Skip to Content

Acai

Scientific Name(s): Euterpe oleracea Mart.
Common Name(s): Acai, Acai palm, Assai palm, Cabbage palm, Palma manaca

Clinical Overview

Use

Antioxidant activity of acai has been documented. Potential exists for use in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease; however, clinical information is limited.

Dosing

Strong clinical evidence on which to base dosing guidelines is lacking.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to acai palm or any of its components.

Pregnancy/Lactation

Avoid use. Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.

Interactions

None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Limited clinical studies exist; however, no adverse events have been reported.

Toxicology

One study reported mutagenicity in the Salmonella typhimurium TA97 assay and clastogenicity when using highly concentrated pulp.

Botany

Acai, a palm of the Euterpe genus, is indigenous to Central and South America and grows in the Amazon estuary, as well as in swamps, upland regions, and floodplains. The acai palm is tall and slender, growing 15 to 30 m tall, with pinnate leaves of up to 3 m in length. The plant has multiple stems that produce 3 to 4 bunches of round fruits 1 to 1.5 cm in diameter, each weighing 3 to 6 kg. The fruits appear in green clusters, ripening to a dark purple color, each containing a seed that accounts for nearly 90% of its weight and diameter. The seeds are covered with a fibrous layer that surrounds a thin edible layer. Though the fruits may be harvested throughout the year, the highest yields are obtained during the dry months of August through December.Brondizio 2002, USDA 2013, Weinstein 2004

History

The fruit's juice is used to produce jelly, syrup, liquor, ice cream, energy drinks, and a variety of beverages. Approximately 110,000 tons of fruit yield 100,000 tons of acai seeds commercially every year in the city of Belem, Brazil, alone. The frozen aqueous extract is exported to numerous countries, including the United States, Japan, the Netherlands, and Italy. The fruit also serves as a major food source for the indigenous people of Brazil, Colombia, and Suriname. Folk medicine uses include treatment of fever, pain, and flu. The fruit's dark green oil has been used as an antidiarrheal agent.Brondizio 2002, Del Pozo-Insfran 2004, Rodrigues 2006, Schauss 2006, Weinstein 2004

Heart of palm is a vegetable harvested from the inner core of various palm trees, including the acai palm. Considered a delicacy, it is consumed pickled and in salads. Because the extraction of the heart of palm may lead to the death of the entire tree, which has economic implications, research has been undertaken to explore alternative solutions. The scale of illegal palm heart harvesting is difficult to estimate.Galetti 1998

Most commercial acai products claim antioxidant and antiaging properties. Topical formulations are promoted for inflammatory skin conditions, such as acne, and in hair restoration treatments. Acai is used in cold and flu products and as a functional pigment for yogurt.Brondizio 2002, Coïsson 2005, Del Pozo-Insfran 2004, Schauss 2006, Weinstein 2004

Chemistry

The primary medicinal parts of the plant are the fruit and berry. Numerous studies have been completed on the nutritional composition and chemistry of the fruit. Acai fruit and berries contain lipids (49.4% and 33.1%), proteins (13.8% and 9.3%), ash (5.2% and 2.2%), and dietary fiber (27.3% and 18%), respectively.

Another study on freeze-dried acai fruit identified 19 amino acids, making up 7.6% of its total weight. Oleic acid, 54%, palmitic acid, 27%, and linoleic acid, 12%, are the 3 dominant fatty acids. Nutrient analysis of 100 g of powder found 534 calories, 52 g carbohydrates, 8 g protein, 33 g total fat, and 44 g fiber. Vitamins A, B1, and C are present, as well as calcium and iron. Five sterols have also been isolated. The major phytochemicals include anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and other flavonoids, which are most likely associated with antioxidant activity. Cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside are the 2 predominant anthocyanins. Total analysis of all flavonoids in the fruit pulp and antioxidant capacity of the seed extract is documented.

Color and stability studies of acai in food, beverage, and nutraceutical products are also available.Coïsson 2005, Costa 1945, Del Pozo-Insfran 2004, Gallori 2004, Neida 2007, Rodrigues 2006, Schauss 2006, Vera de Rosso 2007

Uses and Pharmacology

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of acai pulp and seed extract have been demonstrated in in vitro and animal studies and may account for some of the effects attributed to acai.Guerra 2011, Hassimotto 2005, Jensen 2011, Lichtenthäler 2005, Matheus 2006, Rodrigues 2006, Schauss 2006 Clinical data is very limited.

Anticancer activity

Animal data

Acai fractions containing polyphenolic compounds reduced the proliferation of human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell line through caspase-3 activation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The mechanism of action is associated with polyphenolic phytochemicals activating caspase-3, leading to cell death or apoptosis.Del Pozo-Insfran 2006 In mice and rats, acai administered orally as a supplement over 14 days to 10 weeks was shown to reduce the incidence and proliferation of induced urinary and colon cancer, and exerted a protective effect against doxorubicin-induced damage.Fragoso 2013, Fragoso 2012, Ribeiro 2010

Clinical data

A clinical trial is ongoing regarding the anticancer potential of acai juice in patients with prostate cancer who have rising prostate-specific antigen.NIH 2013

Antidiabetic effects

In vitro

In zebrafish and mice given acai pulp, studies showed decreased glucose levels and improved insulin resistance.de Oliveira 2010, Kim 2012

Clinical data

In a small pilot study (N = 10) in healthy overweight volunteers, acai pulp daily over 1 month decreased fasting glucose and insulin levels.Udani 2011 A significant acute treatment (P=0.02) and time effect (P<0.001) was seen on postprandial serum insulin following a single dose of acai relative to placebo in a crossover randomized trial. Consumption of acai resulted in a higher maximum insulin concentration (P=0.009); although, the clinical relevance of this result is unknown. However, no significant difference in serum glucose was seen between treatments in the otherwise healthy overweight men (n=23) who were at slight increased risk of metabolic disease.Alqurashi 2016

Antioxidant effects

Animal data

Oxidative stress associated with neurodegenerative disease was reduced in the CNS of rats, mice, and flies.Laslo 2013, Poulose 2012, Spada 2009

Clinical data

Oxidative stress generated during vigorous exercise can induce muscle damage leading to fatigue, impaired recovery, and possibly even contribute to respiratory control. In a single-blind, randomized interventional crossover study, 14 male elite athletes who completed all phases of the study experienced significant improvements with acai for both baseline and post-exercise biomarkers of oxidative stress. Prior to exhaustive exercise, consumption of acai beverage for 4 days led to improved baseline values for lymphocytes (−19%; P=0.017), creatinine (−11.5 micromol/L; P=0.02), and lactate dehydrogenase (+48 units/L; P=0.005) compared to the control drink. Additionally, postexercise values revealed less of an increase in oxidative and muscle stress biomarkers (eg, creatinine, urea, ammonia, lymphocytes, malondialdehyde [MDA]) with the acai beverage than with the control beverage (P=0.024 to P=0.051). Mean time to exhaustion was also statistically significantly improved with the acai drink than the control condition (mean difference, 69 seconds; P=0.045).Carvalho-Peixoto 2015 In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial that enrolled 23 overweight, otherwise healthy men, plasma total peroxide concentration was also found to be significantly lower over the 7-hour time frame after a single-dose of acai smoothie compared to placebo (P=0.02). The acai smoothie intervention consisted of 150 g frozen acai pulp plus 50 g banana (694 mg polyphenols, 493 mg anthocyanins).Alqurashi 2016

Cardiovascular effects

Animal data

Acai induced an endothelium-dependent vasodilator effect in a rat mesenteric vascular bed. The mechanism of action appeared to be dependent on the activation of the nitrous oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway and might involve endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor release.Rocha 2007 Laboratory studies show antioxidant effects of acai preparations, with improvements in biomarkers of oxidative stress.de Souza 2010, Xie 2011 Hypertensive rats fed acai pulp 200 mg/kg daily over 40 days showed decreased hypertension.da Costa 2012

Clinical data

In a small pilot study (N = 10) in healthy overweight volunteers, acai pulp 100 g daily over 1 month failed to demonstrate an effect on blood pressure.Udani 2011 Similarly, a single dose of commercially available acai berry (1,000 mg total dose) given to young healthy adults (n = 18) failed to produce any significant electrocardiogram or hemodynamic effects compared with placebo, except for a significant reduction in standing systolic blood pressure at 6 hours postdose.Gale 2014 Although no significant acute changes were found in blood pressure or heart rate over time in 23 overweight, otherwise healthy men who consumed a single dose of acai smoothie, a significant treatment effect was observed on vascular endothelial function (P<0.001). Flow-mediated dilatation, an early biomarker of cardiovascular disease risk, was significantly improved at 2, 4, and 6 hours with acai compared to placebo (P=0.001, P=0.003, and P<0.000, respectively). The plasma total peroxide concentration was also found to be significantly lower over the 7-hour time frame with the acai smoothie compared to placebo (P=0.02). The acai smoothie in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial consisted of 150 g frozen acai pulp plus 50 g banana (694 mg polyphenols, 493 mg anthocyanins), while the control was a fat-matched smoothie with 50 g banana (less than 10 mg polyphenols). Additionally, although no significant difference in serum glucose was seen between treatments, a significant treatment (P=0.02) and time effect (P<0.001) was seen on postprandial serum insulin with acai (P=0.009) relative to placebo. Consumption of acai resulted in a higher maximum insulin concentration (P=0.009).Alqurashi 2016

Lipid effects

Animal data

Studies in zebrafish, mice, and rats using both acai fruit pulp and acai seed extract have demonstrated improved lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic laboratory animals.de Oliveira 2010, de Souza 2010, de Souza 2012, Kim 2012 Improved cholesterol homeostasis was demonstrated in rats.de Souza 2012 Atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta were diminished in rabbits fed acai fruit extract over 12 weeks.Feio 2012

Clinical data

In a small pilot study (N = 10) in healthy overweight volunteers, acai pulp 100 g daily over 1 month decreased serum total cholesterol and showed a trend toward improved low-density lipoprotein levels and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio.Udani 2011

Other uses

Studies in mice have shown protective anti-inflammatory effects against emphysema.de Moura 2011, Moura 2012 In vivo studies suggest that acai fruit possesses immune-modulating effects.Holderness 2011

Anthocyanins from acai fruit have been used as dye in magnetic resonance imaging and staining in the eye.Chen 2013, Córdova-Fraga 2004

Mean time to exhaustion was statistically significantly improved in elite athletes with consumption of an acai drink for 4 days compared to the control condition (mean difference, 69 seconds; P=0.045) in a single-blind, randomized interventional crossover study (n=14).Carvalho-Peixoto 2015

Dosing

There is little clinical evidence on which to base dosing guidelines. The Center for Science in the Public Interest warns that most claims attributed to acai products are not supported.Schardt 2013

A small pilot study (N = 10) in healthy overweight volunteers used acai pulp 100 g daily over 1 month and showed decreased serum total cholesterol as well as decreased fasting glucose and insulin levels, but no effect on hypertension.Udani 2011

The kinetics of orally administered acai pulp and clarified liquid was reported in a healthy population. A low bioavailability of anthocyanins was reported.Mertens-Talcott 2008

Pregnancy / Lactation

Avoid use. Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.Felzenszwalb 2013

Interactions

Iron in acai fruits was not effective in improving hemoglobin concentrations in a rat study.Toalari 2005

Adverse Reactions

Limited clinical studies exist; however, no adverse events have been reported and no adverse events are recorded for studies in laboratory animals at doses of 2 g/kg body weight.Udani 2011

Numerous reports exist for the transmission of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) via contaminated acai berry juice in Brazil.de Souza-Lima 2013, Nóbrega 2009 A case report of rhabdomyolysis was due to a mislabeled supplement that did not contain acai berry.Elsayed 2011

Avoid use if hypersensitivity to acai palm or any of its components, or to members of the Euterpe genus, exist.

Toxicology

Mutagenicity, clastogenicity, genotoxicity, and cytotoxicity studies found no evidence of toxicityRibeiro 2010, Schauss 2010; however, 1 study reported mutagenicity in the S. typhimurium TA97 assay and clastogenicity with highly concentrated pulp.Felzenszwalb 2013

References

Alqurashi RM, Galante LA, Rowland IR, Spencer JP, Commane DM. Consumption of a flavonoid-rich açai meal is associated with acute improvements in vascular function and a reduction in total oxidative status in healthy overweight men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104(5):1227-1235.27680990
Brondizio E, Safar C, Siqueira A. The urban market of acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and rural land use change: ethnographic insights into the role of price and land tenure constraining agricultural choices in the Amazon estuary. Urban Ecosyst. 2002;6(1-2):67-97.
Carvalho-Peixoto J, Moura MR, Cunha FA, et al. Consumption of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) functional beverage reduces muscle stress and improves effort tolerance in elite athletes: a randomized controlled intervention study. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2015;40(7):725-733.26140415
Chen J, Ferreira MA, Farah ME, et al. Posterior hyaloid detachment and internal limiting membrane peeling assisted by anthocyanins from acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea) and 10 other natural vital dyes: experimental study in cadaveric eyes. Retina. 2013;33(1):89-96.22990318
Coïsson JD, Travaglia F, Piana G, Capasso M, Arlorio M. Euterpe oleracea juice as a functional pigment for yogurt. Food Res Int. 2005;38(8-9):893-897.
Córdova-Fraga T, de Araujo DB, Sanchez TA, et al. Euterpe oleracea (açai) as an alternative oral contrast agent in MRI of the gastrointestinal system: preliminary results. Magn Reson Imaging. 2004;22(3):389-393.15062934
Costa D. Presence of vitamin B1 in Euterpe oleracea. Rev Aliment (Rio de Janeiro). 1945; 9(9):10-11.
da Costa CA, de Oliveira PR, de Bem GF et al. Euterpe oleracea Mart.-derived polyphenols prevent endothelial dysfunction and vascular structural changes in renovascular hypertensive rats: role of oxidative stress. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2012;385(12):1199-1209.23052352
Del Pozo-Insfran D, Brenes CH, Talcott ST. Phytochemical composition and pigment stability of Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.). J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52(6):1539-1545.15030208
Del Pozo-Insfran D, Percival SS, Talcott ST. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) polyphenolics in their glycoside and aglycone forms induce apoptosis of HL-60 leukemia cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54(4):1222-1229.16478240
de Moura RS, Pires KM, Santos Ferreira T, et al. Addition of açaí (Euterpe oleracea) to cigarettes has a protective effect against emphysema in mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49(4):855-863.21147193
de Oliveira PR, da Costa CA, de Bem GF, et al. Effects of an extract obtained from fruits of Euterpe oleracea Mart. in the components of metabolic syndrome induced in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2010;56(6):619-626.20838232
de Souza MO, Silva M, Silva ME, Oliveira Rde P, Pedrosa ML. Diet supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp improves biomarkers of oxidative stress and the serum lipid profile in rats. Nutrition. 2010;26(7-8):804-810.20022468
de Souza MO, Souza E Silva L, de Brito Magalhães CL, et al. The hypocholesterolemic activity of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) is mediated by the enhanced expression of the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G transporters 5 and 8 and low-density lipoprotein receptor genes in the rat. Nutr Res. 2012;32(12):976-984.23244543
de Souza-Lima Rde C, Vale Barbosa Md, Coura JR, et al. Outbreak of acute Chagas disease associated with oral transmission in the Rio Negro region, Brazilian Amazon. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2013;46(4):510-514.23681429
Elsayed RK, Glisson JK, Minor DS. Rhabdomyolysis associated with the use of a mislabeled "acai berry" dietary supplement. Am J Med Sci. 2011;342(6):535-538.21825959
Euterpe oleracea Mart. USDA, NRCS. 2012. The PLANTS Database. (http://plants.usda.gov, 17 September 2013). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA. Accessed September 17, 2013.
Feio CA, Izar MC, Ihara SS, et al. Euterpe oleracea (açai) modifies sterol metabolism and attenuates experimentally-induced atherosclerosis. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2012;19(3):237-245.22139433
Felzenszwalb I, da Costa Marques MR, Mazzei JL, Aiub CA. Toxicological evaluation of Euterpe edulis: a potential superfruit to be considered. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;58:536-544.23712094
Fragoso MF, Prado MG, Barbosa L, Rocha NS, Barbisan LF. Inhibition of mouse urinary bladder carcinogenesis by açai fruit (Euterpe oleraceae Martius) intake. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2012;67(3):235-241.22961050
Fragoso MF, Romualdo GR, Ribeiro DA, Barbisan LF. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) feeding attenuates dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;58:68-76.23597449
Gale AM, Kaur R, Baker WL. Hemodynamic and electrocardiographic effects of acai berry in healthy volunteers: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Cardiol. 2014;174(2):421-423.24767759
Galetti M, Fernandez JC. Palm heart harvesting in the Brazilian Atlantic forest: changes in industry structure and the illegal trade. J Appl Ecol. 1998;35(2):294-301.
Gallori S, Bilia A, Bergonzi M, Barbosa W, Vincieri F. Polyphenolic constituents of fruit pulp of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Acai palm). Chromatographia. 2004;59(11-12):739-743.
Guerra JF, Magalhães CL, Costa DC, Silva ME, Pedrosa ML. Dietary açai modulates ROS production by neutrophils and gene expression of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2011;49(3):188-194.22128218
Hassimotto NM, Genovese MI, Lajolo FM. Antioxidant activity of dietary fruits, vegetables, and commercial frozen fruit pulps. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53(8): 2928-2935.15826041
Holderness J, Schepetkin IA, Freedman B, et al. Polysaccharides isolated from Açaí fruit induce innate immune responses. PLoS One. 2011;6(2):e17301.21386979
Jensen GS, Ager DM, Redman KA, Mitzner MA, Benson KF, Schauss AG. Pain reduction and improvement in range of motion after daily consumption of an açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp-fortified polyphenolic-rich fruit and berry juice blend. J Med Food. 2011;14(7-8):702-711.21470042
Kim JY, Hong JH, Jung HK, Jeong YS, Cho KH. Grape skin and loquat leaf extracts and acai puree have potent anti-atherosclerotic and anti-diabetic activity in vitro and in vivo in hypercholesterolemic zebrafish. Int J Mol Med. 2012;30(3):606-614.22751734
Laslo M, Sun X, Hsiao CT, Wu WW, Shen RF, Zou S. A botanical containing freeze dried açai pulp promotes healthy aging and reduces oxidative damage in sod1 knockdown flies. Age (Dordr). 2013;35(4):1117-1132.22639178
Lichtenthäler R, Rodrigues RB, Maia JG, Papagiannopoulos M, Fabricius H, Marx F. Total oxidant scavenging capacities of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Açaí) fruits. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2005;56(1):53-64.16019315
Matheus ME, de Oliveira Fernandes SB, Silveira CS, Rodrigues VP, de Sousa Menezes F, Fernandes PD. Inhibitory effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. on nitric oxide production and iNOS expression. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;107(2):291-296.16635558
Mertens-Talcott SU, Rios J, Jilma-Stohlawetz P, et al. Pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins and antioxidant effects after the consumption of anthocyanin-rich acai juice and pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) in human healthy volunteers. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56(17):7796-7802.18693743
Moura RS, Ferreira TS, Lopes AA, et al. Effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (AÇAÍ) extract in acute lung inflammation induced by cigarette smoke in the mouse. Phytomedicine. 2012;19(3-4):262-269.22138278
10. Neida S, Elba S. Characterization of the acai or manaca (Euterpe oleracea Mart.): a fruit of the Amazon [in Spanish]. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2007;57(1):94-98.17824205
Nóbrega AA, Garcia MH, Tatto E, et al. Oral transmission of Chagas disease by consumption of açaí palm fruit, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(4):653-655.19331764
Poulose SM, Fisher DR, Larson J, et al. Anthocyanin-rich açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) fruit pulp fractions attenuate inflammatory stress signaling in mouse brain BV-2 microglial cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60(4):1084-1093.22224493
Ribeiro JC, Antunes LM, Aissa AF, et al. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects after acute and subacute treatments with açai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) on mice using the erythrocytes micronucleus test and the comet assay. Mutat Res. 2010;695(1-2):22-28.19892033
Rocha AP, Carvalho LC, Sousa MA, et al. Endothelium-dependent vasodilator effect of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Açaí) extracts in mesenteric vascular bed of the rat. Vascul Pharmacol. 2007;46(2):97-104.17049314
Rodrigues RB, Lichtenthäler R, Zimmermann BF, et al. Total oxidant scavenging capacity of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) seeds and identification of their polyphenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54(12):4162-4167.16756342
Schardt D. Consumers Warned of Web-Based Açai Scams. Center for the Science in the Public website. http://cspinet.org/new/200903231.html. Published March 23, 2009. Accessed November 26, 2013.
Schauss AG, Clewell A, Balogh L, et al. Safety evaluation of an açai-fortified fruit and berry functional juice beverage (MonaVie Active®). Toxicology. 2010;278(1):46-54.20452390
Schauss AG, Wu X, Prior RL, et al. Antioxidant capacity and other bioactivities of the freeze-dried Amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae Mart. (acai). J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54(22):8604-8610.17061840
Schauss AG, Wu X, Prior RL, et al. Phytochemical and nutrient composition of the freeze-dried amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae Mart. (acai). J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54(22):8598-8603.17061839
Spada PD, Dani C, Bortolini GV, Funchal C, Henriques JA, Salvador M. Frozen fruit pulp of Euterpe oleraceae Mart. (Acai) prevents hydrogen peroxide-induced damage in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus of rats. J Med Food. 2009;12(5):1084-1088.19857073
Toalari SD, Yuyama LK, Agular JP, Souza RF. Iron bioavailability from acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and iron-fortified cassava flour in rats. Rev Nutr. 2005;18(3):291-299.
Udani JK, Singh BB, Singh VJ, Barrett ML. Effects of Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry preparation on metabolic parameters in a healthy overweight population: a pilot study. Nutr J. 2011;10:45.21569436
The U.S. National Institutes of Health. ClinicalTrials.gov website. Study of Acai Juice in Asymptomatic or Minimally Symptomatic Prostate Cancer Patients With Rising Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA). Identifier: NCT01521949. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01521949. Accessed December 2, 2013.
Vera de Rosso V, Mercadante AZ. Evaluation of colour and stability of anthocyanins from tropical fruits in an isotonic soft drink system. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol. 2007;8(3):347-352.
Weinstein S, Moegenburg S. Acai palm management in the Amazon estuary: course for conservation or passage to plantations? Conserv Soc. 2004;2(2):316-346.
Xie C, Kang J, Burris R, et al. Açaí juice attenuates atherosclerosis in ApoE deficient mice through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Atherosclerosis. 2011;216(2):327-333.21411096

Disclaimer

This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product.

This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Hide