Scientific Name(s): Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. Family: Clavicipitaceae
Common Name(s): Cordyceps , aweto , caterpillar fungus , Cs-4 , Dong Chong Xia Cao , keera jhar , keeda ghas , semitake , tochukaso , XinGanBao , yarshagumba , yartsa gunbu , yatsa gunbu , Zhiling
Well-controlled clinical trials are lacking.
Dosing supported by product quality data is unavailable, and many herbal supplements on the market contain varying undefined levels of this product. Cordyceps 3 to 6 g/day has been used in patients with chronic renal failure for periods ranging from days to years.
Contraindications have not been identified.
Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.
None well documented.
Mild GI discomfort, including diarrhea, dry mouth, and nausea, has been reported.
Cordyceps is generally considered safe.
Cordyceps sinensis belongs to a genus of more than 400 species of Ascomycete (sac fungi) found worldwide. It is a black, blade-shaped fungus found primarily in the high altitudes of the Tibetan plateau in China that parasitizes moth caterpillars. In the fall, the fungal mycelia infect the caterpillar, which then kills it by early summer of the following year, releasing spores from the fruiting body (the stroma). The wild form of C. sinensis is rare and expensive; consequently, a strain isolated from the wild form (Cs-4, or Paecilomyces hepiali Chen) is cultivated industrially and more commonly used. Issues of substitution with other species and contamination have been described. 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
Tibetan history records the first uses of yartsa gunbu in the 15th century. Cordyceps is considered to be derived from the Latin cord (club), ceps (head), and sinesis (from China). The fruiting body and attached mycelium of cordyceps have been used in Chinese culture and in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. Cordyceps is valued for its activity in restoring energy, promoting longevity, and improving quality of life. 2 , 4 , 5
The nucleosides adenine, adenosine, uracil, uridine, guanidine, guanosine, hypoxanthine, inosine, thymine, thymidine, and deoxyuridine are the major component of cordyceps and can be used as a species marker. Fresh, natural cordyceps contain a lower content of nucleosides than dry, processed, or cultured cordyceps. 3
Other classes of constituents found in wild C. sinensis include the following: proteins, peptides, all essential amino acids, and polyamines; saccharides and sugar derivatives; sterols; fatty acids and other organic acids; vitamins (including B 1 , B 2 , B 12 , E, and K); and inorganic elements. 2 , 4 , 6 Cordycepin and other adenosine derivatives, ergosterol, mannitol, cordyheptapeptide A, and several other unique compounds have been identified using thin layer and gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis. Water, ethanol, methanol, and ethyl acetate extracts have been described for the whole fungus and mycelium, as well as for other parts of the fungus. 3 , 7 , 8
Uses and Pharmacology
In vitro evaluation and animal studies of cordyceps and its chemical constituents suggest potential therapeutic applications; however, despite a significant number of clinical studies, the overwhelming majority had poor methodologies. Very few large, randomized, controlled clinical trials have been conducted (several of which evaluated cordyceps in combination with other agents), making definitive statements about the efficacy of cordyceps premature. 4 , 7 , 9Aging (senescence)
Traditionally, cordyceps has been used in the elderly population to improve weakness, impotence, and fatigue associated with aging. 4 , 10 Clinical studies have been conducted among elderly subjects; however, the methodology of such studies is often poorly documented. Improvements in self-reported symptoms have been described, as have increases in red blood cell superoxide dismutase activity and decreases in malondialdehyde levels. 2 , 8 Other antioxidant effects, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and decreases in lipid peroxidation are thought to be responsible for the antiaging effects, 8 , 11 , 12 as well as effects on the adrenergic and dopamine systems. 13 Increases in learning and memory have been shown in experiments in aged mice. 10Cancer
Numerous in vitro and animal experiments have been conducted on aqueous and ethanol extracts of cordyceps, as well as with cordycepin and oxypiperazines extracted from the mycelium. The extracts enhanced cytokine activity and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, thereby reducing tumor cell proliferation and enhancing survival times. 4 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20
Limited clinical studies report subjective improvement of symptoms, increased tolerance of radiation and chemotherapy (possibly caused by enhanced immune function), and reduction in tumor size with coadministration of cordyceps. 3 , 4 Animal experiments suggest a protective role for cordyceps in radiation- and chemotherapy-induced injury, with increased survival times demonstrated in mice. 21 , 22Cardiovascular effects
Cordyceps has a long history of traditional medicinal use in heart disease. 4 Adenosine and other nucleosides are thought to be responsible for the effects seen in animal studies. 4 A vasodilatory action has been reported in anesthetized dogs, and hypotensive and vaso-relaxant effects have been demonstrated in rats. Reduced heart rate and restoration from arrhythmias have also been shown in animals. 2 , 8 Long-term, open-label clinical studies in cardiac failure have described cordyceps' effect in improving cardiac function, arrhythmias, and overall quality of life, but are yet to be substantiated by large, high-quality clinical trials. 2 , 4 , 23
Animal studies suggest cordyceps, particularly the polysaccharide extracts, decreases blood glucose levels by improving glucose metabolism and enhancing insulin sensitivity. 3 , 8 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 Few clinical trials exist; however, 1 small (N = 20), randomized trial found that taking C. sinensis 3 g daily improved the blood sugar profile over placebo. 4Hepatic function
Hepatoprotective effects of cordyceps extracts have been demonstrated in animal models. 8 , 33 Open-label clinical studies conducted in patients with active hepatitis and posthepatic cirrhosis reported improvements in liver function tests. 4 , 5 , 8Immune system and anti-inflammatory effects
Aside from limited data from clinical studies conducted in renal transplant recipients and chronic hepatitis patients, 5 , 8 , 34 , 35 the majority of studies have been conducted in vitro and in vivo using mice or rats and were directed at elucidating the mechanism of action for observed effects on the immune system. 4 , 5 , 8 Different fractions of cordyceps extracts (either aqueous or ethanol based) appear to have different effects and, therefore, an immune-modulator function for cordyceps has been proposed. 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 The effects of cordycepin and cordysinocan have been similarly evaluated. 40 , 41
In vitro effects include enhanced phagocytosis activity of macrophages, increased enzymatic activity of acid phosphatase, and induction of interleukin and tumor necrosis factor production. 36 , 37 , 38 , 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 A decrease in cyclooxygenase-2 expression has also been demonstrated in vitro, but potential anti-inflammatory action has not been studied. 5 , 8 , 44
In mice, enhanced splenocyte proliferation, increased plasma corticosterone, decreased production of immunoglobulin E, and modulation of cytokine and CD4+ and CD8+ cell production were reported. 39 , 41 , 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 Increased survival of cardiac grafts, 39 suppression of the effects of streptococcal toxin on phagocytosis, 36 increased survival from streptococcal group A infection, 49 and attenuated disease severity in lupus-prone autoimmune mice were also described. 50 Safety of cordyceps consumption with relation to the immune system was evaluated in mice, with an upregulation of the immune response demonstrated in the absence of splenomegaly. 51Physical performance
Tests in animals, such as the mouse swim test, generally showed increased time to exhaustion. Unpublished data on studies in elderly volunteers revealed increased energy levels and oxygen-carrying capacity following 6 weeks of cordyceps treatment over placebo. 2 , 4 However, small, randomized, double-blind clinical trials in healthy volunteers and in athletes reported no effect on aerobic capacity, endurance, or performance. In 3 of these clinical trials, cordyceps was used in conjunction with yohimbe or Rhodiola rosea extracts, but no difference over placebo was found. 52 , 53 , 54 In another clinical trial, cordyceps 3.15 g (as Cs-4) taken daily for 5 weeks had no effect compared with placebo. 55Renal function
Most clinical studies evaluating the effect of cordyceps on renal function are of poor methodology or use cordyceps in combination with other preparations. 9 Clinical studies among elderly patients with long-term renal failure suggest improved renal function as demonstrated by increases in creatinine clearance, and decreases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. 4 , 5 , 9 These findings are supported by histological studies in animals. 5 , 8 , 9 , 56
In patients in whom cordyceps was coadministered with amikacin and gentamicin, less nephrotoxicity was observed. 5 , 9 In transplantation recipients, the incidence of nephrotoxicity was lower among cordyceps-treated patients, thus allowing for higher cyclosporin A dosing. 5 , 9 , 57Respiratory effects
In vitro studies suggest aqueous extracts of C. sinensis have a stimulatory effect on ion transport in human airway epithelial cells, possibly because of cordycepin and adenosine. 58 Animal studies suggest the observed effects on respiration are caused by enhanced oxygen utilization capacity, supporting the traditional use of cordyceps in Tibet and Nepal to offset altitude sickness. 4 , 5 Clinical studies conducted in asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and bronchitis have suggested efficacy for cordyceps. 4 , 5 The methodology of these clinical studies is, however, not reported or is of open-label design, and cordyceps is often administered in combination with other preparations, making definitive statements about efficacy difficult.Sexual dysfunction
Experiments in castrated rats showed a mild effect on sexual function. Decreases in erection and mount latency were demonstrated, but no effect on ejaculation latency was found; 59 however, action on steroidogenesis and testosterone have been shown. 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 In clinical studies in elderly populations, improved sexual drive and virility were reported. 2 , 4Other effects
Dosing supported by product quality data is unavailable, and many herbal supplements contain varying undefined levels of this product. Cordyceps 3 to 6 g/day has been used in patients with long-term renal failure for periods ranging from days to years. 4 , 5 , 9
In clinical trials evaluating effect on physical performance, cordyceps 3.15 g (as Cs-4) taken daily for 5 weeks had no effect compared with placebo. 55
None well documented. Fibrinolytic action of a cordyceps extract has been shown in vitro on bovine and human serum. 24 Platelet aggregation has been inhibited in rabbits and in human platelets in vitro. 8 , 25 The American College of Cardiology Writing Committee on Complementary and Integrative Medicine suggests that a risk of potentiation of anticoagulants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors exists. 65 The potential for potentiation of antiviral and hypoglycemic agents has been theorized. 4
One report of hypersensitivity with use of cordyceps exists. 4 Mild GI discomfort, including diarrhea, dry mouth, and nausea, has been reported in clinical studies. 4 , 5 Two cases of lead poisoning associated with cordyceps have been reported, in which the lead content of the preparations was determined to be particularly high. Plasma lead levels returned to normal upon cessation of product consumption. 7 In a study conducted in children with asthma, a combination preparation containing cordyceps did not affect blood cell counts or renal or liver function tests. 66
Cordyceps is considered to be safe; an oral median lethal dose could not be defined. Doses in mice of 80 g/kg body weight did not cause death. 3 No toxic effects on cell proliferation were demonstrated in mice. 64 Safety of cordyceps consumption in reaction to the immune system was evaluated in mice, with an upregulation of the immune response demonstrated in the absence of splenomegaly. 51 Experiments in mice suggest cordyceps has an effect on plasma testosterone levels. 60 , 61
Bibliography1. Sung GH, Hywel-Jones NL, Sung JM, Luangsa-Ard JJ, Shrestha B, Spatafora JW. Phylogenetic classification of Cordyceps and the clavicipitaceous fungi. Stud Mycol . 2007;57:5-59.
2. Zhu JS, Halpern GM, Jones K. The scientific rediscovery of an ancient Chinese herbal medicine: Cordyceps sinensis : part I. J Altern Complement Med . 1998;4(3):289-303.
3. Li SP, Yang FQ, Tsim KW. Quality control of Cordyceps sinensis , a valued traditional Chinese medicine. J Pharm Biomed Anal . 2006;41(5):1571-1584.
4. Holliday JC, Cleaver MP. Medicinal value of the caterpillar fungi species of the genus Cordyceps (Fr.) Link (Ascomycetes). A review. Int J Med Mushr . 2008;10(3):219-234.
5. Zhu JS, Halpern GM, Jones K. The scientific rediscovery of a precious ancient Chinese herbal regimen: Cordyceps sinensis : part II. J Altern Complement Med . 1998;4(4):429-457.
6. Huang LF, Liang YZ, Guo FQ, Zhou ZF, Cheng BM. Simultaneous separation and determination of active components in Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militarris by LC/ESI-MS. J Pharm Biomed Anal . 2003;33(5):1155-1162.
7. Paterson RR. Cordyceps: a traditional Chinese medicine and another fungal therapeutic biofactory? Phytochemistry . 2008;69(7):1469-1495.
8. Ng TB, Wang HX. Pharmacological actions of Cordyceps, a prized folk medicine. J Pharm Pharmacol . 2005;57(12):1509-1519.
9. Wojcikowski K, Johnson DW, Gobé G. Medicinal herbal extracts—renal friend or foe? Part two: herbal extracts with potential renal benefits. Nephrology (Carlton) . 2004;9(6):400-405.
10. Ji DB, Ye J, Li CL, Wang YH, Zhao J, Cai SQ. Antiaging effect of Cordyceps sinensis extract. Phytother Res . 2009;23(1):116-122.
11. Wang Y, Wang M, Ling Y, Fan W, Wang Y, Yin H. Structural determination and antioxidant activity of a polysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps sinensis . Am J Chin Med . 2009;37(5):977-989.
12. Won KJ, Lee SC, Lee CK, et al. Cordycepin attenuates neointimal formation by inhibiting reactive oxygen species-mediated responses in vascular smooth muscle cells in rats. J Pharmacol Sci . 2009;109(3):403-412.
13. Nishizawa K, Torii K, Kawasaki A, et al. Antidepressant-like effect of Cordyceps sinensis in the mouse tail suspension test. Biol Pharm Bull . 2007;30(9):1758-1762.
14. Rao YK, Fang SH, Tzeng YM. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferation tumoral cells activities of Antrodia camphorata , Cordyceps sinensis, and Cinnamomum osmophloeum bark extracts. J Ethnopharmacol . 2007;114(1):78-85.
15. Zhang W, Li J, Qiu S, Chen J, Zheng Y. Effects of the exopolysaccharide fraction (EPSF) from a cultivated Cordyceps sinensis on immunocytes of H22 tumor bearing mice. Fitoterapia . 2008;79(3):168-173.
16. Chen Y, Guo H, Du Z, Liu XZ, Che Y, Ye X. Ecology-based screen identifies new metabolites from a Cordyceps-colonizing fungus as cancer cell proliferation inhibitors and apoptosis inducers. Cell Prolif . 2009;42(6):838-847.
17. Wu WC, Hsiao JR, Lian YY, Lin CY, Huang BM. The apoptotic effect of cordycepin on human OEC-M1 oral cancer cell line. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol . 2007;60(1):103-111.
18. Lee SJ, Kim SK, Choi WS, Kim WJ, Moon SK. Cordycepin causes p21WAF1-mediated G2/M cell-cycle arrest by regulating c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation in human bladder cancer cells. Arch Biochem Biophys . 2009;490(2):103-109.
19. Zhang G, Huang Y, Bian Y, Wong JH, Ng TB, Wang H. Hypoglycemic activity of the fungi Cordyceps militaris , Cordyceps sinensis , Tricholoma mongolicum , and Omphalia lapidescens in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol . 2006;72(6):1152-1156.
20. Matsuda H, Akaki J, Nakamura S, et al. Apoptosis-inducing effects of sterols from the dried powder of cultured mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis . Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) . 2009;57(4):411-414.
21. Liu WC, Chuang WL, Tsai ML, Hong JH, McBride WH, Chiang CS. Cordyceps sinensis health supplement enhances recovery from taxol-induced leukopenia. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) . 2008;233(4):447-455.
22. Liu WC, Wang SC, Tsai ML, et al. Protection against radiation-induced bone marrow and intestinal injuries by Cordyceps sinensis , a Chinese herbal medicine. Radiat Res . 2006;166(6):900-907.
23. Chiou WF, Chang PC, Chou CJ, Chen CF. Protein constituent contributes to the hypotensive and vasorelaxant activities of Cordyceps sinensis . Life Sci . 2000;66(14):1369-1376.
24. Li HP, Hu Z, Yuan JL, et al. A novel extracellular protease with fibrinolytic activity from the culture supernatant of Cordyceps sinensis : purification and characterization. Phytother Res . 2007;21(12):1234-1241.
25. Cho HJ, Cho JY, Rhee MH, Park HJ. Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) inhibits human platelet aggregation in a cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent manner. Eur J Pharmacol . 2007;558(1-3):43-51.
26. Koh JH, Kim JM, Chang UJ, Suh HJ. Hypocholesterolemic effect of hot-water extract from mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis . Biol Pharm Bull . 2003;26(1):84-87.
27. Lo HC, Hsu TH, Tu ST, Lin KC. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of natural and fermented Cordyceps sinensis in rats with diabetes induced by nicotinamide and streptozotocin. Am J Chin Med . 2006;34(5):819-832.
28. Lo HC, Tu ST, Lin KC, Lin SC. The anti-hyperglycemic activity of the fruiting body of Cordyceps in diabetic rats induced by nicotinamide and streptozotocin. Life Sci . 2004;74(23):2897-2908.
29. Zhang G, Huang Y, Bian Y, Wong JH, Ng TB, Wang H. Hypoglycemic activity of the fungi Cordyceps militaris , Cordyceps sinensis , Tricholoma mongolicum , and Omphalia lapidescens in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol . 2006;72(6):1152-1156.
30. Zhao CS, Yin WT, Wang JY, et al. CordyMax Cs-4 improves glucose metabolism and increases insulin sensitivity in normal rats. J Altern Complement Med . 2002;8(3):309-314.
31. Balon TW, Jasman AP, Zhu JS. A fermentation product of Cordyceps sinensis increases whole-body insulin sensitivity in rats. J Altern Complement Med . 2002;8(3):315-323.
32. Hockaday TD. Two herbal preparations, Cordyceps Cs4 and Cogent db: do they act on blood glucose, insulin sensitivity, and diabetes as “viscous dietary fibers?” J Altern Complement Med . 2002;8(4):403-405.
33. Ko WS, Hsu SL, Chyau CC, Chen KC, Peng RY. Compound Cordyceps TCM-700C exhibits potent hepatoprotective capability in animal model. Fitoterapia . 2010;81(1):1-7.
34. Li Y, Xue WJ, Tian PX, et al. Clinical application of Cordyceps sinensis on immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplantation. Transplant Proc . 2009;41(5):1565-1569.
35. Liu YK, Shen W. Inhibitive effect of Cordyceps sinensis on experimental hepatic fibrosis and its possible mechanism. World J Gastroenterol . 2003;9(3):529-533.
36. Kuo CF, Chen CC, Lin CF, et al. Abrogation of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B-mediated suppression of phagocytosis in U937 cells by Cordyceps sinensis mycelium via production of cytokines. Food Chem Toxicol . 2007;45(2):278-285.
37. Yoon TJ, Yu KW, Shin KS, Suh HJ. Innate immune stimulation of exo-polymers prepared from Cordyceps sinensi s by submerged culture. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol . 2008;80(6):1087-1093.
38. Zhou X, Luo L, Dressel W, et al. Cordycepin is an immunoregulatory active ingredient of Cordyceps sinensis . Am J Chin Med . 2008;36(5):967-980.
39. Jordan JL, Hirsch GM, Lee TD. C. sinensis ablates allograft vasculopathy when used as an adjuvant therapy with cyclosporin A. Transpl Immunol . 2008;19(3-4):159-166.
40. Cheung JK, Li J, Cheung AW, et al. Cordysinocan, a polysaccharide isolated from cultured Cordyceps, activates immune responses in cultured T-lymphocytes and macrophages: signaling cascade and induction of cytokines. J Ethnopharmacol . 2009;124(1):61-88.
41. Jordan JL, Sullivan AM, Lee TD. Immune activation by a sterile aqueous extract of Cordyceps sinensis : mechanism of action. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol . 2008;30(1):53-70.
42. Kuo MC, Chang CY, Cheng TL, Wu MJ. Immunomodulatory effect of exo-polysaccharides from submerged cultured Cordyceps sinensis : enhancement of cytokine synthesis, CD11b expression, and phagocytosis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol . 2007;75(4):769-775.
43. Kuo YC, Tsai WJ, Wang JY, Chang SC, Lin CY, Shiao MS. Regulation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids cell function by the immunomodulatory agents from Cordyceps sinensis . Life Sci . 2001:68(9):1067-1082.
44. Kim HG, Shrestha B, Lim SY, et al. Cordycepin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by the suppression of NF-ΚB through Akt and p38 inhibition in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Eur J Pharmacol . 2006;545(2-3):192-199.
45. Wu Y, Sun H, Qin F, Pan Y, Sun C. Effect of various extracts and a polysaccharide from the edible mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on cellular and humoral immune response against ovalbumin in mice. Phytother Res . 2006;20(8):646-652.
46. Siu KM, Mak DH, Chiu PY, Poon MK, Du Y, Ko KM. Pharmacological basis of 'Yin-nourishing' and 'Yang-invigorating' actions of Cordyceps, a Chinese tonifying herb. Life Sci . 2004;76(4):385-395.
47. Park DK, Choi WS, Park PJ, et al. Immunoglobulin and cytokine production from mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes is regulated by extracts of Cordyceps sinensis in C57Bl/6N mice. J Med Food . 2008;11(4):784-788.
48. Leu SF, Chien CH, Tseng CY, Kuo YM, Huang BM. The in vivo effect of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on plasma corticosterone level in male mouse. Biol Pharm Bull . 2005;28(9):1722-1725.
49. Kuo CF, Chen CC, Luo YH, et al. Cordyceps sinensis mycelium protects mice from group A streptococcal infection. J Med Microbiol . 2005;54(pt 8):795-802.
50. Chen JL, Chen YC, Yang SH, Ko YF, Chen SY. Immunological alterations in lupus-prone autoimmune (NZB/NZW) F1 mice by mycelia Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis -induced redistributions of peripheral mononuclear T lymphocytes. Clin Exp Med . 2009;9(4):277-284.
51. Ka Wai Lee S, Kwok Wong C, Kai Kong S, Nam Leung K, Wai Kei Lam C. Immunomodulatory activities of HERBSnSENSES Cordyceps—in vitro and in vivo studies. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol . 2006;28(2):341-360.
52. Herda TJ, Ryan ED, Stout JR, Cramer JT. Effects of a supplement designed to increase ATP levels on muscle strength, power output, and endurance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr . 2008;5:3.
53. Earnest CP, Morss GM, Wyatt F, et al. Effects of a commercial herbal-based formula on exercise performance in cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2004;36(3):504-509.
54. Colson SN, Wyatt FB, Johnston DL, Autrey LD, FitzGerald YL, Earnest CP. Cordyceps sinensis - and Rhodiola rosea-based supplementation in male cyclists and its effect on muscle tissue oxygen saturation. J Strength Cond Res . 2005;19(2):358-363.
55. Parcell AC, Smith JM, Schulthies SS, Myrer JW, Fellingham G. Cordyceps Sinensis (CordyMax Cs-4) supplementation does not improve endurance exercise performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab . 2004;14(2):236-242.
56. Shahed AR, Kim SI, Shoskes DA. Down-regulation of apoptotic and inflammatory genes by Cordyceps sinensis extract in rat kidney following ischemia/reperfusion. Transplant Proc . 2001;33(6):2986-2987.
57. Li CY, Chiang CS, Tsai ML, et al. Two-sided effect of Cordyceps sinensis on dendritic cells in different physiological stages. J Leukoc Biol . 2009;85(6):987-995.
58. Yue GG, Lau CB, Fung KP, Leung PC, Ko WH. Effects of Cordyceps sinensis , Cordyceps militaris and their isolated compounds on ion transport in Calu-3 human airway epithelial cells. J Ethnopharmacol . 2008;117(1):92-101.
59. Ji DB, Ye J, Li CL, Wang YH, Zhao J, Cai SQ. Antiaging effect of Cordyceps sinensis extract. Phytother Res . 2009;23(1):116-122.
60. Huang YL, Leu SF, Liu BC, Sheu CC, Huang BM. In vivo stimulatory effect of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium and its fractions on reproductive functions in male mouse. Life Sci . 2004;75(9):1051-1062.
61. Wong KL, So EC, Chen CC, Wu RS, Huang BM. Regulation of steroidogenesis by Cordyceps sinensis mycelium extracted fractions with (hCG) treatment in mouse Leydig cells. Arch Androl . 2007;53(2):75-77.
62. Hsu CC, Tsai SJ, Huang YL, Huang BM. Regulatory mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on mouse Leydig cell steroidogenesis. FEBS Lett . 2003;543(1-3):140-143.
63. Hsu CC, Huang YL, Tsai SJ, Sheu CC, Huang BM. In vivo and in vitro stimulatory effects of Cordyceps sinensis on testosterone production in mouse Leydig cells. Life Sci . 2003;73(16):2127-2136.
64. Mizuha Y, Yamamoto H, Sato T, et al. Water extract of Cordyceps sinensis (WECS) inhibits the RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. Biofactors . 2007;30(2):105-116.
65. Vogel JH, Bolling SF, Costello RB, et al. Integrating complementary medicine into cardiovascular medicine. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on Clinical Expert Consensus Documents (Writing Committee to Develop an Expert Consensus Document on Complementary and Integrative Medicine). J Am Coll Cardiol . 2005;46(1):184-221.
66. Wong EL, Sung RY, Leung TF, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of herbal therapy for children with asthma. J Altern Complement Med . 2009;15(10):1091-1097.
Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health