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Drug Interaction Report

This report displays the potential drug interactions for the following 2 drugs:

  • Lexapro (escitalopram)
  • trazodone

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Interactions between your drugs

Major

traZODone escitalopram

Applies to: trazodone, Lexapro (escitalopram)

MONITOR CLOSELY: Concomitant use of agents with serotonergic activity including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, and other antidepressants may potentiate the risk of serotonin syndrome, which is a rare but serious and potentially fatal condition thought to result from hyperstimulation of brainstem 5-HT1A and 2A receptors. Symptoms of the serotonin syndrome may include mental status changes such as irritability, altered consciousness, confusion, hallucination, and coma; autonomic dysfunction such as tachycardia, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, shivering, blood pressure lability, and mydriasis; neuromuscular abnormalities such as hyperreflexia, myoclonus, tremor, rigidity, and ataxia; and gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal cramping, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

MONITOR CLOSELY: Escitalopram can cause dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval. Theoretically, coadministration with other agents that can prolong the QT interval including tricyclic antidepressants and other antidepressants (e.g., trazodone) may result in additive effects and increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias such as torsade de pointes and sudden death. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled ECG study consisting of 113 healthy subjects, the change from baseline in QTc (Fridericia-corrected) was 4.3 msec for escitalopram 10 mg/day and 10.7 msec for the supratherapeutic dosage of 30 mg/day. Based on the established exposure-response relationship, the predicted QTc change from placebo under the Cmax for 20 mg/day is 6.6 msec. Cases of QT interval prolongation and torsade de pointes have been reported during postmarketing use. In general, the risk of an individual agent or a combination of agents causing ventricular arrhythmia in association with QT prolongation is largely unpredictable but may be increased by certain underlying risk factors such as congenital long QT syndrome, cardiac disease, and electrolyte disturbances (e.g., hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia). Also, the extent of drug-induced QT prolongation is dependent on the particular drug(s) involved and dosage(s) of the drug(s).

MANAGEMENT: In general, the concomitant use of multiple serotonergic agents should be avoided if possible, or otherwise approached with caution if potential benefit is deemed to outweigh the risk. Patients should be closely monitored for symptoms of the serotonin syndrome during treatment. Particular caution is advised when increasing the dosages of these agents. If serotonin syndrome develops or is suspected during the course of therapy, all serotonergic agents should be discontinued immediately and supportive care rendered as necessary. Moderately ill patients may also benefit from the administration of a serotonin antagonist (e.g., cyproheptadine, chlorpromazine). Severe cases should be managed under consultation with a toxicologist and may require sedation, neuromuscular paralysis, intubation, and mechanical ventilation in addition to the other measures. Due to the potential for additive effects on the QT interval, ECG monitoring may also be appropriate when escitalopram is used with tricyclic antidepressants or other antidepressants like trazodone. Patients should be advised to seek prompt medical attention if they experience symptoms that could indicate the occurrence of torsade de pointes such as dizziness, lightheadedness, fainting, palpitation, irregular heart rhythm, shortness of breath, or syncope.

References

  1. Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, eds. "Goodman and Gilman's the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 8th ed." New York, NY: Pergamon Press Inc. (1990):
  2. Smith DL, Wenegrat BG "A case report of serotonin syndrome associated with combined nefazodone and fluoxetine." J Clin Psychiatry 61 (2000): 146
  3. Insel TR, Roy BF, Cohen RM, Murphy DL "Possible development of the serotonin syndrome in man." Am J Psychiatry 139 (1982): 954-5
  4. Harvey AT, Preskorn SH "Interactions of serotonin reuptake inhibitors with tricyclic antidepressants." Arch Gen Psychiatry 52 (1995): 783-4
  5. Goldberg RJ, Huk M "Serotonin syndrome from trazodone and buspirone." Psychosomatics 33 (1992): 235-6
  6. Reeves RR, Bullen JA "Serotonin syndrome produced by paroxetine and low-dose trazodone." Psychosomatics 36 (1995): 159-60
  7. Chan BSH, Graudins A, Whyte IM, Dawson AH, Braitberg G, Duggin GG "Serotonin syndrome resulting from drug interactions." Med J Aust 169 (1998): 523-5
  8. Margolese HC, Chouinard G "Serotonin syndrome from addition of low-dose trazodone to nefazodone." Am J Psychiatry 157 (2000): 1022
  9. Fischer P "Serotonin syndrome in the elderly after antidepressive monotherapy." J Clin Psychopharmacol 15 (1995): 440-2
  10. Lane R, Baldwin D "Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor--induced serotonin syndrome: review." J Clin Psychopharmacol 17 (1997): 208-21
  11. Ciraulo DA, Shader RI "Fluoxetine drug-drug interactions. II." J Clin Psychopharmacol 10 (1990): 213-7
  12. Sternbach H "The serotonin syndrome." Am J Psychiatry 148 (1991): 705-13
  13. Ciraulo DA, Shader RI "Fluoxetine drug-drug interactions: I. Antidepressants and antipsychotics." J Clin Psychopharmacol 10 (1990): 48-50
  14. Mills KC "Serotonin syndrome: A clinical update." Crit Care Clin 13 (1997): 763
  15. Corkeron MA "Serotonin syndrome - a potentially fatal complication of antidepressant therapy." Med J Aust 163 (1995): 481-2
  16. "Product Information. Lexapro (escitalopram)." Forest Pharmaceuticals, St. Louis, MO.
  17. Nierenberg DW, Semprebon M "The central nervous system serotonin syndrome." Clin Pharmacol Ther 53 (1993): 84-8
  18. Metz A "Interaction between fluoxetine and buspirone." Can J Psychiatry 35 (1990): 722-3
  19. Castro VM, Clements CC, Murphy SN, et al. "QT interval and antidepressant use: a cross sectional study of electronic health records." BMJ 346 (2013): f288
  20. "Product Information. Zoloft (sertraline)." Roerig Division, New York, NY.
  21. "Product Information. Prozac (fluoxetine)." Dista Products Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  22. "Product Information. Luvox (fluvoxamine)." Solvay Pharmaceuticals Inc, Marietta, GA.
  23. Manos GH "Possible serotonin syndrome associated with buspirone added to fluoxetine." Ann Pharmacother 34 (2000): 871-4
  24. Ruiz F "Fluoxetine and the serotonin syndrome." Ann Emerg Med 24 (1994): 983-5
  25. John L, Perreault MM, Tao T, Blew PG "Serotonin syndrome associated with nefazodone and paroxetine." Ann Emerg Med 29 (1997): 287-9
  26. Skop BP, Finkelstein JA, Mareth TR, Magoon MR, Brown TM "The serotonin syndrome associated wtih paroxetine, an over-the-counter cold remedy, and vascular disease." Am J Emerg Med 12 (1994): 642-4
  27. "Product Information. Paxil (paroxetine)." GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC.
  28. Bhatara VS, Magnus RD, Paul KL, Preskorn SH "Serotonin syndrome induced by venlafaxine and fluoxetine: a case study in polypharmacy and potential pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic mechanisms." Ann Pharmacother 32 (1998): 432-6
  29. Nijhawan PK, Katz G, Winter S "Psychiatric illness and the serotonin syndrome: an emerging adverse drug effect leading to intensive care unit admission." Crit Care Med 24 (1996): 1086-9
  30. George TP, Godleski LS "Possible serotonin syndrome with trazodone addition to fluoxetine." Biol Psychiatry 39 (1996): 384-5
  31. Martin TG "Serotonin syndrome." Ann Emerg Med 28 (1996): 520-6
  32. Mackay FJ, Dunn NR, Mann RD "Antidepressants and the serotonin syndrome in general practice." Br J Gen Pract 49 (1999): 871-4
  33. Paruchuri P, Godkar D, Anandacoomarswamy D, Sheth K, Niranjan S "Rare case of serotonin syndrome with therapeutic doses of paroxetine." Am J Ther 13 (2006): 550-552
  34. Dougherty JA, Young H, Shafi T "Serotonin syndrome induced by amitriptyline, meperidine, and venlafaxine." Ann Pharmacother 36 (2002): 1647-1648
  35. "Product Information. Celexa (citalopram)." Forest Pharmaceuticals, St. Louis, MO.
View all 35 references

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Drug and food interactions

Moderate

traZODone food

Applies to: trazodone

GENERALLY AVOID: Alcohol may potentiate some of the pharmacologic effects of CNS-active agents. Use in combination may result in additive central nervous system depression and/or impairment of judgment, thinking, and psychomotor skills.

MANAGEMENT: Patients receiving CNS-active agents should be warned of this interaction and advised to avoid or limit consumption of alcohol. Ambulatory patients should be counseled to avoid hazardous activities requiring complete mental alertness and motor coordination until they know how these agents affect them, and to notify their physician if they experience excessive or prolonged CNS effects that interfere with their normal activities.

References

  1. Warrington SJ, Ankier SI, Turner P "Evaluation of possible interactions between ethanol and trazodone or amitriptyline." Neuropsychobiology 15 (1986): 31-7
  2. "Product Information. Rexulti (brexpiprazole)." Otsuka American Pharmaceuticals Inc, Rockville, MD.
  3. Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, eds. "Goodman and Gilman's the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 8th ed." New York, NY: Pergamon Press Inc. (1990):
  4. "Product Information. Fycompa (perampanel)." Eisai Inc, Teaneck, NJ.
View all 4 references

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Moderate

escitalopram food

Applies to: Lexapro (escitalopram)

GENERALLY AVOID: Alcohol may potentiate some of the pharmacologic effects of CNS-active agents. Use in combination may result in additive central nervous system depression and/or impairment of judgment, thinking, and psychomotor skills.

MANAGEMENT: Patients receiving CNS-active agents should be warned of this interaction and advised to avoid or limit consumption of alcohol. Ambulatory patients should be counseled to avoid hazardous activities requiring complete mental alertness and motor coordination until they know how these agents affect them, and to notify their physician if they experience excessive or prolonged CNS effects that interfere with their normal activities.

References

  1. Warrington SJ, Ankier SI, Turner P "Evaluation of possible interactions between ethanol and trazodone or amitriptyline." Neuropsychobiology 15 (1986): 31-7
  2. "Product Information. Rexulti (brexpiprazole)." Otsuka American Pharmaceuticals Inc, Rockville, MD.
  3. Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, eds. "Goodman and Gilman's the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 8th ed." New York, NY: Pergamon Press Inc. (1990):
  4. "Product Information. Fycompa (perampanel)." Eisai Inc, Teaneck, NJ.
View all 4 references

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Therapeutic duplication warnings

Therapeutic duplication is the use of more than one medicine from the same drug category or therapeutic class to treat the same condition. This can be intentional in cases where drugs with similar actions are used together for demonstrated therapeutic benefit. It can also be unintentional in cases where a patient has been treated by more than one doctor, or had prescriptions filled at more than one pharmacy, and can have potentially adverse consequences.

Duplication

Antidepressants

Therapeutic duplication

The recommended maximum number of medicines in the 'antidepressants' category to be taken concurrently is usually one. Your list includes two medicines belonging to the 'antidepressants' category:

  • Lexapro (escitalopram)
  • trazodone

Note: The benefits of taking this combination of medicines may outweigh any risks associated with therapeutic duplication. This information does not take the place of talking to your doctor. Always check with your healthcare provider to determine if any adjustments to your medications are needed.

Drug Interaction Classification

These classifications are only a guideline. The relevance of a particular drug interaction to a specific individual is difficult to determine. Always consult your healthcare provider before starting or stopping any medication.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No interaction information available.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

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