, NY: J. Wiley; 1980.
6. Dhandapani S, Subramanian VR, Rajagopal S, Namasivayam N. Hypolipidemic effect of Cuminum cyminum L. on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Pharmacol Res. 2002;46(3):251-255.12220968
7. Ishikawa T, Takayanagi T, Kitajima J. Water-soluble constituents of cumin: monoterpenoid glucosides. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2002;50(11):1471-1478.12419912
8. Gagandeep, Dhanalakshmi S, Méndiz E, Rao AR, Kale RK. Chemopreventive effects of Cuminum cyminum in chemically induced forestomach and uterine cervix tumors in murine model systems. Nutr Cancer. 2003;47(2):171-180.15087270
9. Platel K, Srinivasan K. Digestive stimulant action of spices: a myth or reality? Indian J Med Res. 2004;119(5):167-179.15218978
10. Platel K, Srinivasan K. Influence of dietary spices and their active principles on pancreatic digestive enzymes in albino rats. Nahrung. 2000;44(1):42-46.10702999
11. Srivastava KC. Extracts from two frequently consumed spices—cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and turmeric (Curcuma longa)—inhibit platelet aggregation and alter eicosanoid biosynthesis in human blood platelets. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1989;37(1):57-64.2503839
12. Janahmadi M, Niazi F, Danyali S, Kamalinejad M. Effects of the fruit essential oil of Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Apiaceae) on pentylenetetrazol-induced epileptiform activity in F1 neurons of Helix aspersa. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;104(1-2):278-282.16226415
13. Takayanagi T, Ishikawa T, Kitajima J. Sesquiterpene lactone glucosides and alkyl glycosides from the fruit of cumin. Phytochemistry. 2003;63(4):479-484.12770603
14. Kitajima J, Ishikawa T, Fujimatu E, Kondho K, Takayanagi T. Glycosides of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol from the fruits of anise, coriander and cumin. Phytochemistry. 2003;62(1):115-120.12475627
15. Al-Bataina BA, Maslat AO, Al-Kofahi MM. Element analysis and biological studies on ten oriental spices using XRF and Ames test. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2003;17(2):85-90.14531636
16. Roman-Ramos R, Flores-Saenz JL, Alarcon-Aguilar FJ. Anti-hyperglycemic effect of some edible plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 1995;48(1):25-32.8569244
17. Talpur N, Echard B, Ingram C, Bagchi D, Preuss H. Effects of a novel formulation of essential oils on glucose-insulin metabolism in diabetic and hypertensive rats: a pilot study. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2005;7(2):193-199.15715893
18. Lee HS. Cuminaldehyde: aldose reductase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitor derived from Cuminum cyminum L. seeds. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53(7):2446-2450.15796577
19. Sambaiah K, Srinivasan K. Effect of cumin, cinnamon, ginger, mustard and tamarind in induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Nahrung. 1991;35(1):47-51.1865890
20. Karnic CR. A clinical trial of a composite herbal drug in treatment of diabetes mellitus (madhumeha). Aryavaidyan. 1991;5(1):36-46.
21. Srinivasan K. Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: spices as beneficial antidiabetic food adjuncts. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2005;56(6):399-414.16361181
22. Reddy AC, Lokesh BR. Studies on spice principles as antioxidants in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsomes. Mol Cell Biochem. 1992;111(1-2):117-124.1588934
23. Krishnakantha TP, Lokesh BR. Scavenging of superoxide anions by spice principles. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 1993;30(2):133-134.8394839
24. Aruna K, Sivaramakrishnan VM. Anticarcinogenic effects of some Indian plant products. Food Chem Toxicol. 1992;30(11):953-956.1473788
25. Nalini N, Sabitha K, Viswanathan P, Menon VP. Influence of spices on the bacterial (enzyme) activity in experimental colon cancer. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998;62(1):15-24.9720607
26. Sivaswamy SN, Balachandran B, Balanehru S, Sivaramakrishnan VM. Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items. Indian J Exp Biol. 1991;29(8):730-737.1769715
27. Shirke SS, Jadhav SR, Jagtap AG. Methanolic extract of Cuminum cyminum inhibits ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2008;233(11):1403-1410.18824723
28. Kumar PA, Reddy PY, Srinivas PN, Reddy GB. Delay of diabetic cataract in rats by the antiglycating potential of cumin through modulation of alpha-crystallin chaperone activity. J Nutr Biochem. 2009;20(7):553-562.18789666
29. Ramakrishna Rao R, Platel K, Srinivasan K. In vitro influence of spices and spice-active principles on digestive enzymes of rat pancreas and small intestine. Nahrung. 2003;47(6):408-412.14727769
30. Kivanç M, Akgül A, Doğan A. Inhibitory and stimulatory effects of cumin, oregano and their essential oils on growth and acid production of Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Int J Food Microbiol. 1991;13(1):81-85.1863531
31. Singh G, Kapoor IP, Pandey SK, Singh UK, Singh RK. Studies on essential oils: part 10; antibacterial activity of volatile oils of some spices. Phytother Res. 2002;16(7):680-682.12410554
32. Iacobellis NS, Lo Cantore P, Capasso F, Senatore F. Antibacterial activity of Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi L. essential oils. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53(1):57-61.15631509
33. Derakhshan S, Sattari M, Bigdeli M. Effect of subinhibitory concentrations of cumin ( Cuminum cyminum L.) seed essential oil and alcoholic extract on the morphology, capsule expression and urease activity of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008;32(5):432-436.18715764
34. Shayegh S, Rasooli I, Taghizadeh M, Astaneh SD. Phytotherapeutic inhibition of supragingival dental plaque. Nat Prod Res. 2008;22(5):428-439.18404563
35. Kreydiyyeh SI, Usta J, Copti R. Effect of cinnamon, clove and some of their constituents on the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and alanine absorption in the rat jejunum. Food Chem Toxicol. 2000;38(9):755-762.10930696
36. Sachin BS, Sharma SC, Sethi S, et al. Herbal modulation of drug bioavailability: enhancement of rifampicin levels in plasma by herbal products and a flavonoid glycoside derived from Cuminum cyminum. Phytother Res. 2007;21(2):157-163.17128432
37. Zare R, Heshmati F, Fallahzadeh H, Nadjarzadeh A. Effect of cumin powder on body composition and lipid profile in overweight and obese women. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2014;20(4):297-301.25456022
38. Taghizadeh M, Memarzadeh MR, Asemi Z, Esmaillzadeh A. Effect of the cumin cyminum L. intake on weight loss, metabolic profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in overweight subjects: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ann Nutr Metab. 2015;66:117-124.25766448

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This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product.

This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age.

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