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is a disease caused by a bacterial infection. The bacteria are usually found in soil, dust, and the bowel movements of some animals and humans. The bacteria produce a toxin that damages nerves. This causes severe muscle spasms. Left untreated, tetanus can be life-threatening.

Common signs and symptoms:

You may have stiff and weak muscles only in the area of the wound. This is called localized tetanus. Symptoms may go away without treatment, or they may spread. Infection that spreads is called generalized. You may develop any of the following within days or weeks of the infection:

  • Lockjaw (a muscle spasm in the jaw and neck that locks your jaw closed)
  • Muscle spasms that are severely painful, often triggered by noise, light, or touch
  • Rigid facial muscles, or raised eyebrows with lips pulled into a grin
  • Rigid abdomen, arm, and leg muscles
  • Trouble breathing or swallowing
  • Trouble urinating
  • Feeling restless or irritable, or a fast heartbeat or breathing
  • A headache or seizures
  • Sweating or a low fever

Seek care immediately if:

  • You have trouble breathing or swallowing.
  • Your heartbeat is very fast or not regular.
  • You have muscle spasms in your face.
  • You start to feel muscle cramps or spasms near a wound.
  • You have a wound that is large or cannot be cleaned.

Contact your healthcare provider if:

  • You have an open wound or a puncture wound.
  • You do not know if your tetanus vaccines are current.
  • You need a tetanus booster shot.
  • You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.


If the infection becomes generalized, you will need to be treated in a hospital. You will be kept in a dark, quiet room to prevent muscle spasms. You may also need the following:

  • Medicines may be given to stop or prevent seizures and muscle spasms. Antitoxin may also be given to stop the toxin from spreading in your body. Medicine may be given to fight a bacterial infection or to control pain. Your healthcare provider may also give you a dose of the tetanus vaccine.
  • Debridement is surgery to clean a wound and remove any dead tissue. Objects such as rocks or glass will also be removed.

Prevent tetanus:

  • Get the tetanus vaccine as directed. The tetanus vaccine is given to children in several doses. A booster dose is given to adults every 10 years. A tetanus infection will not make you immune from the tetanus toxin. You will need a dose after you have a wound if you did not get a booster in the past 5 years. If you are pregnant, talk to your healthcare provider about the vaccine. It is given during the second half of pregnancy to prevent tetanus from passing to the baby during birth.
  • Clean every wound immediately. Apply pressure to the wound to stop any bleeding. Clean the wound with soap and water. Remove dirt or other objects from the wound. Cover the wound with a clean bandage. Change the bandage every day and if it gets wet or dirty.

Follow up with your healthcare provider as directed:

Write down your questions so you remember to ask them during your visits.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Learn more about Tetanus (Ambulatory Care)

Associated drugs

Micromedex® Care Notes

Symptoms and treatments

Mayo Clinic Reference