Cetirizine use while Breastfeeding
Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Apr 16, 2022.
Drugs containing Cetirizine: Zyrtec, Zyrtec-D, Aller-Tec, Zerviate, Children's Zyrtec, Wal-Zyr D, All Day Allergy, Zyrtec-D 12 Hour, Children's Allergy Relief, Allergy Relief D, Show all 23 »Quzyttir, Equate Allergy Relief, Cetiri D, PediaCare Children's 24-Hour Allergy, All Day Allergy Children's, Zyrtec Hives, Alleroff, Aller-Tec Children's, Allergy D-12, KS Aller-Tec D-12, Up and Up All Day Allergy Relief D, All Day Allergy-D, 12 Hour Allergy-D
Cetirizine Levels and Effects while Breastfeeding
Summary of Use during Lactation
Small occasional doses of cetirizine are acceptable during breastfeeding. Larger doses or more prolonged use may cause drowsiness and other effects in the infant or decrease the milk supply, particularly in combination with a sympathomimetic such as pseudoephedrine or before lactation is well established.[1,2] International guidelines recommend cetirizine as an acceptable choice if an antihistamine is required during breastfeeding. Cetirizine has been used successfully in cases of persistent pain of the breast during breastfeeding.
Ophthalmic use of cetirizine by the mother should pose little risk to the breastfed infant. To substantially diminish the amount of drug that reaches the breastmilk after using eye drops, place pressure over the tear duct by the corner of the eye for 1 minute or more, then remove the excess solution with an absorbent tissue.
Maternal Levels. Three women who were exclusively breastfeeding their 5- to 6-month-old infants were taking cetirizine 10 mg daily by mouth. Each mother donated milk samples before a dose and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours after the dose. An average peak level of 49 mcg/L occurred at an average of 2 hours after the dose. The average milk concentration over the 24-hour period was 21.1 mcg/L. An exclusively breastfed infant would receive an average of 3.1 mcg/kg daily or a weight-adjusted dosage of 1.77% of the maternal dosage.
As part of a validation study on analysis of cetirizine and levocetirizine in breastmilk, 252 steady-state milk samples from 228 women taking either cetirizine 5 to 20 mg daily (n = 229) or levocetirizine 5 mg daily (n = 9) were analyzed. Specific dosages and times of milk collection were not given. The median milk concentrations of cetirizine and levoceitirizine was 13 mcg/L (range 0.65 to 65 mcg/L; IQR 4.9 to 24.8 mcg/L) in 228 samples. Twenty-four samples had levels below the limit of quantification (<0.39 mcg/L).
Infant Levels. Relevant published information was not found as of the revision date.
Effects in Breastfed Infants
In one telephone follow-up study, mothers reported irritability and colicky symptoms 10% of infants exposed to various antihistamines and drowsiness was reported in 1.6% of infants. None of the reactions required medical attention.
A woman who was nursing (extent not stated) her newborn infant was treated for pemphigus with oral prednisolone 25 mg daily, with the dosage increased over 2 weeks to 60 mg daily. She was also taking cetirizine 10 mg daily and topical betamethasone 0.1% twice daily to the lesions. Because of a poor response, the betamethasone was changed to clobetasol propionate ointment 0.05%. She continued breastfeeding throughout treatment and her infant was developing normally at 8 weeks of age and beyond.
A woman with narcolepsy took sodium oxybate 4 grams each night at 10 pm and 2 am as well as fluoxetine 20 mg and cetirizine 5 mg daily throughout pregnancy and postpartum. She breastfed her infant except for 4 hours after the 10 pm oxybate dose and 4 hours after the 2 am dose. She either pumped breastmilk or breastfed her infant just before each dose of oxybate. The infant was exclusively breastfed or breastmilk fed for 6 months when solids were introduced. The infant was evaluated at 2, 4 and 6 months with the Ages and Stages Questionnaires, which were withing the normal range as were the infant's growth and pediatrician's clinical impressions regarding the infant's growth and development.
Three women taking long-term cetirizine 10 mg daily by mouth while exclusively breastfeeding their 5- to 6-month old infants. The mothers reported no adverse effects in their infants.
Effects on Lactation and Breastmilk
Antihistamines in relatively high doses given by injection can decrease basal serum prolactin in nonlactating women and in early postpartum women.[9,10] However, suckling-induced prolactin secretion is not affected by antihistamine pretreatment of postpartum mothers. Whether lower oral doses of cetirizine have the same effect on serum prolactin or whether the effects on prolactin have any consequences on breastfeeding success have not been studied. The prolactin level in a mother with established lactation may not affect her ability to breastfeed.
Powell RJ, Du Toit GL, Siddique N, et al. BSACI guidelines for the management of chronic urticaria and angio-oedema. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007;37:631–50. [PubMed: 17456211]
Middleton PG, Gade EJ, Aguilera C, et al. ERS/TSANZ Task Force Statement on the management of reproduction and pregnancy in women with airways diseases. Eur Respir J. 2020;55:1901208. [PubMed: 31699837]
Muddana A, Asbill DT, Jerath MR, et al. Quantitative sensory testing, antihistamines, and beta-blockers for management of persistent breast pain: A case series. Breastfeed Med. 2018;13:275–80. [PubMed: 29630399]
Wilkerson H, Datta P, Rewers-Felkins K, et al. Maternal transfer of cetirizine into human milk. J Hum Lact. 2021;37:135–8. [PubMed: 32853084]
Wegler C, Saleh A, Lindqvist A, et al. Simple and rapid quantification of cetirizine, venlafaxine, and O-desmethylvenlafaxine in human breast milk, and metformin in human milk and plasma with UHPLC-MS/MS. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2022;1205:123340. [PubMed: 35732105]
Ito S, Blajchman A, Stephenson M, et al. Prospective follow-up of adverse reactions in breast-fed infants exposed to maternal medication. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993;168:1393–9. [PubMed: 8498418]
Westermann L, Hugel R, Meier M, et al. Glucocorticosteroid-resistant pemphigoid gestationis: Successful treatment with adjuvant immunoadsorption. J Dermatol. 2012;39:168–71. [PubMed: 22379622]
Gashlin LZ, Sullo D, Lawrence RA, et al. Treatment of narcolepsy with sodium oxybate while breastfeeding: A case report. Breastfeed Med. 2016;11:261–3. [PMC free article: PMC4921898] [PubMed: 27057786]
Messinis IE, Souvatzoglou A, Fais N, et al. Histamine H1 receptor participation in the control of prolactin secretion in postpartum. J Endocrinol Invest. 1985;8:143–6. [PubMed: 3928731]
Pontiroli AE, De Castro e Silva E, Mazzoleni F, et al. The effect of histamine and H1 and H2 receptors on prolactin and luteinizing hormone release in humans: Sex differences and the role of stress. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1981;52:924–8. [PubMed: 7228996]
CAS Registry Number
Disclaimer: Information presented in this database is not meant as a substitute for professional judgment. You should consult your healthcare provider for breastfeeding advice related to your particular situation. The U.S. government does not warrant or assume any liability or responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of the information on this Site.
More about cetirizine ophthalmic
- cetirizine ophthalmic consumer information
- Side effects
- Dosage information
- During pregnancy
- En español
- Drug class: ophthalmic antihistamines and decongestants
Related treatment guides
Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.