Skip to Content

Vi-Atro Side Effects

Generic Name: atropine / diphenoxylate

Note: This page contains side effects data for the generic drug atropine / diphenoxylate. It is possible that some of the dosage forms included below may not apply to the brand name Vi-Atro.

For the Consumer

Applies to atropine / diphenoxylate: oral solution, oral tablet

As well as its needed effects, atropine / diphenoxylate may cause unwanted side effects that require medical attention.

If any of the following side effects occur while taking atropine / diphenoxylate, check with your doctor immediately:

  • Bloating
  • constipation
  • loss of appetite
  • stomach pain (severe) with nausea and vomiting

If any of the following side effects occur while taking atropine / diphenoxylate, check with your doctor immediately:

  • Blurred vision (continuing) or changes in near vision
  • drowsiness (severe)
  • dryness of mouth, nose, and throat (severe)
  • fast heartbeat
  • shortness of breath or troubled breathing (severe)
  • unusual excitement, nervousness, restlessness, or irritability
  • unusual warmth, dryness, and flushing of the skin

Some atropine / diphenoxylate side effects may not need any medical attention. As your body gets used to the medicine these side effects may disappear. Your health care professional may be able to help you prevent or reduce these side effects, but do check with them if any of the following side effects continue, or if you are concerned about them:

Less common or rare
  • Blurred vision
  • confusion
  • difficult urination
  • dizziness or light-headedness
  • drowsiness
  • dryness of skin and mouth
  • fever
  • headache
  • increased body temperature
  • mental depression
  • numbness of hands or feet
  • skin rash or itching
  • swelling of the gums

After you stop taking this drug, it is possible that you may still experience side effects that need medical attention. If you notice any of the following side effects check with your doctor immediately:

  • Increased sweating
  • muscle cramps
  • nausea or vomiting
  • shivering or trembling
  • stomach cramps

For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to atropine / diphenoxylate: oral liquid, oral tablet

Nervous system

Central nervous system or respiratory depression due to this drug requires immediate medical attention. Opioid symptoms can be reversed by administering naloxone, but artificial respiration may be necessary. Gut decontamination (if the ingestion is recent and the patient is alert), emergency equipment, and monitoring are recommended.[Ref]

Nervous system side effects have usually indicated toxicity. Toxicity of this drug can be fatal. Toxicity has been described as "biphasic". Early signs are related to atropinism (fever, hypertension, flushed/dry skin, mydriasis, tachycardia, tachypnea, disorientation/hallucinations), while late signs are related to opioid toxicity (lethargy, somnolence, hypotonic reflexes, respiratory depression, miosis, coma). The early phase usually lasts for 2 to 3 hours. The late phase usually follows immediately, but can be delayed for as long as 36 hours.

Children are particularly sensitive to atropinism, which has been reported in young children after a single atropine-containing eye drop.

The elderly appear to be more prone to the anticholinergic effects of atropine on the CNS.

Nervous system side effects have also included drowsiness/sedation, numbness of extremities, euphoria, depression, malaise/lethargy, confusion, dizziness, restlessness, and headache.[Ref]


Because this drug inhibits gastrointestinal peristaltic activity, it can prolong and/or worsen diarrheas associated with some pathogens (toxigenic E. coli, Salmonella, and Shigella) and pseudomembranous enterocolitis associated with some antimicrobial agents. In these cases, diarrhea may represent a defense mechanism when disease is caused by a bacterial pathogen that must penetrate the intestinal epithelium to produce illness. Increased intestinal motility may decrease contact time between the invasive bacteria and mucosal cells.

Atropine's anticholinergic effects have included dry mouth and mucous membranes, delayed gastric emptying time, reduced gastric acid secretion, constipation, and gastroesophageal reflux.

Atropine-diphenoxylate can induce paralytic ileus and has been associated with the development of toxic megacolon in some patients with acute ulcerative colitis. While abdominal distension has been reported in 6% of all patients, abdominal pain in patients with ulcerative colitis usually indicates discontinuation of therapy.

Total fluid requirements may be significantly increased during therapy due to decreased bowel motility and fluid absorption.

Rare cases of pancreatitis have been associated with diphenoxylate.

As an opioid derivative, diphenoxylate may cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi.[Ref]

Gastrointestinal side effects have included inhibition of gastrointestinal peristaltic activity possibly resulting in prolonged or worsening diarrhea, inducement of paralytic ileus possibly resulting in toxic megacolon, abdominal distention, abdominal pain, spasm of the sphincter of Oddi, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia. Other gastrointestinal side effects have included dry mouth and mucous membranes, delayed gastric emptying time, reduced gastric acid secretion, constipation, and gastroesophageal reflux. Pancreatitis has been reported rarely.[Ref]


While muscarinic blockade due to atropine can result in tachycardia or, after higher dosages, sustained AV junctional rhythm, premature ventricular depolarizations or ventricular tachycardia, arrhythmias are rare because of the miniscule dose of atropine in the combination drug.[Ref]

Cardiovascular side effects have rarely included cardiovascular collapse, or arrhythmias.[Ref]


Ocular side effects have included pinpoint pupils, inhibition of the iris sphincter muscle, and inhibition of the ciliary muscle. A single case of keratoconjunctivitis sicca has been reported.[Ref]

Pinpoint pupils have been reported as a possible result of the opioid activity of diphenoxylate

The anticholinergic activity of atropine has been known to cause inhibition of the iris sphincter muscle (possibly resulting in dilation of the pupil) and inhibition of the ciliary muscle (which can interfere with near vision in up to 23% of patients)

A 47-year-old man with refractory diarrhea who was taking 10 to 30 tablets of atropine-diphenoxylate every day (0.25 to 0.75 mg and 25 to 75 mg, respectively) developed ocular irritation, burning, photophobia, and local erythema. Examination revealed a decreased tear meniscus and punctate epithelial keratopathy. Use of artificial tears was unsuccessful. Vitamin A levels were normal. The patient's signs and symptoms resolved when atropine was selectively withheld, and were reproducible when atropine was added to diphenoxylate.[Ref]


Genitourinary side effects have included impotence in male patients and urinary retention in all treated patients.[Ref]

Urinary retention experienced with atropine-diphenoxylate therapy has been associated with the anticholinergic effects on the detrusor muscle.[Ref]


Psychiatric side effects have included psychiatric and physiologic addiction or abuse.[Ref]

Psychiatric and physiologic addiction to or abuse of diphenoxylate has been reported. The addition of atropine is meant to discourage deliberate overdosage.[Ref]


The only usual dermatologic side effect from atropine is inhibition of exocrine sweat glands and dry skin. This problem is usually not clinically significant except when perspiration becomes a major factor in body temperature control.[Ref]

Dermatologic side effects have rarely included inhibition of exocrine sweat glands and dry skin.[Ref]


Hypersensitivity side effects have included urticaria, pruritus, angioneurotic edema, hypotension, abdominal pain, tachypnea, swelling of the gums, nausea and vomiting. Systemic hypersensitivity reactions to either diphenoxylate or atropine have occurred rarely.[Ref]


Extremely rare cases of hyperglycemia have been associated with atropine-diphenoxylate overdosage. The mechanism is not known, but is suspected to be increased sympathetic activity due to atropine toxicity.[Ref]

Metabolic side effects have rarely included hyperglycemia.[Ref]


1. Greene LT "Physostigmine treatment of anticholinergic-drug depression in postoperative patients." Anesth Analg 50 (1971): 222-6

2. German E, Siddiqui N "Atropine toxicity from eyedrops." N Engl J Med 282 (1970): 689

3. McCarron MM, Challoner KR, Thompson GA "Diphenoxylate-atropine (Lomotil) overdose in children: an update (report of eight cases and review of the literature)." Pediatrics 87 (1991): 694-700

4. Wasserman GS "Lomotil overdose." Pediatrics 88 (1991): 1294-6

5. Block SM, Dansky R, Davis MD "Lomotil poisoning in children: two case reports." S Afr Med J 51 (1977): 553-4

6. Bargman GJ, Gardner LI "Near fatality in an infant following "lomotil" poisoning." Pediatrics 44 (1969): 770-1

7. Karliner W "Accidental convulsion induced by atropine." Am J Psychiatry 122 (1965): 578-9

8. Ahmad SR "Lomotil overdose." Pediatrics 89 (1992): 980-1

9. Wasserman GS "Lomotil ingestions (letter)." Am Fam Physician 14 (1976): 27-8

10. Weinstock FJ "Dilated fixed pupils from atropine." JAMA 229 (1974): 267-8

11. Al Ragheb SA, Dajani BM, Salhab AA, Amr SS, Shaker KS "A case of fatal Lomotil overdosage." Med Sci Law 22 (1982): 210-4

12. Engbaek J, Ersboll J, Faurby V, Binder V, Riis P "The constipating effect of diphenoxylate (Retardinr) in ulcerative colitis. A double-blind controlled trial." Scand J Gastroenterol 10 (1975): 695-8

13. Henderson W, Psaila A "Lomotil poisoning." Lancet 1 (1969): 307-8

14. "Lomotil intoxication in children." Br Med J 2 (1973): 678-9

15. Winslow RL "Atropine pupils." JAMA 229 (1974): 1863-4

16. Lustman F, Walters EG, Shroff NE, Akbar FA "Diphenoxylate hydrochloride (Lomotil) in the treatment of acute diarrhoea." Br J Clin Pract 41 (1987): 648-51

17. Sanitato JJ, Burke MJ "Atropine toxicity in identical twins." Ann Ophthalmol 15 (1983): 380-2

18. Sehgal H "Use of diphenoxylate (Lomotil) in children." Indian Pediatr 21 (1984): 582-3

19. Gillick JS "Atropine toxicity in a neonate." Br J Anaesth 46 (1974): 793-4

20. Redhead IH "Lomotil sensitivity?" Lancet 1 (1969): 573

21. Kanto J "New aspects in the use of atropine." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 21 (1983): 92-4

22. Wheeldon R, Heggarty HJ "Diphenoxylate hydrochloride ('Lomotil') poisoning in children." Arch Dis Child 46 (1971): 562-3

23. Blogg CE "Lomotil intoxication in children." Br Med J 3 (1973): 235-6

24. O'Connor PS, Mumma JV "Atropine toxicity." Am J Ophthalmol 99 (1985): 613-4

25. Meerstadt PW "Atropine poisoning in early infancy due to Eumydrin drops." Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 285 (1982): 196-7

26. Harries JT, Rossiter M "Fatal "lomotil" poisoning." Lancet 1 (1969): 150

27. Karan S "Lomotil in diarrhoeal illnesses." Arch Dis Child 54 (1979): 984

28. Flaherty JA "Psychiatric complications of medical drugs." J Fam Pract 9 (1979): 243-51

29. Mack RB "Toxic encounters of the dangerous kind: diphenoxylate (lomotil)." N C Med J 42 (1981): 858

30. Cutler EA, Barrett GA, Craven PW, Cramblett HG "Delayed cardiopulmonary arrest after Lomotil ingestion." Pediatrics 65 (1980): 157-8

31. Rumack BH, Temple AR "Lomotil poisoning." Pediatrics 53 (1974): 495-500

32. Baker JH, Silver JR "Atropine toxicity in acute cervical spinal injury." Paraplegia 22 (1984): 379-82

33. Rainier-Pope CR "Lomotil poisoning." S Afr Med J 48 (1974): 39

34. Arthurs GJ, Davies R "Atropine--a safe drug." Anaesthesia 35 (1980): 1077-9

35. Carney MW "Atropine poisoning." Br Med J 2 (1974): 334

36. "Lomotil for diarrhea in children." Med Lett Drugs Ther 17 (1975): 104

37. Purcell MJ "Atropine poisoning in infancy." Br Med J 5489 (1966): 738

38. McGuigan M, Lovejoy FH Jr "Overdose of Lomotil." Br Med J 1 (1978): 990

39. Wasserman GS, Green VA, Wise GW "Lomotil ingestions in children." Am Fam Physician 11 (1975): 93-7

40. Synder R, Mofenson HC, Greensher J "Toxicity from Lomotil. Accidental ingestion by a 22-month-old child." Clin Pediatr (Phila) 12 (1973): 47-9

41. Erikssen J "Atropine psychosis." Lancet 1 (1969): 53-4

42. Joel SW "Atropine pupils." JAMA 229 (1974): 1863

43. Freese B, Medawar C, Herxheimer A "No more lomotil for infants." Lancet 2 (1981): 816-7

44. Linnoila M "Drug effects on psychomotor skills related to driving: interaction of atropine, glycopyrrhonium and alcohol." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 6 (1973): 107-12

45. Taylor WJ, Llewellyn-Thomas E, Sellers EA "A comparative evaluation of intramuscular atropine, dicyclomine and glycopyrrolate using healthy medical students as volunteer subjects." Int Z Klin Pharmakol Ther Toxikol 3 (1970): 358-64

46. Cox AG, Cheng FC "'Lomotil' in the treatment of episodic diarrhoea after vagotomy." Br J Clin Pract 22 (1968): 211-2

47. "Lomotil." Med Lett Drugs Ther 11 (1969): 46-7

48. Burmeister-Rother R, Streatfeild KA, Yoo MC "Convulsions following ketamine and atropine." Anaesthesia 48 (1993): 82

49. Curtis JA, Goel KM "Lomotil poisoning in children." Arch Dis Child 54 (1979): 222-5

50. Karan S, Mukberjee V, Mukberjee L "Assessment of safety of Lomotil in infants." Indian Pediatr 13 (1976): 295-300

51. Gooding JM, Holcomb MC "Transient blindness following intravenous administration of atropine." Anesth Analg 56 (1977): 872-3

52. Ginsburg CM "Lomotil (diphenoxylate and atropine) intoxication." Am J Dis Child 125 (1973): 241-2

53. "Product Information. Lomotil (diphenoxylate-atropine)." Searle, Skokie, IL.

54. Joseph VJ, Rekha S, Subba Rao SD, Chandrasekhara MK "An unusual case of atropine toxicity." Indian Pediatr 28 (1991): 943-4

55. Heiser JF, Gillin JC "The reversal of anticholinergic drug-induced delirium and coma with physostigmine." Am J Psychiatry 127 (1971): 1050-4

56. Kounis NG "Atropine eye-drops delirium." Can Med Assoc J 110 (1974): 759

57. Hirshman CA, Downes H "A possible undesirable interaction of propranolol and atropine." Anesthesiology 53 (1980): 521

58. Riley ID "Lomotil poisoning." Lancet 1 (1969): 373

59. Pittman FE "Adverse effects of Lomotil." Gastroenterology 67 (1974): 408-10

60. Dodd-Butera T, Baker JK "Accidental drug overdose. Action stat!." Nursing 17 (1987): 33

61. Penfold D, Volans GN "Overdose from Lomotil." Br Med J 2 (1977): 1401-2

62. Santhanakrishnan BR, Muthurajan, Raju VB "Safety of diphenoxylate hydrochloride therapy in malnourished infants suffering with nonspecific diarrhoea." Indian Pediatr 16 (1979): 909-12

63. Higgins ST, Lamb RJ, Henningfield JE "Dose-dependent effects of atropine on behavioral and physiologic responses in humans." Pharmacol Biochem Behav 34 (1989): 303-11

64. Smith ML, Chambers TL "Overdose of Lomotil." Br Med J 1 (1978): 176

65. Shutt LE, Bowes JB "Atropine and hyoscine." Anaesthesia 34 (1979): 476-90

66. Rosenstein G, Freeman M, Standard AL, Weston N "Warning: the use of lomotil in children." Pediatrics 51 (1973): 132-4

67. Bala K, Khandpur SS, Gujral VV "Evaluation of efficacy and safety of lomotil in acute diarrhoeas in children." Indian Pediatr 16 (1979): 903-7

68. Mirakhur RK, Clarke RS, Elliott J, Dundee JW "Atropine and glycopyrronium premedication. A comparison of the effects on cardiac rate and rhythm during induction of anaesthesia." Anaesthesia 33 (1978): 906-12

69. Cotton BR, Smith G "Single and combined effects of atropine and metoclopramide on the lower oesophageal sphincter pressure." Br J Anaesth 53 (1981): 869-74

70. Marshall WF Jr, Rosenthal P, Merritt RJ "Atropine therapy and paralytic ileus in an infant." J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 9 (1989): 532-4

71. McCormick PA, O'Donoghue D, Brennan N "Diphenoxylate and pancreatitis." Lancet 1 (1985): 752

72. Chernish SM, Brunelle RR, Rosenak BD, Ahmadzai S "Comparison of the effects of glucagon and atropine sulfate on gastric emptying." Am J Gastroenterol 70 (1978): 581-6

73. Pittman FE "Letter: Lomotil and antibiotic colitis." Ann Intern Med 83 (1975): 124-5

74. Rice PA, Baine WB "Prolonged intermittent diarrhea after Shiga dysentery: postdysenteric syndrome." South Med J 73 (1980): 381-3

75. Dow TG, Brock-Utne JG, Rubin J, Welman S, Dimopoulos GE, Moshal MG "The effect of atropine on the lower esophageal sphincter in late pregnancy." Obstet Gynecol 51 (1978): 426-30

76. Mevorach D "Adverse effects of atropine sulfate autoinjection." Ann Pharmacother 26 (1992): 564

77. "Lomotil for diarrhea in children." Med Lett Drugs Ther 17 (1975): 104

78. Pelemans W, Vantrappen F "A double blind crossover comparison of loperamide with diphenoxylate in the symptomatic treatment of chronic diarrhea." Gastroenterology 70 (1976): 1030-4

79. Howells TH "The administration of metoclopramide with atropine." Anaesthesia 32 (1977): 677

80. Kongsrud F, Sponheim S "A comparison of atropine and glycopyrrolate in anaesthetic practice." Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 26 (1982): 620-5

81. Famewo CE "A re-evaluation of anticholergic premedication." Can Anaesth Soc J 24 (1977): 39-41

82. Forrester RM "Lomotil intoxication in children." Br Med J 3 (1973): 501

83. DuPont HL, Hornick RB "Adverse effect of lomotil therapy in shigellosis." JAMA 226 (1973): 1525-8

84. Brock-Utne JG, Rubin J, Downing JW, Dimopoulos GE, Moshal MG, Naicker M "The administration of metoclopramide with atropine. A drug interaction effect on the gastro-oesophageal sphincter in man." Anaesthesia 31 (1976): 1186-90

85. Novak E, Lee JG, Seckman CE, Phillips JP, DiSanto AR "Unfavorable effect of atropine-diphenoxylate (Lomotil) therapy in lincomycin-caused diarrhea." JAMA 235 (1976): 1451-4

86. De S, Sircar BK, De SP "Diphenoxylate hydrochloride (Lomotil) in the management of cholera." Indian J Med Res 63 (1975): 469-74

87. Ahmad S "Antiperistaltic agents contraindicated in pseudomembranous colitis." JAMA 243 (1980): 1036

88. Pittman FE "Toxic megacolon." Lancet 1 (1979): 875

89. Ippoliti C "Antidiarrheal agents for the management of treatment-related diarrhea in cancer patients." Am J Health Syst Pharm 55 (1998): 1573-80

90. Horio Y, Okajima T, Ono T, Matsumoto Y, Hokamura Y, Tokuomi H "Adverse effects of atropine on the sinus node in familial amyloid polyneuropathy." Chest 82 (1982): 190-2

91. Miller RD, Eger EI 2d, Stevens WC, Gibbons R "Pancuronium-induced tachycardia in relation to alveolar halothane, dose of pancuronium, and prior atropine." Anesthesiology 42 (1975): 352-5

92. Das G, Talmers FN, Weissler AM "New observations on the effects of atropine on the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes in man." Am J Cardiol 36 (1975): 281-5

93. Valentin N, Staffeldt H, Kyst A "Effect of i.v. atropine on cardiac rhythm, heart rate, blood pressure and airway secretion during isoflurane anaesthesia." Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 28 (1984): 621-4

94. Castellanos A, Garcia HG, Rozanski JJ, Zaman L, Pefkaros K, Myerburg RJ "Atropine-induced multilevel block in acute inferior myocardial infarction. A possible indication for prophylactic pacing." Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 4 (1981): 528-37

95. Horgan J "Atropine and ventricular tachyarrhythmia." JAMA 223 (1973): 693

96. Klein MD, Barret J, Ryan TJ, Flessas AP "Atropine dose in acute myocardial infarction in man." Cardiology 60 (1975): 193-205

97. Jenssen H "Fetal systolic time intervals in late pregnancy. Effect of atropine." Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 58 (1979): 519-26

98. Scherf D "Atropine in acute myocardial infarction." Am Heart J 86 (1973): 284

99. Spiers SP "Atropine or glycopyrronium?--a dangerous dilemma." Anaesthesia 46 (1991): 151

100. Harris WS, Goodman RM "Hyper-reactivity to atropine in Down's syndrome." N Engl J Med 279 (1968): 407-10

101. Ng L, Nikolic G "Atropine bradycardia." Heart Lung 20 (1991): 414-5

102. Johns G "Hypotensive reaction after propanidid and atropine." Br Med J 4 (1969): 52

103. Zsigmond EK, Matsuki A, Sharafabadi C "Atropine and cardiac arrhythmia." N Engl J Med 288 (1973): 635

104. Lowenthal DT, Reidenberg MM "The heart rate response to atropine in uremic patients, obese subjects before and during fasting, and patients with other chronic illnesses." Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 139 (1972): 390-3

105. Reiffel JA, Bigger JT, Giardina EG ""Paradoxical" prolongation of sinus nodal recovery time after atropine in the sick sinus syndrome." Am J Cardiol 36 (1975): 98-104

106. Greenan J "Cardiac dysrhythmias and heart rate changes at induction of anaesthesia: a comparison of two intravenous anticholinergics." Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 28 (1984): 182-4

107. Han J "Atropine and acute myocardial infarction." Circulation 47 (1973): 429-31

108. ApIvor D, Ravi PK, Little L "Cardiac effects of intravenous atropine. Electrocardiographic studies during ketamine anaesthesia." Anaesthesia 33 (1978): 542-5

109. Richman S "Adverse effect of atropine during myocardial infarction. Enchancement of ischemia following intravenously administered atropine." JAMA 228 (1974): 1414-6

110. Massumi RA, Mason DT, Amsterdam EA, DeMaria A, Miller RR, Scheinman MM, Zelis R "Ventricular fibrillation and tachycardia after intravenous atropine for treatment of bradycardias." N Engl J Med 287 (1972): 336-8

111. Mirakhur RK, Jones CJ "Atropine and glycopyrrolate: changes in cardiac rate and rhythm in conscious and anaesthetised children." Anaesth Intensive Care 10 (1982): 328-32

112. Lazzari JO, Benchuga EG, Elizari MV, Rosenbaum MB "Ventricular fibrillation after intravenous atropine in a patient with atrioventricular block." Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 5 (1982): 196-200

113. Stokes HR "Drug reactions reported in a survey of South Carolina." Ophthalmology 86 (1979): 161-5

114. Warren JV, Lewis RP "Beneficial effects of atropine in the pre-hospital phase of coronary care." Am J Cardiol 37 (1976): 68-72

115. Knoebel SB, McHenry PL, Phillips JF, Widlansky S "Atropine-induced cardioacceleration and myocardial blood flow in subjects with and without coronary artery disease." Am J Cardiol 33 (1974): 327-32

116. Kyei-Mensah K "Heart rate changes in halothane anaesthesia: effect of varying doses of atropine and neostigmine." Br J Anaesth 45 (1973): 507-10

117. Bradshaw EG "Dysrhythmias associated with oral surgery." Anaesthesia 31 (1976): 13-7

118. Lunde P "Ventricular fibrillation after intravenous atropine for treatment of sinus bradycardia." Acta Med Scand 199 (1976): 369-71

119. Cooper MJ, Abinader EG "Atropine-induced ventricular fibrillation: case report and review of the literature." Am Heart J 97 (1979): 225-8

120. Pecora JL "Atropine pupils." JAMA 229 (1974): 1864

121. Pecora JL "Malignant glaucoma worsened by miotics in a postoperative angle- closure glaucoma patient." Ann Ophthalmol 11 (1979): 1412-4

122. Mader TH, Stulting RD "Keratoconjunctivitis sicca caused by diphenoxylate hydrochloride with atropine sulfate (Lomotil)." Am J Ophthalmol 111 (1991): 377-8

123. Clearkin LG "Angle closure glaucoma precipitated by atropine." Arch Intern Med 152 (1992): 880

124. Pickford EJ, Hanson RM, O'Halloran MT, Fenwick D, Noble P, McDonald JD "Infants and atropine: a dangerous mixture." J Paediatr Child Health 27 (1991): 55-6

125. Palmer EA "How safe are ocular drugs in pediatrics?" Ophthalmology 93 (1986): 1038-40

126. Berdy GJ, Berdy SS, Odin LS, Hirst LW "Angle closure glaucoma precipitated by aerosolized atropine." Arch Intern Med 151 (1991): 1658-60

127. Holland MG "Autonomic drugs in ophthalmology: some problems and promises. Section II: Anticholinergic drugs." Ann Ophthalmol 6 (1974): 661-4

128. O'Kelly SW, Spargo PM "Postoperative urinary retention in men." BMJ 302 (1991): 1403-4

129. Klock LE, Miller TD, Morris AH, Watanabe S, Dickman M "A comparative study of atropine sulfate and isoproterenol hydrochloride in chronic bronchitis." Am Rev Respir Dis 112 (1975): 371-6

130. Rubinstein JS "Deliberate abuse of diphenoxylate hydrochloride, a schedule V narcotic." West J Med 131 (1979): 148-50

131. Hull PJ "Lomotil-diphenoxylate hydrochloride." Practitioner 229 (1985): 302

132. Lacouture PG, Lovejoy FH Jr, Mitchell AA "Acute hypothermia associated with atropine." Am J Dis Child 137 (1983): 291-2

133. Yoshikawa K, Kawahara S "Contact allergy to atropine and other mydriatic agents." Contact Dermatitis 12 (1985): 56-7

134. van der Willigen AH, de Graaf YP, van Joost T "Periocular dermatitis from atropine." Contact Dermatitis 17 (1987): 56-7

135. Pollowitz JA "Acute urticaria associated with shigellosis: a case report." Ann Allergy 45 (1980): 302-3

136. Aguilera L, Martinez-Bourio R, Cid C, Arino JJ, Saez de Eguilaz JL, Arizaga A "Anaphylactic reaction after atropine." Anaesthesia 43 (1988): 955-7

137. Turner KJ, Keep VR, Bartholomaeus N "Anaphylaxis induced by propanidid and atropine." Br J Anaesth 44 (1972): 211-4

138. Dundee JW, Mirakhur RK "Hypersensitivity to atropine." Br J Anaesth 50 (1978): 866

139. Modi N "Hyperglycaemia in Lomotil poisoning." Arch Dis Child 56 (1981): 157

It is possible that some side effects of Vi-Atro may not have been reported. These can be reported to the FDA here. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.

Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. In addition, the drug information contained herein may be time sensitive and should not be utilized as a reference resource beyond the date hereof. This material does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients, or recommend therapy. This information is a reference resource designed as supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill , knowledge, and judgement of healthcare practitioners in patient care. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate safety, effectiveness, or appropriateness for any given patient. does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of materials provided. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the substances you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist.