Skip to main content


Scientific Name(s): Laurus persea L., Persea americana Mill., Persea gratissima Gaertn
Common Name(s): Ahuacate, Alligator pear, Avocado, Avocato, Bitter fruit, Pae (African name), Paya (African name), Pee (African name)

Medically reviewed by Last updated on Jan 16, 2023.

Clinical Overview


All plant parts of avocado have been investigated for therapeutic applications. Most research has focused on effects of avocado on markers of metabolic syndrome (eg, lipids, blood pressure, blood sugar, weight). Additionally, avocado has been evaluated for its antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and dermatological effects.


No dosing for clinical purposes has been determined. The US Nutrition Labeling and Education Act defines a serving size of avocado as 30 g (1 oz) or one-fifth of a fruit.


Contraindications have not been identified.


Avocado fruit is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) when used as food. Avoid extracts from other plant parts and dosages above those found in food because safety and efficacy have not been established.


Avocado contains small to moderate amounts of vitamin K (ie, 21 mcg per 100 g of avocado), which may reduce the antithrombotic effects of warfarin (ie, decrease international normalized ratio [INR]).

Adverse Reactions

Hypersensitivity to avocado has been described and includes rare instances of anaphylaxis. An allergen cross-reactivity has been shown with avocado, melons (eg, cantaloupe), peaches, bananas, chestnuts, tomatoes, potatoes, and kiwi fruits and natural rubber latex ("latex-fruit syndrome"). Additionally, case reports exist regarding food protein–induced enterocolitis syndrome following ingestion of avocado in children 5 to 9 months of age.


No data.

Scientific Family

  • Lauraceae


The avocado tree grows up to 20 m in height and bears a large, oval, or spherical fleshy fruit, the skin of which can be thick and woody. Although the plant is native to Mexico and Central America, numerous varieties are now widely distributed throughout the world.Leung 1980


Avocado was first cultivated in Mexico, dating as early as 500 BC. The first English language mention of avocado was in 1696.Ameer 2016 Avocado has been widely used for food and medicinal purposes. In traditional medicine, Guatemalan Indians used the pulp as a pomade to stimulate hair growth, to hasten healing of wounds, and as an aphrodisiac and emmenagogue. The seeds have been used to treat dysentery and diarrhea. American Indians used powdered seeds to treat pyorrhea. Today, avocado fruit is widely consumed throughout the world, and the oil is a component of numerous cosmetic formulations.Leung 1980 Ghanaians use avocado as an anticonvulsant.Amoateng 2018


The pulp of the avocado fruit contains fiber, sugars, minerals, vitamins, and other phytochemicals and lipids. The fruit is thought to provide large amounts of potassium and magnesium, with a similar nutrient profile to tree nuts, such as walnuts, almonds, and pistachios. In addition, avocado contains riboflavin, folate, pantothenic acid, lutein, beta-carotene, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, and vitamins C, E, K, and B6.Ameer 2016 Avocado oil is derived from the fruit pulp and is primarily composed of glycerides of oleic acid and approximately 10% unsaponifiable (ie, cannot be hydrolyzed) compounds, such as sterols and volatile acids. Oleic acid is a beneficial monounsaturated fatty acid present in avocado (concentration range, 61% to 95%). The vitamin D content of the oil exceeds that of butter and eggs. The large seed contains fatty acids, alcohols, and several unsaturated compounds with exceedingly bitter tastes; the seed has been the subject of several investigational studies. The leaves of the Mexican avocado reportedly contain approximately 3% of an essential oil primarily composed of estragole and anethole.Dabas 2013, Dreher 2013, Duke 2003, Leung 1980, USDA 2018

Uses and Pharmacology

Antimicrobial effects

Animal and in vitro data

Antibacterial activity

Several unsaturated oxygenated aliphatic compounds in the fruit pulp and seed possess strong in vitro activity against bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia lamblia. Antimycobacterial activity has also been demonstrated in vitro.(Dabas 2013, Guzman-Rodriguez 2013, Jimenez-Aellanes 2013, Lu 2012) The butanolic fraction of P. americana in a concentration of 10 mg/mL exhibited antimicrobial activity against bacterial isolates of Bacillus cereus, a gram-positive bacteria often associated with food poisoning.(Akinpelu 2014)

Antifungal activity

In vitro data suggest that a glycolic extract of P. americana exerted antifungal effects against Candida albicans.(Jesus 2015)

Antiviral activity

An extract from avocado inhibited dengue virus-2 replication in a concentration-dependent manner and suppressed serotypes 1 to 4 in a murine model.(Wu 2019)

Larvicidal activity

The ethanol and hexane extracts of the seeds, peel, and pulp of P. americana demonstrated larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, with the hexane extract of the seeds having the greatest effect.(Torres 2014)

Cardiovascular effects

In vitro data

According to a review of fruits for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, acetogenins in the pulp of avocado have demonstrated antiplatelet effects in vitro.(Zhao 2017)

Clinical data

Data from 12 healthy physically active college-educated females enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study revealed no significant acute effects between consumption of avocado pulp (600 mg) or placebo on cardiorespiratory parameters (respiratory rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate) after exercise. Similarly, no effect between interventions was found for parasympathetic regulation of heart rhythm or sympathetic autonomic control.(Sousa 2020)

Cytotoxic effects

Animal and in vitro data

Chemoprotective and anticarcinogenic chemical constituents have been found in avocado fruit, seed, leaf, and bark. Inhibition of cell growth and apoptosis have been described in in vitro studies and animal models of human cancer cell lines, including leukemia and breast, colon, esophageal, and oral cancers.(Bonilla-Porras 2013, D'Ambrosio 2011, Dabas 2013, Dreher 2013, Falodun 2013, Guzman-Rodriguez 2016, Mbaveng 2018, Paul 2011, Vahedi 2014)

Dermatological effects

Animal data

In a study of rats, avocado oil increased collagen synthesis and decreased inflammation during wound healing, possibly due to its high oleic acid content.(de Oliveira 2013)

In a murine model of ultraviolet B irradiation–induced burns, topical P. americana leaf extract prevented allodynia on the second and third days after irradiation; however, P. americana did not exert anti-inflammatory effects, as measured by edema and leukocyte infiltration.(Deuschle 2018)

GI effects

Animal data

Avocado demonstrated antidiarrheal effects, which were dose dependent, in rats receiving methanol and chloroform extracts of P. americana.(Christian 2014) In another study, an ethanolic extract of avocado improved clinical and histological parameters in mice with colitis. Avocado also suppressed the production of proinflammatory mediators.(Hong 2019)

Metabolic syndrome risk factors

Animal data

Animal studies have demonstrated improvements in lipid profiles, glucose levels (ie, hypoglycemic effect), and blood pressure with avocado.(Gamboa-Gomez 2015, Giovannini 2016, Marquez-Ramirez 2018, Tabeshpour 2017) In a study of hypercholesterolemic rats, P. americana administration resulted in weight reductions of about 25%.(Gamboa-Gomez 2015) In addition to modestly improving blood pressure in hypertensive rats, avocado oil alleviated impaired renal vasodilation.(Marquez-Ramirez 2018)

Clinical data

Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001 to 2008 showed lower body mass index, body weight, and waist circumference, as well as higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and decreased risk of metabolic syndrome in avocado consumers compared with nonconsumers, adding significance to findings from older clinical studies.(Dreher 2013, Fulgoni 2013) In a 2018 systematic review and meta-analysis, avocado consumption was associated with significant increases in HDL-C but no improvements in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol, or triglyceride levels.(Mahmassani 2018) Another meta-analysis of 10 studies showed opposite findings. Substituting dietary fats with avocado reduced total cholesterol by −18.8 mg/dL (95% CI, −24.56 to −13.05; I2=46.9%), LDL-C by −16.5 mg/dL (95% CI, −22.91 to −10.1; I2=72.5%), and triglycerides by −27.2 mg/dL (95% CI, −44.41 to −9.99; I2=91.1%). HDL-C decreased by −0.18 mg/dL (95% CI, −3.23 to 2.88; I2=84.8%), but the decrease was not significant.(Peou 2016)

Small clinical studies suggest that the addition of avocado to meals improves satiety and postprandial glycemic indices.(Li 2013, Wien 2013)

As a component of medical nutrition therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes, the American Diabetes Association Standards of Care (2014) recommends higher quality dietary fat intake, as an alternative to decreased fat intake, by replacing saturated and/or trans fats with mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (including avocado) in the diet. This Mediterranean-style approach to eating may improve glycemic control and cardiovascular disease risk factors (moderate-quality evidence).(ADA 2014)

Neurological effects

In vitro data

In an in vitro study, aqueous seed and leaf extracts of P. americana inhibited both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, key enzymes linked to Alzheimer disease; studies are needed to further assess these effects. The seed extract had a greater inhibitory effect than the leaf extract.(Oboh 2016)

Radioprotective effects

Animal data

P. americana exerted radioprotective effects in a study of rats exposed to whole body X-ray irradiation.(Kumar 2017)


No dosing for clinical purposes has been determined. The US Nutrition Labeling and Education Act defines a serving size of avocado as 30 g (1 oz) or one-fifth of a fruit.Dreher 2013

Pregnancy / Lactation

Avocado fruit is GRAS when used as food. Avoid extracts from other plant parts and dosages above those found in food because safety and efficacy have not been established. An animal study suggested that maternal supplementation with avocado oil and pulp accelerates reflex maturation and somatic postnatal development, as well as improves memory during adolescent and adult phases in the Melo 2019


Beta-carotene: Avocado may increase the serum concentration of beta-carotene. No action needed.(Kopec 2014, Unlu 2005)

Warfarin: Avocado may diminish the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Monitor therapy.(Blickstein 1991) Avocado contains small to moderate amounts of vitamin K (ie, 21 mcg per 100 g of avocado), which may reduce the antithrombotic effects of warfarin. Two case reports suggest an association between ingestion of avocado and reduced INR levels.(Norwood 2015)

Adverse Reactions

Hypersensitivity to avocado has been described and includes rare instances of anaphylaxis. Manifestations of allergy to avocado may be limited to the mouth or throat (eg, oral allergy syndrome with itchy mouth, throat, and swollen tongue) or oral symptoms with generalized symptoms (eg, wheezing, chest tightness, abdominal cramping, diarrhea). An allergen cross-reactivity has been shown with avocado, melons (eg, cantaloupe), peaches, bananas, chestnuts, tomatoes, potatoes, and kiwi fruits and natural rubber latex ("latex-fruit syndrome"). An immunoglobulin E–mediated inflammatory mechanism has been shown to similarly produce an allergic reaction to latex, bananas, and avocados.Abrams 2011, Wagner 2002 Case reports exist regarding food protein–induced enterocolitis syndrome following ingestion of avocado in children 5 to 9 months of age.Cherian 2018


Poisoning in grazing animals and other species, including fish and birds, that ingested avocado has been reported.Craigmill 1984, Leung 1980 Acetogenins in the seed extract have demonstrated cardiotoxicity in isolated cardiomyocytes in vitro.Silva-Platas 2012 However, avocado seed extract has not been shown to possess genotoxic properties or mutagenicity in mice erythrocytes.Padilla-Camberos 2013 The fruit pulp oil of P. americana did not exert genotoxic effects in vitro or in in vivo models; instead the fruit pulp oil exerted protective effects against methyl methanesulfonate–induced chromosomal damage in vitro and in vivo. P. americana fruit pulp oil also reduced genotoxicity associated with doxorubicin in vivo but not in vitro. The highest test dose of the fruit pulp oil (ie, 1,000 mg/kg) was associated with an increase in AST but not ALT.Nicolella 2017 Death and signs of toxicity such as sluggishness and swollen eyes and face were noted in rats receiving 5,000 mg/kg of methanolic and chloroformic extracts of P. americana. However, these effects were not noted at 10, 100, 1,000, 1,900, and 2,600 mg/kg doses of these extracts.Christian 2014



This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product.

This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age.

Abrams EM, Becker AB, Gerstner TV. Anaphylaxis related to avocado ingestion: a case and review. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2011;7:12.21663642
Akinpelu DA, Aiyegoro OA, Akinpelu OF, Okoh AI. Stem bark extract and fraction of Persea americana (Mill.) exhibits bactericidal activities against strains of Bacillus cereus associated with food poisoning. Molecules. 2014;20(1):416-429.25558854
Ameer K. Avocado as a major dietary source of antioxidants and its preventive role in neurodegenerative diseases. Adv Neurobiol. 2016;12:337-354.27651262
American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes--2014. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(suppl 1):S14-S80.
Amoateng P, Quansah E, Karikari TK, et al. Medicinal plants used in the treatment of mental and neurological disorders in Ghana. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2018;2018:8590381.30671131
Blickstein D, Shaklai M, Inbal A. Warfarin antagonism by avocado. Lancet. 1991;337(8746):914-915.1672990
Bonilla-Porras AR, Salazar-Ospina A, Jimenez-Del-Rio M, Pereañez-Jimenez A, Velez-Pardo C. Pro-apoptotic effect of Persea americana var. Hass (avocado) on Jurkat lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Pharm Biol. 2013.24188375
Cherian S, Neupert K, Varshney P. Avocado as an emerging trigger for food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2018;121(3):369-371.30220295
Christian E O, Okwesili Fc N, Parker E J, Okechukwu Pc U. Acute toxicity investigation and anti-diarrhoeal effect of the chloroform-methanol extract of the leaves of Persea americana.Iran J Pharm Res. 2014;13(2):651-658.25237361
Craigmill AL, Eide RN, Shultz TA, Hedrick K. Toxicity of avocado (Persea americana [Guatemalan var]) leaves: review and preliminary report. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1984;26(5):381-383.6541397
D'Ambrosio SM, Han C, Pan L, Kinghorn AD, Ding H. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;409(3):465-469.21596018
Dabas D, Shegog RM, Ziegler GR, Lambert JD. Avocado (Persea americana) seed as a source of bioactive phytochemicals. Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19(34):6133-6140.23448442
de Melo MFFT, Pereira DE, Moura RL, et al. Maternal supplementation with avocado (Persea americana Mill.) pulp and oil alters reflex maturation, physical development and offspring memory in rats. Front Neurosci. 2019;13:9.30728763
de Oliveira AP, Franco Ede S, Rodrigues Barreto R, et al. Effect of semisolid formulation of Persea americana mill (avocado) oil on wound healing in rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:472382.23573130
Deuschle VCKN, Brusco I, Piana M, et al. Persea americana Mill. crude extract exhibits antinociceptive effect on UVB radiation-induced skin injury in mice. Inflammopharmacology. 2018.29327283
Dreher ML, Davenport AJ. Hass avocado composition and potential health effects. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013;53(7):738-750.23638933
Duke JA. Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, Second Edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2003.
Falodun A, Engel N, Kragl U, Nebe B, Langer P. Novel anticancer alkene lactone from Persea americana. Pharm Biol. 2013;51(6):700-706.23570517
Fulgoni VL 3rd, Dreher M, Davenport AJ. Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008. Nutr J. 2013;12:1.23282226
Gamboa-Gómez CI, Rocha-Guzmán NE, Gallegos-Infante JA, Moreno-Jiménez MR, Vázquez-Cabral BD, González-Laredo RF. Plants with potential use on obesity and its complications. EXCLI J. 2015;14:809-831.26869866
Giovannini P, Howes MJ, Edwards SE. Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in Central America: a review. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;184:58-71.26924564
Guzmán-Rodríguez JJ, López-Gómez R, Suárez-Rodríguez LM, et al. Antibacterial activity of defensin PaDef from avocado fruit (Persea americana var. drymifolia) expressed in endothelial cells against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:986273.24319695
Guzmán-Rodríguez JJ, López-Gómez R, Salgado-Garciglia R, Ochoa-Zarzosa A, López-Meza JE. The defensin from avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) PaDef induces apoptosis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;82:620-627.27470405
Hong JY, Chung KS, Shin JS, Park G, Jang YP, Lee KT. Anti-colitic effects of ethanol extract of Persea americana Mill. through suppression of pro-inflammatory mediators via NF-ĸB/STAT3 inactivation in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mice. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20(1).30621304
Jesus D, Oliveira JR, Oliveira FE, at al. Persea americana glycolic extract: in vitro study of antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans biofilm and cytotoxicity evaluation. ScientificWorldJournal. 2015;2015:531972.26605376
Jiménez-Arellanes A, Luna-Herrera J, Ruiz-Nicolás R, Cornejo-Garrido J, Tapia A, Yépez-Mulia L. Antiprotozoal and antimycobacterial activities of Persea americana seeds. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013;13:109.23680126
Kopec RE, Cooperstone JL, Schweiggert RM, et al. Avocado consumption enhances human postprandial provitamin A absorption and conversion from a novel high-beta-carotene tomato sauce and from carrots. J Nutr. 2014;144(8):1158-1166.24899156
Kumar A, Kumarchandra R, Rai R, Sanjeev G. Anticlastogenic, radiation antagonistic, and anti-inflammatory activities of Persea americana in albino Wistar rat model. Res Pharm Sci. 2017;12(6):488-499.29204177
Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics. New York, NY: J Wiley; 1980.
Li Z, Wong A, Henning SM, et al. Hass avocado modulates postprandial vascular reactivity and postprandial inflammatory responses to a hamburger meal in healthy volunteers. Food Funct. 2013;4(3):384-391.23196671
Lu YC, Chang HS, Peng CF, Lin CH, Chen IS. Secondary metabolites from the unripe pulp of Persea americana and their antimycobacterial activities. Food Chem. 2012;135(4):2904-2909.22980888
Mahmassani HA, Avendano EE, Raman G, Johnson EJ. Avocado consumption and risk factors for heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018;107(4):523-536.29635493
Márquez-Ramírez CA, Hernández de la Paz JL, Ortiz-Avila O, et al. Comparative effects of avocado oil and losartan on blood pressure, renal vascular function, and mitochondrial oxidative stress in hypertensive rats. Nutrition. 2018;54:60-67.29753173
Mbaveng AT, Manekeng HT, Nguenang GS, Dzotam JK, Kuete V, Efferth T. Cytotoxicity of 18 Cameroonian medicinal plants against drug sensitive and multi-factorial drug resistant cancer cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018;222:21-33.29709646
Nicolella HD, Neto FR, Corrêa MB, et al. Toxicogenetic study of Persea americana fruit pulp oil and its effect on genomic instability. Food Chem Toxicol. 2017;101:114-120.28088491
Norwood DA, Parke CK, Rappa LR. A comprehensive review of potential warfarin-fruit interactions. J Pharm Pract. 2015;28(6):561-571.25112306
Oboh G, Odubanjo VO, Bello F, et al. Aqueous extracts of avocado pear (Persea americana Mill.) leaves and seeds exhibit anti-cholinesterases and antioxidant activities in vitro. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2016;27(2):131-140.26812783
Padilla-Camberos E, Martinez-Velázquez M, Flores-Fernández JM, Villanueva-Rodríguez S. Acute toxicity and genotoxic activity of avocado seed extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass). ScientificWorldJournal. 2013;2013:245828.24298206
Paul R, Kulkarni P, Ganesh N. Avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill) exhibits chemo-protective potentiality against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity in human lymphocyte culture. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2011;9(3):221-230.22070054
Peou S, Milliard-Hasting B, Shah SA. Impact of avocado-enriched diets on plasma lipoproteins: a meta-analysis. J Clin Lipidol. 2016;10(1):161-171.26892133
Silva-Platas C, García N, Fernández-Sada E, et al. Cardiotoxicity of acetogenins from Persea americana occurs through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and caspase-dependent apoptosis pathways. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2012;44(4):461-471.22733015
Sousa FH, Valenti VE, Pereira LC, et al. Avocado (Persea americana) pulp improves cardiovascular and autonomic recovery following submaximal running: a crossover, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):10703.32612186
Tabeshpour J, Razavi BM, Hosseinzadeh H. Effects of avocado (Persea americana) on metabolic syndrome: a comprehensive systematic review. Phytother Res. 2017;31(6):819-837.28393409
Torres RC, Garbo AG, Walde RZ. Larvicidal activity of Persea americana Mill. against Aedes aegypti.Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2014;7S1:S167-S170.25312114
Unlu NZ, Bohn T, Clinton SK, Schwartz SJ. Carotenoid absorption from salad and salsa by humans is enhanced by the addition of avocado or avocado oil. J Nutr. 2005;135(3):431-436.15735074
US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2013. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Legacy Release. Updated April 2018. Accessed April 27, 2019.
Vahedi Larijani L, Ghasemi M, AbedianKenari S, Naghshvar F. Evaluating the effect of four extracts of avocado fruit on esophageal squamous carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines in comparison with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Acta Med Iran. 2014;52(3):201-205.24901722
Wagner S, Breiteneder H. The latex-fruit syndrome. Biochem Soc Trans. 2002;30(pt 6):935-940.12440950
Wien M, Haddad E, Oda K, Sabaté J. A randomized 3×3 crossover study to evaluate the effect of Hass avocado intake on post-ingestive satiety, glucose and insulin levels, and subsequent energy intake in overweight adults. Nutr J. 2013;12:155.24279738
Wu YH, Tseng CK, Wu HC, et al. Avocado (Persea americana) fruit extract (2R,4R)-1,2,4-trihydroxyheptadec-16-yne inhibits dengue virus replication via upregulation of NF-ΚB-dependent induction of antiviral interferon responses. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):423.30674997
Zhao CN, Meng X, Li Y, et al. Fruits for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Nutrients. 2017;9(6).28608832

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.