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Bur Marigold

Scientific Name(s): Bidens pilosa, Bidens tripartita L.
Common Name(s): 3-lobe beggar ticks, Bastard agrimony, Bastard hemp, Beggarticks, Bur (or burr) marigold, Hairy beggar-ticks, Kosendangusa, Lumb, Needle grass, Spanish needles, Sticktights, Water agrimony, Water hemp

Clinical Overview

Use

Several Bidens spp. have been used extensively in traditional medicine. Bur marigold may possess anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, cardiovascular, and cytotoxic activity; however, clinical studies are lacking to support recommendations for use. A B. pilosa extract has been investigated for use in the management of diabetes.

Dosing

Clinical studies are lacking to provide dosing recommendations.

Contraindications

Contraindications have not been identified.

Pregnancy/Lactation

Avoid use. Information regarding safety and efficacy during pregnancy and lactation is lacking.

Interactions

None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical data regarding adverse effects of bur marigold are lacking; however, a small clinical study reported no adverse effects following administration of a B. pilosa formulation for 90 days. Cross-sensitivity to other members of the Asteraceae family may exist.

Toxicology

Clinical data are limited, especially regarding long-term toxicity.

Botany

Bur (or burr) marigold is a common name associated with many species of the Bidens genus. Among the more than 200 known Bidens spp., B. pilosa is a representative perennial herb believed to have originated in South America and widely distributed across temperate and tropical regions. It grows upright to an average height of 60 cm to a maximum of 150 cm. The plant prefers full sun and moderately dry soil, but can grow in arid and barren land at low to high elevations. The green opposite leaves are either glabrous or hairy, and are serrate, lobed, or dissected. The plant produces white or yellow flowers and long, narrow, ribbed black seeds. All parts of B. pilosa (the whole plant, aerial parts [leaves, flowers, seeds, stem], and/or roots] have traditionally been used in folk medicine.1, 2, 3 Synonyms of B. tripartita include Bidens comosa and Bidens connate.

History

Traditional widespread use of B. pilosa has been recorded in the Americas, Africa, Asia, and Oceania.3 Traditional uses include the treatment of high blood pressure and vascular disease, conjunctivitis, cough, diabetes, diarrhea, diuresis, edema, dysmenorrhea, dysentery, fever, gastritis, helminthiasis, hepatitis, inflammation, menstrual irregularities, renal disorders, rheumatism, sore throat, and toothache.2, 4, 5

Chemistry

B. pilosa is rich in flavonoids and polyynes. Aliphatics, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, aromatics, porphyrins, and other chemical compounds have also been identified.2, 3, 6, 7 The composition of the leaf essential oil has been described and includes borneol, germacrene, caryophyllene, limonene, and muurolol.6

Uses and Pharmacology

Anti-inflammatory activity

In vitro and animal data

Studies using rodent models of induced pain showed antinociceptive properties of extracts of B. pilosa, Bidens bipinnata, and B. tripartita. Similarly, anti-inflammatory activity was demonstrated in models of acute inflammation and suggested to be due to the presence of flavonoids.8, 9, 10 Older studies report anti-inflammatory properties of B. bipinnata and Bidens campylotheca.11, 12 In vitro studies report that B. bipinnata and Bidens frondosa flavonoids inhibit inflammatory cytokines.13, 14, 15 Other studies report B. pilosa extracts inhibit the release of histamine from mast cells.16

Clinical data

Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of bur marigold as an anti-inflammatory agent.

Antimicrobial activity

In vitro and animal data

The Bidens genus is associated with antimicrobial activity. Screening studies with B. pilosa extracts and essential oils have demonstrated widespread activity against various microbes, including oral pathogens.7, 17, 18 Data regarding activity against fungal species are limited and equivocal2, 19; however, one study reported that cytopiloyne, a polyacetylenic glucoside from B. pilosa, enhanced macrophage activity against Candida infection in mice.20

In vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex and polio virus has also been reported with extracts of several Bidens spp.21, 22 In one study, treatment with an oral B. pilosa extract increased survival and decreased development of skin infections in mice infected with herpes simplex virus.23

Activity against protozoan parasites (including Plasmodium and Eimeria spp.) has been reported, with increased survival and decreased parasitemia demonstrated in animal studies.24, 25, 26, 27, 28

Clinical data

Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of bur marigold as an antimicrobial agent.

Cancer

In vitro and animal data

Limited animal and multiple in vitro studies demonstrate potential cytotoxic activity of extracts of B. pilosa and other Bidens spp., with some studies suggesting activity related to polyyne content. Human cancer cell lines, including colon, oral, liver, breast, cervical, and leukemia have been studied.29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38

Clinical data

Research reveals no clinical data regarding cytotoxic activity of bur marigold.

Cardiovascular activity

In vitro and animal data

In an in vitro study evaluating the effects of B. pilosa extracts on endothelial cells, B. pilosa inhibited reactive oxygen species production and enhanced nitric oxide production, suggesting benefit in maintaining vascular homeostasis.5 In a series of studies in rats, B. pilosa extract exerted a hypotensive effect; researchers suggested that in addition to vasodilatory actions, B. pilosa may possess smooth muscle relaxant properties, possibly resulting from its calcium antagonist action and beta receptor stimulation.39, 40, 41, 42

Clinical data

Research reveals no clinical data regarding cardiovascular activity of bur marigold.

Diabetes

Animal data

In a series of experimental studies in mice, the butanol fraction of a B. pilosa extract prevented the development of diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice models; researchers suggested that T-cell modulation by the chemical constituent cytopiloyne was involved.43, 44, 45, 46 Further study demonstrated that B. pilosa extract improved glucose tolerance, decreased glycosolated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels, and protected islet structure in mice, possibly via stimulation of insulin secretion.47 In a study to identify and evaluate the subextracts of B. tripartita, ethyl acetate and n-butanol subextracts had the greatest antihyperglycemic effects in normal and diabetic rats; ethyl acetate subextracts had higher levels of phenol, chlorogenic acid, and luteolin.48 Another study evaluated the antiobesity effect of B. pilosa and verified that B. pilosa effectively reduced fat content, adipocyte size, and body weight in rodents.49

Clinical data

B. pilosa has traditionally been used as an antidiabetic herb in the Americas, Africa, and Asia; however, clinical studies are lacking to support this use.3 In a small pilot study, a B. pilosa extract reduced the level of fasting blood glucose and HbA1C in men with hyperglycemia, but it increased fasting serum insulin in healthy patients over 90 days.50

GI effects

Animal data

The antiulcerogenic activity of bur marigold extracts has been studied in rodents, with equivocal findings. While increased GI mucous production was demonstrated in some experiments, a protective effect on induced gastric lesions was demonstrated in most reported studies.51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56

Clinical data

Research reveals no clinical data regarding use of bur marigold for treatment of gastric ulcer.

Other uses

Antioxidant activity of Bidens spp. extracts has been reported,15, 43, 57, 58 and may account for the hepatoprotective effects demonstrated in rodent studies.59, 60, 61, 62, 63

One in vitro study demonstrated a protective effect of B. pilosa extract on collagen and elastin degradation that was closely related to an increase in the expression of growth factors.64

A relaxant effect on vascular smooth muscle and contractile tissues of the duodenum has been documented in rodent studies.65, 66

Dosing

Clinical studies are lacking to provide dosing recommendations.

Pregnancy / Lactation

Avoid use. Information regarding safety and efficacy during pregnancy and lactation is lacking. B. pilosa leaf extract has traditionally been used to enhance myometrial contractile activity during labor, and in vitro studies report estrogenic-like and oxytocic-like activities on rodent uterine muscle tissue.66

Interactions

None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical data regarding adverse effects of bur marigold are lacking; however, a small clinical study reported no adverse effects following administration of a B. pilosa formulation for 90 days.50 Cross-sensitivity to other members of the Asteraceae family may exist.

Toxicology

Animal studies suggest that short-term consumption of B. pilosa aqueous extract is safe; daily doses of up to 1 g/kg body weight for 28 days in rats did not produce adverse effects. Clinical data in humans are limited, especially regarding long-term toxicity.2, 3

References

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3. Yang WC. Botanical, pharmacological, phytochemical, and toxicological aspects of the antidiabetic plant Bidens pilosa L. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:698617.24616740
4. Duke J, Bogenschutz-Godwin M, duCellier J, Duke P. Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2002.
5. Kohda F, Takahara M, Hachiya A, et al. Decrease of reactive oxygen species and reciprocal increase of nitric oxide in human dermal endothelial cells by Bidens pilosa extract: a possible explanation of its beneficial effect on livedo vasculopathy. J Dermatol Sci. 2013;72(1):75-77.23819986
6. Duke J. Handbook of Biologically Active Phytochemicals and Their Activities. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1992. http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/.
7. Silva JJ, Cerdeira CD, Chavasco JM, et al. In vitro screening antibacterial activity of Bidens pilosa Linné and Annona crassiflora Mart. against oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA) from the aerial environment at the dental clinic. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2014;56(4):333-340.25076435
8. Fotso AF, Longo F, Djomeni PD, et al. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Inflammopharmacology. 2014;22(2):105-114.24242914
9. Pozharitskaya ON, Shikov AN, Makarova MN, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of a HPLC-fingerprinted aqueous infusion of aerial part of Bidens tripartita L. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(6):463-468.19748256
10. Shen AZ, Li X, Hu W, Chen FH. Total flavonoids of Bidens bipinnata L. ameliorate experimental adjuvant-induced arthritis through induction of synovial apoptosis. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15(1):437.26669668
11. Wang J, Zhang H, Qin H, Gao Y, Zhou S, Wang M. Pharmacological effects of a new anti-inflammatory constituents in Spanish needles (Bidens bipinnata) [in Chinese]. Zhongcaoyao. 1997;28(11):665-668.
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17. Njume C, Gqaza BM, Rozani C, Goduka NI. Studies on bioactivity and secondary metabolites of crude extracts of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae): A medicinal plant used in the Transkei region of South Africa. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2016;29(3):877-885.27166532
18. Adedapo A, Jimoh F, Afolayan A. Comparison of the nutritive value and biological activities of the acetone, methanol and water extracts of the leaves of Bidens pilosa and Chenopodium album. Acta Pol Pharm. 2011;68(1):83-92.21485705
19. Khan MR, Kihara M, Omoloso AD. Anti-microbial activity of Bidens pilosa, Bischofia javanica, Elmerillia papuana and Sigesbekia orientalis. Fitoterapia. 2001;72(6):662-665.11543964
20. Chung CY, Yang WC, Liang CL, Liu HY, Lai SK, Chang CL. Cytopiloyne, a polyacetylenic glucoside from Bidens pilosa, acts as a novel anticandidal agent via regulation of macrophages. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;184:72-80.26924565
21. Chiang LC, Chang JS, Chen CC, Ng LT, Lin CC. Anti-herpes simplex virus activity of Bidens pilosa and Houttuynia cordata. Am J Chin Med. 2003;31(3):355-362.12943167
22. Visintini Jaime MF, Redko F, Muschietti LV, Campos RH, Martino VS, Cavallaro LV. In vitro antiviral activity of plant extracts from Asteraceae medicinal plants. Virol J. 2013;10:245.23890410
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24. Brandão MG, Krettli AU, Soares LS, Nery CG, Marinuzzi HC. Antimalarial activity of extracts and fractions of Bidens pilosa and other Bidens species (Asteraceae) correlated with the presence of acetylene and flavonoid compounds. J Ethnopharmacol. 1997;57(2):131-138.9254115
25. Oliveira FQ, Andrade-Neto V, Krettli AU, Brandão MG. New evidences of antimalarial activity of Bidens pilosa roots extract correlated with polyacetylene and flavonoids. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;93(1):39-42.15182902
26. Andrade-Neto VF, Brandão MG, Oliveira FQ, et al. Antimalarial activity of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) ethanol extracts from wild plants collected in various localities or plants cultivated in humus soil. Phytother Res. 2004;18(8):634-639.15476304
27. Chang CL, Chung CY, Kuo CH, Kuo TF, Yang CW, Yang WC. Beneficial effect of Bidens pilosa on body weight gain, food conversion ratio, gut bacteria and Coccidiosis in chickens. PLoS One. 2016;11(1):e0146141.26765226
28. Chang CL, Yang CY, Muthamilselvan T, Yang WC. Field trial of medicinal plant, Bidens pilosa, against eimeriosis in broilers. Sci Rep. 2016;6:24692.27098674
29. Wu LW, Chiang YM, Chuang HC, et al. Polyacetylenes function as anti-angiogenic agents. Pharm Res. 2004;21(11):2112-2119.15587935
30. Shiau JY, Yin SY, Chang SL, et al. Mechanistic study of the phytocompound, 2- β -D-glucopyranosyloxy-1-hydroxytrideca-5,7,9,11-tetrayne in human T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia cells by using combined differential proteomics and bioinformatics approaches. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:475610.26557148
31. Wu J, Wan Z, Yi J, Wu Y, Peng W, Wu J. Investigation of the extracts from Bidens pilosa Linn. var. radiata Sch. Bip. for antioxidant activities and cytotoxicity against human tumor cells. J Nat Med. 2013;67(1):17-26.22382861
32. Ong PL, Weng BC, Lu FJ, et al. The anticancer effect of protein-extract from Bidens alba in human colorectal carcinoma SW480 cells via the reactive oxidative species- and glutathione depletion-dependent apoptosis. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46(5):1535-1547.18226850
33. Nakama S, Ishikawa C, Nakachi S, Mori N. Anti-adult T-cell leukemia effects of Bidens pilosa. Int J Oncol. 2011;38(4):1163-1173.21318218
34. Costa Rde J, Diniz A, Mantovani MS, Jordão BQ. In vitro study of mutagenic potential of Bidens pilosa Linné and Mikania glomerata Sprengel using the comet and micronucleus assays. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;118(1):86-93.18485638
35. Huang G, Tang B, Tang K, et al. Isoquercitrin inhibits the progression of liver cancer in vivo and in vitro via the MAPK signalling pathway. Oncol Rep. 2014;31(5):2377-2384.24676882
36. Kumari P, Misra K, Sisodia BS, et al. A promising anticancer and antimalarial component from the leaves of Bidens pilosa. Planta Med. 2009;75(1):59-61.19031368
37. Chen Q, Li P, Li P, Xu Y, Li Y, Tang B. Isoquercitrin inhibits the progression of pancreatic cancer in vivo and in vitro by regulating opioid receptors and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway. Oncol Rep. 2015;33(2):840-848.25434366
38. Yang WC, Tien YJ, Chung CY, et al. Effect of Bidens pilosa on infection and drug resistance of Eimeria in chickens. Res Vet Sci. 2015;98:74-81.25440995
39. Dimo T, Nguelefack TB, Tan PV, et al. Possible mechanisms of action of the neutral extract from Bidens pilosa L. leaves on the cardiovascular system of anaesthetized rats. Phytother Res. 2003;17(10):1135-1139.14669244
40. Dimo T, Azay J, Tan PV, et al. Effects of the aqueous and methylene chloride extracts of Bidens pilosa leaf on fructose-hypertensive rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;76(3):215-221.11448541
41. Dimo T, Rakotonirina SV, Tan PV, Azay J, Dongo E, Cros G. Leaf methanol extract of Bidens pilosa prevents and attenuates the hypertension induced by high-fructose diet in Wistar rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;83(3):183-191.12426085
42. Nguelefack TB, Dimo T, Mbuyo EP, Tan PV, Rakotonirina SV, Kamanyi A. Relaxant effects of the neutral extract of the leaves of Bidens pilosa Linn on isolated rat vascular smooth muscle. Phytother Res. 2005;19(3):207-210.15934016
43. Chiang YM, Chuang DY, Wang SY, Kuo YH, Tsai PW, Shyur LF. Metabolite profiling and chemopreventive bioactivity of plant extracts from Bidens pilosa. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;95(2-3):409-419.15507368
44. Chien SC, Young PH, Hsu YJ, et al. Anti-diabetic properties of three common Bidens pilosa variants in Taiwan. Phytochemistry. 2009;70(10):1246-1254.19683775
45. Chiang YM, Chang CL, Chang SL, Yang WC, Shyur LF. Cytopiloyne, a novel polyacetylenic glucoside from Bidens pilosa, functions as a T helper cell modulator. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;110(3):532-538.17101254
46. Chang CL, Chang SL, Lee YM, et al. Cytopiloyne, a polyacetylenic glucoside, prevents type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. J Immunol. 2007;178(11):6984-6993.17513748
47. Hsu YJ, Lee TH, Chang CL, Huang YT, Yang WC. Anti-hyperglycemic effects and mechanism of Bidens pilosa water extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;122(2):379-383.19162158
48. Orhan N, İçöz ÜG, Altun L, Aslan M. Anti-hyperglycaemic and antioxidant effects of Bidens tripartita and quantitative analysis on its active principles. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2016;19(10):1114-1124.27872708
49. Liang YC, Yang MT, Lin CJ, Chang CL, Yang WC. Bidens pilosa and its active compound inhibit adipogenesis and lipid accumulation via down-modulation of the C/EBP and PPARγ pathways. Sci Rep. 2016;6:24285.27063434
50. Lai BY, Chen TY, Huang SH, et al. Bidens pilosa formulation improves blood homeostasis and β -cell function in men: a pilot study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:832314.25866541
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54. Alvarez A, Pomar F, Sevilla, Montero MJ. Gastric antisecretory and antiulcer activities of an ethanolic extract of Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Schult. Bip. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;67(3):333-340.10617069
55. Tan PV, Dimo T, Dongo E. Effects of methanol, cyclohexane and methylene chloride extracts of Bidens pilosa on various gastric ulcer models in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;73(3):415-421.11090994
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57. Yang HL, Chen SC, Chang NW, et al. Protection from oxidative damage using Bidens pilosa extracts in normal human erythrocytes. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006;44(9):1513-1521.16765500
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