Skip to main content

Baikal Skullcap

Scientific Name(s): Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi.
Common Name(s): Baical skullcap, Chinese skullcap, Golden root, Huang chin, Huang lien, Huang-qin, Hwang-keum, Hwanggum, Koganebana, Senohgon, Whang-geum, Wogon

Medically reviewed by Last updated on Feb 19, 2021.

Clinical Overview


Baikal skullcap has been used for anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunoprotective, anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, and circulatory conditions. However, limited quality clinical trials are available to support these uses.


3 to 10 g/day, 3 to 9 g root/day, 2 to 6 g dry root/day, 4 to 12 mL fluid extract.


Contraindications have not been identified.


Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.


None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Few adverse reactions have been reported.


In a phase 1 study of healthy volunteers, baicalein 100 to 2,800 mg was not associated with hepatic or kidney toxicity.

Scientific Family

  • Lamiaceae (mint)


Baikal skullcap is an herbaceous perennial with fleshy roots, growing to 0.3 to 1.2 m in height. It has lancet-shaped leaves, purple-blue flowers, and black-brown, egg-shaped nutlets. The plant is found in Japan, China, Korea, Mongolia, and Russia1 and thrives on sunny, grassy slopes and in dry, sandy soils. The dried root is used in traditional Chinese medicine. Baikal skullcap is related to skullcap (Scutellaria laterifolia), a North American species (see Scullcap monograph).2


Baikal skullcap is a Chinese medicinal herb that was used for over 2,000 years to treat fevers, hypertension, coughing, and other ailments, and is used today as a traditional remedy for dysentery and diarrhea. Baikal skullcap was included as an ingredient in several pharmaceutical combination preparations found in a second century AD tomb in northwestern China.2

Baikal skullcap is prescribed in China for fever, cough, GI, and urinary problems. These uses have been supported by clinical trials. Baikal skullcap is also used in Chinese herbal medicine for inflammation, allergies, dermatitis, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis.2, 3


Major phytochemicals found in S. baicalensis include flavonoids, glycosides, and their glucoronides.1 Flavonoids present in S. baicalensis include baicalin, baicalein, wogonin, and wogonoside.2, 4 Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography determination of flavonoids from S. baicalensis root has been reported.5 Flavone synthases Ι and ΙΙ, chrysin, wogonin, apigenin, salvigenin, scutellarein, and isoscutellarein were among flavonoid constituents also found in S. baicalensis leaf parts.6 Flavones baicalein, oroxylin, and skullcapflavone ΙΙ also were identified.7 Other reports confirmed similar flavonoid content.8, 9 One report described melatonin in certain plant samples.10 Other compounds include sterols and benzoic acid.2 The North American species, S. laterifolia differs in chemical constituents.

Uses and Pharmacology

Anti-inflammatory effects

Anti-inflammatory effects of Baikal skullcap are well documented. One study reported an effect similar to that of prednisolone with an methanolic extract of 3 flavonoids (wogonin, baicalein, and baicalin).11 Baicalein may be effective in yielding anti-inflammatory properties through inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), ultimately reducing the formation of prostaglandins.12

Animal/In vitro data

Another study reported that chloroform extract of Saxifraga rivularis exhibited greater inhibition than indomethacin against carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Baicalin also demonstrated the most effective inhibition activity when compared with baicalein and wogonin.13 Wogonin, baicalein, and baicalin all have been found to influence some anti-inflammatory pathways via certain proteins, antigens, and enzymes.14, 15, 16

A standardized and purified extract of S. baicalensis containing baicalein, oroxylin A, and wogonin exerted anti-inflammatory effects in both in vitro and in vivo models of colitis. Specifically, the extract reduced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced COX-2 expression by reducing the histopathological severity as well as the expression of COX-2, TNF-alpha, and interleukin-1beta.17 In a murine model, a Chinese formula containing S. baicalensis, Paeonia lactiflora, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, and Ziziphus jujube was similarly effective as compared with salicylazosulfapyridine in mice induced with colitis, resulting in improved colonic swelling and redness, and increased weight.18

In a study of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis in BALB/c mice, topical application of an aqueous extract of S. baicalensis suppressed dermatitis by reducing the production of inflammatory cytokines (ie, IL-4, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha). Infiltration of leukocytes into the dermis and epidermal thickness were also reduced with S. baicalensis.19

Antioxidant effects

Flavonoids from S. baicalensis have been studied for antioxidant effects. Four major flavonoids (baicalein, baicalin, wogonin, and wogonoside) have been studied in various systems, confirming antioxidant activity.20

Animal/In vitro data

One study found that baicalein exhibited the most consistent antioxidant effects, with baicalin and wogonin also displaying some antioxidant effects. Wogonoside was found to be inactive.21 An extract of the plant also demonstrated protective action against oxidation induced by ultraviolet light, suggesting potential use against certain skin diseases.22 Another study found that flavonoid baicalein inhibited lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes.23 Studies also found that baicalein and baicalin scavenged hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, and other free radicals in a dose-dependent manner,4 and that baicalein directly scavenged superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals in cardiomyocytes.24 Flavonoids wogonin and wogonoside demonstrated subtle effects on these radicals, but did inhibit nitric oxide production, along with water extract of the plant.4, 25, 26 Results also showed that ganhuangenin isolated from S. baicalensis had greater antioxidant potency than alpha-tocopherol.27

Clinical data

There is no clinical data regarding the use of Baikal skullcap as an antioxidant.

Immunoprotective/Anticancer effects

Because of its potential effects as an antioxidant, Baikal skullcap also has been studied in immunology and cancer research.

Animal/In vitro data

In rats with Pliss lymphosarcoma associated with disorders in platelet-mediated hemostasis, S. baicalensis administration produced a normalizing effect that may be responsible for its antitumor and metastasis-preventing effect.28 In other reports, a 14-flavone combination from S. baicalensis had marked inhibitory effects on mouse skin tumor promotion29 and also demonstrated anticancer activity in laboratory mice with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.30 S. baicalensis, in an herbal preparation with 8 other herbs, was evaluated for treating prostate cancer. PC-SPES therapy reduced prostate-specific antigen by 50% in patients with hormone-resistant prostate cancer. Enzyme prostate acid phosphatase, commonly elevated in prostate cancer, was also decreased by the preparation.31, 32 However, PC-SPES was recalled and withdrawn from the market in February 2002 because certain batches were contaminated with US Food and Drug Administration–controlled prescription drugs. The manufacturer is no longer in operation, and PC-SPES is no longer being made. PC-SPES is not legally available in the United States.33

One study found that the administration of skullcap 25 mg/kg orally once daily in mice sensitized with ovalbumin in order to induce a food allergy response was associated with reduced anaphylactic response as well as reduction in cytokine production, concluding that skullcap may be a preventive moiety for food allergies.34

In a murine model of adenocarcinoma, baicalin ameliorated anorexia by reducing cytokine (ie, TNF-alpha, IL-6) levels and preventing muscle atrophy. Food intake was greater in mice receiving baicalin compared with those receiving a placebo.35

Baicalein inhibited the migration, adhesion, and invasion caused by 17-beta-estradiol in a line of breast cancer cells by interfering with the activation of the GPR30 signaling pathway.36

Wogonin inhibited cell viability in both a time- and dose-dependent manner in HL-60 leukemia cells and also increased the activation of caspases 3, 8, and 9.37

In human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells, baicalein reduced cell viability in a concentration-dependent fashion. After 24 hours of treatment with baicalein, the cells were more rounded and dispersed with aggregation. Baicalein induced apoptosis of these colorectal cancer cells. Suppression of migration occurred with baicalein treated through its ability to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9. Baicalein also reduced the formation of tumors associated with inflammation.38

Cell viability of peripheral blood leukocytes obtained from children with acute lymphocytic leukemia was reduced with the use of a S. baicalensis extract.39

Clinical data

S. baicalensis administered to lung cancer patients improved certain immunoglobulins.40 Another report investigated the effects of the components of a Japanese herbal medicine Sho-saiko-to (TJ-9) on IL-12 production in the adherent cell (monocyte/macrophage) fraction and in the nonadhered cell (lymphocyte) fraction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from liver cirrhosis patients and healthy subjects. IL-12 is an important cytokine that maintains systemic defense and bioregulation.41 Dry extract of baical skullcap given to 88 lung cancer patients increased hematopoiesis stimulation and improved other anticancer parameters.42 Baicalin and baicalein inhibited cell proliferation in certain cell lines,43 induced quinone reductase,44 and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.45 Other in vitro effects included antigenotoxic actions of baicalein.46

Antimicrobial effects

Animal/In vitro data

Several studies evaluating the antimicrobial effects of Baikal skullcap have been conducted. In vitro testing of an S. baicalensis preparation on selected oral bacteria demonstrated bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects at specified concentrations.47 The flavone isolate baicalin was found to be synergistic with beta-lactam antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other beta-lactam-resistant strains of S. aureus.48 One study found that baicalein was effective against penicillinase-producing S. aureus and MRSA by inhibiting penicillinase in a dose-dependent manner.49 Antiviral effects of the plant also have been reported. A flavonoid compound from S. baicalensis inhibited T-cell leukemia virus type Ι (HTLV-Ι). Constituent baicalin inhibited reverse transcriptase activity in HTLV-Ι-infected cells, as well as the activity of purified reverse transcriptase from Moloney murine leukemia virus and Rous-associated virus type 2.50 Other flavones, such as isoscutellarein from S. baicalensis leaves, also showed anti-influenza virus activity in vitro.51 Isoscutellarein-8-methylether from S. baicalensis roots had effects against influenza A and B viruses, with results suggesting inhibition of the replication of A/Guizhou and B/Ibaraki viruses by inhibiting the fusion of viral envelopes with the endosome/lysosome membrane that occur in the early stage of the virus infection cycle.52

Another in vitro study found baicalein exerted antimicrobial effects against 11 different oral bacterial species. Baicalein also exerted synergistic and sometimes additive effects when administered in combination with ampicillin and/or gentamicin in these bacterial strains.53

Clinical data

A Scutelleria compound injection versus intravenous piperacillin was studied in 60 patients with pulmonary infection. Results were comparable in certain parameters, such as effective rates, leucocyte count, and low adverse reaction incidence. However, in the piperacillin group, 4 of the 30 patients had subsequent fungal infections; whereas, in the Scutelleria group, no fungal infections were found after treatment.54 High antifungal activity was found against Candida albicans caused by S. baicalensis in an herbal screening study.55 Antifungal effect was due to baicalein in another report in which S. baicalensis was found to be active against Cryptococcus neoformans and Pityrosporum.56

Cardiovascular effects

Animal/In vitro data

Baikal skullcap has been used to alleviate circulatory problems (eg, high blood pressure, arteriosclerosis, varicose veins, bruising).2 Flavone baicalein inhibited thrombin and thrombin-induced calcium and plasminogen activators in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, suggesting potential benefits in arteriosclerosis and thrombosis.57

S. baicalensis roots have been suggested to reduce blood pressure, particularly in renin-dependent hypertension; however, in a murine model, baicalein increased sensitivity to vasoconstriction. Inhibition of lipoxygenase may also explain baicalein’s hypotensive effects.12

Baicalein reduced thrombin-mediated fibrin polymerization, prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time, reduced platelet aggregation, decreased FeCl3-induced thrombus formation, and inhibited activated factor X and thrombin activity. Additionally, bleeding time measured in mice tails was prolonged. However, baicalein exerted weaker anticoagulant activities when compared with warfarin and heparin.58

Clinical data

Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of Baikal skullcap for cardiovascular effects.

Neuroprotective effects

Baikal skullcap may exert a protective effect in neurodegenerative diseases due to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic effects.1

Animal/In vitro data

Baikal skullcap may be useful for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. Flavonoids from Baikal skullcap exerted a protective effect on hippocampal neurons by reducing lipid peroxidation build up and glial cell proliferation.59 In a murine model of okadaic acid-induced neuronal damage, S. baicalensis reduced neuronal injuries in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Additionally, S. baicalensis reversed the reduction in neuron count.60

In an 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced murine model of Parkinson disease, baicalein 140 or 280 mg/kg improved behavioral deficits caused by the MPTP similar to those of the positive control of madopar. Baicalein was also associated with improvements in neurogenesis, neuroblast proliferation, neurotrophin signaling pathway, walking and locomotor behaviors, and regulation of gene expression.61

Clinical data

There is no clinical data regarding the use of Baikal skullcap for neuroprotective effects.


Animal/In vitro data

In a murine model, topical application of baicalin cream inhibited a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced contact hypersensitivity reaction. The anti-inflammatory effect was not the same magnitude as that seen with tacrolimus. The effects were stronger at higher concentrations as well as at 48 hours as compared with 24 hours. Additionally, baicalin cream produced differentiation in the epidermis of mouse tails with psoriasis, with the 5% cream having the greatest effect compared with baicalin 1% and 3% creams.62

Clinical data

One case report described the successful treatment of psoriasis with a topical ointment containing S. baicalensis as well as Indigo naturalis and Cortex phellodendri. An 8-year-old male with a 2-year history of psoriasis was originally responsive to traditional therapies; however, his symptoms worsened with continued therapy. After receiving the combination ointment twice daily for 2 months, his previous 80% body surface coverage improved to 0%. He remained in remission for 1 year, and for occasional small flare-ups, reapplication to the ointment was beneficial.63 However, no clinical evidence exists.

Other effects

Baicalin exhibited hepatoprotective actions in rats as well.64 Other uses of Baikal skullcap preparations include treatment of neonatal jaundice,65 marked antiulcerogenic actions,66 sores, swelling, boils, and diabetic problems.2

An in vitro study reported weak estrogenic activity associated with S. baicalensis.67

Five flavonoids derived from S. baicalensis were found to inhibit alpha-glucosidase activity in vitro. Specifically, the strongest inhibitor was baicalein followed by wogonin, baicalin, chrysin, and oroxylin A.68 Additionally, baicalein inhibited the activity of rat intestinal sucrose as well as human intestinal sucrose expression in Caco-2 cells. Therefore, the compound might be useful in lowering postprandial blood glucose levels.69


3 to 10 g/day, 3 to 9 g root/day, 2 to 6 g dry root/day, 4 to 12 mL fluid extract.70

Pregnancy / Lactation

Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking. In a study of mice, administration of an aqueous extract of S. baicalensis root up to 32 g/kg/day did not result in fetal malformation. However, the maximum dose 32 g/kg/day resulted in maternal elevations in liver and kidney weights.71, 72, 73, 74


Alpha glucosidase inhibitors

Because baicalein may have a mechanism of action similar to that of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors,69 use caution in patients receiving alpha glucosidase inhibitors should be monitored for hypoglycemia if taken with baicalein.


Due to potential antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and profibronolytic effects of baicalein,58 it should be used with caution in patients taking any medications or supplements that can prolong bleeding time.

Garlic supplementation

In a murine model, the addition of garlic to S. baicalensis was associated with a reduced area under the curve and time to maximum plasma concentration.75

Adverse Reactions

Few adverse reactions have been reported. Because flavones of Baikal skullcap have been shown to interact with the benzodiazepine site of the gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor, sedation may occur with coadministration.76 No adverse reactions were reported in liver, kidney, or medulla regions in a 60-patient study of IV Scutellaria compound.54 Isolate isoscutellarein from S. baicalensis leaves produced negligible toxic effects in mice.48 Limbrel (flavocoxid), a prescription medical food product containing baicalin and catechins, has been associated with hepatic injury. A case series reported 4 cases of liver injury due to flavocoxid (250 to 500 mg twice per day) for the treatment of osteoarthritis in women between 57 and 68 years of age. The appearance of symptoms (ie, jaundice, pruritus, abdominal pain, fever, rash) occurred within 1 to 3 months of initiation and resolved within a few days of discontinuation. Because Limbrel contains a proprietary blend of compounds from both S. baicalensis and A. catechu, discerning which may be responsible for liver injury may not be possible.77 Hyperactive bowel sounds, abdominal distention, constipation, dizziness, somnolence, blurred vision, reduction in plasma fibrinogen, and reduction in blood leukocyte were reported in healthy volunteers taking baicalein 100 to 2,800 mg in a phase 1 study.78


In a phase 1 study of healthy volunteers, baicalein 100 to 2,800 mg was not associated with hepatic or kidney toxicity.78

Index Terms

  • Scutellaria laterifolia
  • Skullcap


1. Gaire BP, Moon SK, Kim H. Scutellaria baicalensis in stroke management: nature’s blessing in traditional Eastern medicine. Chin J Integr Med. 2014;20(9):712-720.24752475
2. Chevallier, A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. New York, NY: DK Publishing, Inc;1996:133.
3. Newell C, Anderson L, Phillipson J. Herbal Medicines. London, England: Pharmaceutical Press;1996:239-240.
4. Gao Z, Yang X, Huang K, Xu H. Free-radical scavenging and mechanism study of flavonoids extracted from the radix of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Appl Magn Reson. 2000;19(1):35-44.
5. Stojakowska A, Malarz J. A quantitative RP-HPLC determination of flavonoids in the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Herba Pol. 1998;44:300-306.
6. Miyaichi Y, Imoto Y, Saida H, Tomimori T. Studies on the constituents of Scutellaria species. (X). On the flavonoid constituents of the leaves of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Shoyakugaku Zasshi. 1988;42:216-219.
7. Liao JF, Wang HH, Chen MC, Chen CC, Chen CF. Benzodiazepine binding site-interactive flavones from Scutellaria baicalensis root. Planta Med. 1998;64(6):571-572.9776664
8. Tomimori T, Jin H, Miyaichi Y, Toyofuku S, Namba T. Studies on the constituents of Scutellaria species. VI. On the flavonoid constituents of the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (5). Quantitative analysis of flavonoids in Scutellaria roots by high-performance liquid chromatography [in Japanese]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 1985;05(2):148-155.4009423
9. Morimoto S, Tateishi N, Matsuda T, et al. Novel hydrogen peroxide metabolism in suspension cells of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. J Biol Chem. 1998;273(20):12606-12612.
10. Murch SJ, Simmons CB, Saxena PK. Melatonin in feverfew and other medicinal plants. Lancet. 1997;350(9091):1598-1599.9393344
11. Chung CP, Park JB, Bae KH. Pharmacological effects of methanolic extract from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis and its flavonoids on human gingival fibroblast. Planta Med. 1995;61(2):150-153.7753922
12. Huang Y, Tsang SY, Yao X, Chen ZY. Biological properties of baicalein in cardiovascular system. Curr Drug Targets Cardiovasc Haematol Disord. 2005;5(2):177-184.15853750
13. Lin CC, Shieh DE. The anti-inflammatory activity of Scutellaria rivularis extracts and its active components, baicalin, baicalein and wogonin. Am J Chin Med. 1996;24(1):31-36.8739179
14. Chang YL, Shen JJ, Wung BS, Cheng JJ, Wang DL. Chinese herbal remedy wogonin inhibits monocyte chemotactic protein-1 gene expression in human endothelial cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2001;60(3):507-513.11502881
15. Krakauer T, Li BQ, Young HA. The flavonoid baicalin inhibits superantigen-induced inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. FEBS Lett. 2001;500(1-2):52-55.11434925
16. Wakabayashi I. Inhibitory effects of baicalein and wogonin on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in macrophages. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1999;84(6):288-291.10401731
17. Jiang WY, Seo GS, Kim YC, Sohn DH, Lee SH. PF2405, standardized fraction of Scutellaria baicalensis, ameliorates colitis in vitro and in vivo. Arch Pharm Res. 2015;38(6):1127-1137.25577335
18. Chen P, Zhou X, Zhang L, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of Huangqin tang extract in mice on ulcerative colitis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;162:207-214.25576893
19. Kim TW, Choi JM, Kim MS, Son HY, Lim JH. Topical application of Scutellaria baicalensis suppresses 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis. Nat Prod Res. 2016;30(6):705-709.
20. Gao Z, Huang K, Yang X, Xu H. Free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of flavonoids extracted from the radix of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1472(3):643-650.10564778
21. Wozniak D, Drys A, Matkowski A. Antiradical and antioxidant activity of flavones from Scutellariae baicalensis radix. Nat Prod Res. 2015;29(16):1567-1570.
22. Gabrielska J, Oszmianski J, Zylka R, Komorowska M. Antioxidant activity of flavones from Scutellaria baicalensis in lecithin liposomes. Z Naturforsch. 1997;52(11-12):817-823.9463939
23. Gao D, Sakurai K, Chen J, Ogiso T. Protection by baicalein against ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsomes. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1995;90(1):103-114.8581335
24. Shao Z, Li C, Vandon Hoek T, et al. Extract from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi attenuates oxidant stress in cardiomyocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1999;31(10):1885-1889.10525426
25. Kim H, Kim YS, Kim SY, Suk K. The plant flavonoid wogonin suppresses death of activated C6 rat glial cells by inhibiting nitric oxide production. Neurosci Lett. 2001;309(1)9:67-71.11489548
26. Tezuka Y, Irikawa S, Kaneko T, et al. Screening of Chinese herbal drug extracts for inhibitory activity on nitric oxide production and identification of an active compound of Zanthoxylum bungeanum. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;77(2-3):209-217.11535366
27. Lim BO, Yu BP, Kim SC, Park DK. The antioxidative effect of ganhuangenin against lipid peroxidation. Phytother Res. 1999;13(6):479-483.10479757
28. Razina T, Udintsev S, Tiutrin I, Borovskaia T, Iaremenko K. The role of thrombocyte aggregation function in the mechanism of the antimetastic action of an extract of Baikal skullcap [in Russian]. Vopr Onkol. 1989;35(3):331-335.2705316
29. Konoshima T, Kokumai M, Kozuka M, et al. Studies on inhibitors of skin tumor promotion. XI. Inhibitory effects of flavonoids from Scutellaria baicalensis on Epstein-Barr virus activation and their antitumor-promoting activities. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1992;40(2):531-533.1318792
30. Zhang DY, Wu J, Ye F, et al. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by Scutellaria baicalensis. Cancer Res. 2003;63(14):4037-4043.
31. Small EJ, Frohlich MW, Bok R, et al. Prospective trial of the herbal supplement PC-SPES in patients with progressive prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18(21):3595-3603.11054432
32. Oh WK, George DJ, Hackmann K, Manola J, Kantoff PW. Activity of the herbal combination, PC-SPES, in the treatment of patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer. Urology. 2001;57(1):122-126.11164156
33. National Cancer Institute. US National Institutes of Health. PC-SPEC (PDQ). Health Professional Version. Updated September 29, 2015. Accessed January 20, 2016.
34. Shin HS, Bae MJ, Jung SY, Shon DH. Preventive effects of skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) extract in a mouse model of food allergy. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;153(3):667-673.24637193
35. Li B, Wan L, Li Y, et al. Baicalin, a component of Scutellaria baicalensis, alleviates anorexia and inhibits skeletal muscle atrophy in experimental cancer cachexia. Tumour Biol. 2014;35(12):12415-12425.25195133
36. Shang D, Li Z, Zhu Z, et al. Baicalein suppresses 17-β-estradiol-induced migration, adhesion and invasion of breast cancer cells via the G protein-coupled receptor 30 signaling pathway. Oncol Rep. 2015;33(4):2077-2085.25672442
37. Hu C, Xu M, Qin R, Chen W, Xu X. Wogonin induces apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress in HL-60 leukemia cells through inhibition of the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. Oncol Rep. 2015;33(6):3146-3154.25846394
38. Kim DH, Hossain MA, Kang YJ, et al. Baicalein, an active component of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, induces apoptosis in human colon cancer cells and prevents AOM/DSS-induced colon cancer in mice. Int J Oncol. 2013;43(5):1652-1658.24008356
39. Orzechowska B, Chaber R, Wiśniewska A, et al. Baicalin from the extract of Scutellaria baicalensis affects the innate immunity and apoptosis in leukocytes of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia. Int Immunopharmacol. 2014;23(2):558-567.25448499
40. Smol'ianinov ES, Gol'dberg VE, Matiash MG, et al. Effect of Scutellaria baicalensis extract on the imunologic status of patients with lung cancer receiving antineoplastic chemotherapy [in Russian]. Eskp Klin Farmakol. 1997;60(6):49-51.9460600
41. Yamashiki M, Nishimura A, Huang X, Nobori T, Sakaguchi S, Suzuki H. Effects of the Japanese herbal medicine "Sho-saiko-to" (TJ-9) on interleukin-12 production in patients with HCV-positive liver cirrhosis. Dev Immunol. 1999;7(1):17-22.10636475
42. Gol'dberg VE, Ryzhakov VM, Matiash MG, et al. Dry extract of Scutellaria baicalensis as a hemostimulant in antineoplastic chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer [in Russian]. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 1997;60(6):28-30.9460593
44. Hsu SL, Hsieh YC, Hsieh WC, Chou CJ. Baicalein induces a dual growth arrest by modulating multiple cell cycle regulatory molecules. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001;425(3):165-171.11513834
45. Park HJ, Lee YW, Park HH, Lee YS, Kwon IB, Yu JH. Induction of quinone reductase by a methanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis and its flavonoids in murine Hepa 1c1c7 cells. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1998;7(6):465-471.9926295
46. Chan FL, Choi HL, Chen ZY, Chan PS, Huang Y. Induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines by a flavonoid baicalin. Cancer Lett. 2000;160(2):219-228.11053652
47. Lee BH, Lee SJ, Kang TH, et al. Baicalein: an in vitro antigenotoxic compound from Scutellaria baicalensis. Planta Med. 2000;66(1):70-71.10705739
48. Tsao TF, Newman MG, Kwok YY, Horikoshi AK. Effect of Chinese and western antimicrobial agents on selected oral bacteria. J Dent Res. 1982;61(9):1103-1106.6963285
49. Liu IX, Durham DG, Richards RM. Baicalin synergy with beta-lactam antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus and beta-lactam-resistant strains of S. aureus. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2000;52(3):361-366.10757427
50. Qian M, Tang S, Wu C, et al. Synergy between baicalein and pencillins against penicillinase-producing Staphylococcus aureus. Int J Med Microbiol. 2015;305(6):501-504.
51. Baylor NW, Fu T, Yan YD, Ruscetti FW. Inhibition of human T cell leukemia virus by the plant flavonoid baicalin (7-glucuronic acid, 5,6-dihydroxyflavone). J Infect Dis. 1992;165(3):433-437.1371535
52. Nagai T, Miyaichi Y, Tomimori T, Suzuki Y, Yamada H. In vivo anti-influenza virus activity of plant flavonoids possessing inhibitory activity for influenza virus sialidase. Antiviral Res. 1992;19(3):207-217.1444327
53. Nagai T, Suzuki Y, Tomimori T, Yamada H. Antiviral activity of plant flavonoid, 5,7,4′-trihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone, from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis against influenza A (H3N2) and B viruses. Biol Pharm Bull. 1995;18(2):295-299.7742801
54. Jang EJ, Cha SM, Choi SM, Cha JD. Combination effects of baicalein with antibiotics against oral pathogens. Arch Oral Biol. 2014;59(11):1233-1241.25129811
55. Lu Z. Clinical comparative study of intravenous piperacillin sodium or injection of scutellaria compound in patients with pulmonary infection [in Chinese]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1990;10(7):389, 413-415.2208421
56. Blaszczyk T, Kryzyzanowska J, Lamer-Zarawska E. Screening for antimycotic properties of 56 traditional Chinese drugs. Phytother Res. 2000;14(3):210-221.10815018
57. Yang D, Michel D, Bevalot F, Chaumont JP, Millet-Clerc J. Antifungal activity in vitro of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi upon cutaneous and ungual pathogenic fungi [in French]. Ann Pharm Fr. 1995;53(3):138-141.7677396
58. Kimura Y, Yokoi K, Matsushita N, Okuda H. Effects of flavonoids isolated from Scutellariae radix on the production of tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 induced by thrombin and thrombin receptor agonist peptide in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1997;49(8):816-822.9379363
58. Lee W, Ku SK, Bae JS. Antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and profibrinolytic activities of baicalein. Arch Pharm Res. 2015;38(5):893-903.24849036
59. Gao J, Inagaki Y, Liu Y. Research progress on flavonoids isolated from traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2013;2(1):3-10.25343094
60. Zhang SF, Dong YC, Zhang XF, et al. Flavonoids from Scutellaria attenuate okadaic acid-induced neuronal damage in rats. Brain Inj. 2015;29(11):1376-1382.26083050
63. Gao L, Li C, Yang RY, et al. Ameliorative effects of baicalein in MPTP-induced mouse model of Parkinson’s disease: A microarray study. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2015;133:155-163.25895692
62. Wu J, Li H, Li M. Effects of baicalin cream in two mouse models: 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced contact hypersensitivity and mouse tail test for psoriasis. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015;8(2):2128-2137.25932143
63. Lin YK, Yen HR, Wong WR, Yang SH, Pang JH. Successful treatment of pediatric psoriasis with Indigo naturalis composite ointment. Pediatr Dermatol. 2006;23(5):507-510.17014654
64. Kyo R, Nakahata N, Sakakibara I, Kubo M, Ohizumi Y. Baicalin and baicalein constituents of an important medicinal plant, inhibit intracellular Ca2+ elevation by reducing phospholipase C activity in C6 rat glioma cells. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1998;50(10):1179-1182.9821667
65. Ho NK. Traditional Chinese medicine and treatment of neonatal jaundice. Singapore Med J. 1996;37(6):645-651.9104069
66. Amosova EN, Zueva EP, Razina TG, et al. The search for new anti-ulcer agents from plants in Siberia and the Far East [in Russian]. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 1998;61(6):31-35.9929813
67. Zhang CZ, Wang SX, Zhang Y, Chen JP, Liang XM. In vitro estrogenic activities of Chinese medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of menopausal symptoms. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;98(3):295-300.15814262
68. Yang JR, Luo JG, Kong LY. Determination of α-glucosidase inhibitors from Scutellaria baicalensis using liquid chromatography with quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry coupled with centrifugal ultrafiltration. Chin J Nat Med. 2015;13(3):208-214.25835365
69. Nishioka T, Kawabata J, Aoyama Y. Baicalein, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor from Scutellaria baicalensis. J Nat Prod. 1998;61(11):1413-1415.9834167
70. Duke JA. Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press;2002.
71. Tian XY, Cheung LM, Leung K, et al. The effects of Scutellaria baicalensis extract on embryonic development in mice. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2009;86(2):79-84.19283861
72. Yimam M, Lee Y-C, Hyun E-J, Jia Q. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of orally administered botanical composition, UP446-Part I: effects on embryo-fetal development in New Zealand white rabbits and Sprague Dawley rats. Birth Defects Res (Part B). 2015;104(4):141-152.26303163
73. Yimam M, Lee Y-C, Hyun E-J, Jia Q. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of orally administered botanical composition, UP446-Part II: effects on prenatal and postnatal development, including maternal function in Sprague Dawley rats. Birth Defects Res (Part B). 2015;104(4):153-165.26033919
74. Yimam M, Lee Y-C, Hyun E-J, Jia Q. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of orally administered botanical composition, UP446-Part III: effects on fertility and early embryonic developments to implanation in Sprague Dawley rats. Birth Defects Res (Part B). 2015;104(4):166-176.26173630
75. Zhou J, Qu F, Yu Y, Nan R. Whether co-administration of garlic has negative influence on Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi in treating model rats with pelvic inflammation? Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2008;6(1):103-108.
76. Hui KM, Wang XH, Xue H. Interaction of flavones from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis with the benzodiazepine site. Planta Med. 2000;66(1):91-93.10705749
77. Chalasani N, Vuppalanchi R, Navarro V, et al. Acute liver injury due to flavocoxid (Limbrel), a medical food for osteoarthritis: a case series. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156(12):857-860.
78. Li M, Shi A, Pang H, et al. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of a single ascending dose of baicalein chewable tablets in healthy subjects. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;156:210-215.25219601


This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product.

This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.