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Cyclopentolate Hydrochloride

Class: Mydriatics
ATC Class: S01FA04
VA Class: OP600
CAS Number: 5870-29-1
Brands: AK-Pentolate, Cyclogyl, Cyclomydril, Cylate

Introduction

Mydriatic and cycloplegic; tertiary amine antimuscarinic.101 102 a

Uses for Cyclopentolate Hydrochloride

Ophthalmologic Examination

Produces mydriasis and cycloplegia for refraction (e.g., retina and optic disc examination, measurement of refractive error).101 105 106

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Cyclopentolate may be preferred over atropine because of shorter duration of mydriasis and cycloplegia when used for opthalmologic examination.105 106

Fixed-combination preparation containing cyclopentolate hydrochloride 0.2% and phenylephrine hydrochloride 1% is used to produce pronounced mydriasis with little accompanying cycloplegia for ophthalmologic examination (e.g., patients with retinal detachment; dilation for screening for retinopathy of prematurity).102 103 104 a

Cyclopentolate Hydrochloride Dosage and Administration

General

  • To avoid induction of angle-closure glaucoma in susceptible patients, estimate the depth of the angle of the anterior chamber before administering cyclopentolate.a

Administration

Apply topically to the eye(s) as an ophthalmic solution.101 102 Not for injection.101 102

Apply finger pressure on the lacrimal sac during and for 2–3 minutes following topical instillation to avoid excessive systemic absorption, particularly if the 2% solution is used and especially in children (see Pediatric Use under Cautions).101 102 a

Avoid contamination of the solution container.101 102

Dosage

Available as cyclopentolate hydrochloride; dosage expressed in terms of the salt.101 102

In patients with darkly pigmented irides, more doses or higher solution concentrations (e.g., 2% solution) may be required.101 102 a

Pediatric Patients

Mydriasis and Cycloplegia
Ophthalmic

Select concentration of cyclopentolate hydrochloride for pediatric use based on the patient’s weight, iris coloration, and dilation history.106 (See Pediatric Use under Cautions.)

Small infants: 1 drop of 0.5% solution into eye(s). 101 Following instillation, observe closely for at least 30 minutes.101 a

Children: 1 drop of 0.5, 1, or 2% solution into eye(s); if necessary, administer a second drop of a 0.5 or 1% solution in 5–10 minutes.101 a

Cyclopentolate hydrochloride 0.2% in fixed combination with phenylephrine hydrochloride 1%: 1 drop into eye(s); may repeat every 5–10 minutes.102 a Administer 30 minutes before examination for retinopathy of prematurity.106 Following instillation, observe infants closely for at least 30 minutes.102

Adults

Mydriasis and Cycloplegia
Ophthalmic

1 drop of 0.5, 1, or 2% solution into eye(s); if necessary, administer a second drop of a 0.5 or 1% solution in 5–10 minutes.101

Recovery usually occurs within 24 hours.101 a To reduce recovery time to 3–6 hours, instill 1 or 2 drops of a 1 or 2% pilocarpine solution into the eye(s).a

Cyclopentolate hydrochloride 0.2% in fixed combination with phenylephrine hydrochloride 1%: 1 drop instilled into eye(s); may repeat every 5–10 minutes.102

Special Populations

No special population dosage recommendations at this time.101 102

Cautions for Cyclopentolate Hydrochloride

Contraindications

  • Untreated angle-closure (narrow-angle) glaucoma or untreated anatomically narrow angles.101 102 a

  • Known hypersensitivity to cyclopentolate or any component of the preparation.101 102

Warnings/Precautions

Warnings

CNS Effects

CNS disturbances, including psychotic reactions and behavioral disturbances (e.g., ataxia, incoherent speech, restlessness, hallucinations, hyperactivity, seizures, disorientation as to time and place, failure to recognize people), have been reported; more common in younger patients (see Pediatric Use under Cautions), but may occur at any age especially with more concentrated preparations.101 102 a

Intraocular Pressure

Mydriatics may cause a transient increase in IOP.101 102 a Use with caution in patients who may be predisposed to increased IOP.a (See Contraindications.)

Sensitivity Reactions

Allergic Reactions

Risk of allergic reaction following repeated use.a Characterized by persistent irritation (developing within minutes of instillation), blurred vision, diffuse redness; itching eyes not common.a

Following repeated reactions, corneal surface may become uniformly covered with tiny, superficial epithelial lesions, and lacrimal drainage system may become occluded.a

General Precautions

Use of Fixed Combination

When cyclopentolate is use in fixed combination with phenylephrine, consider cautions, precautions, and contraindications associated with phenylephrine.102 a

Concomitant Illnesses

Use with caution in patients with Down’s syndrome and those predisposed to angle-closure glaucoma.101 102

Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Cyclopentolate: Category C.101

Cyclopentolate/phenylephrine: Category C.102

Lactation

Not known whether cyclopentolate is distributed into human milk.101 102 Exercise caution if used in nursing women.101 102

Pediatric Use

Increased susceptibility to adverse CNS and cardiopulmonary effects has been reported in infants.101 102

Psychotic reactions and behavioral disturbances reported in children; risk of these effects is greatest with 2% solution.101 102 a Increased susceptibility to cyclopentolate reported in infants, young children, and children with spastic paralysis or brain damage.101 102 Symptoms may include ataxia, incoherent speech, restlessness, hallucinations, hyperactivity, seizures, disorientation as to time and place, and failure to recognize people.101 102 (See CNS Effects under Cautions and also see Pediatric Patients under Dosage and Administration.)

Feeding intolerance may occur in infants.101 102 Following administration, observe infants closely for at least 30 minutes and withhold feeding for 4 hours.101 102

Geriatric Use

No substantial differences in safety and efficacy relative to younger adults.101 102

Common Adverse Effects

Elevation of IOP,101 102 burning,101 irritation,101 102 photophobia,101 102 blurred vision,101 102 superficial punctate keratitis.101 102

Interactions for Cyclopentolate Hydrochloride

Specific Drugs

Drug

Interaction

Carbachol

Cyclopentolate may interfere with ocular antihypertensive action of carbachol101 102

Cholinesterase inhibitors, ophthalmic

Cyclopentolate may interfere with ocular antihypertensive action of ophthalmic cholinesterase inhibitors101 102

Pilocarpine

Cyclopentolate may interfere with ocular antihypertensive action of pilocarpine101 102

Cyclopentolate Hydrochloride Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Onset

Maximum mydriatic effect occurs 30–60 minutes following topical application to the eye.105

Maximum cycloplegia occurs within about 25–75 minutes after topical instillation.101 105

Duration

Recovery from mydriasis generally occurs within 24 hours, but may take several days.101 105

Cycloplegia generally lasts 6–24 hours.101 105

Stability

Storage

Ophthalmic

Solution

Tight containers at 8–27°C.101 a

Cyclopentolate in fixed combination with phenylephrine: 8–27°C.102

Actions

  • Mydriatic and cycloplegic; shares the pharmacologic effects of atropine on the eye but has a shorter duration of action compared with atropine.101 102 105 106 a

  • Blocks the responses of the sphincter muscle of the iris and the accommodative muscle of the ciliary body to cholinergic stimulation, producing pupillary dilation (mydriasis) and paralysis of accommodation (cycloplegia).101 a

Advice to Patients

  • Advise patients not to drive or engage in other hazardous activities while pupils are dilated.101 102

  • Importance of protecting eyes in bright illumination during dilation since sensitivity to light may occur.101 102

  • Advise parents to prevent the child from getting the solution into his or her mouth and to wash their own hands and the child’s hands following administration.101 102

  • Inform parents that feeding should be withheld for 4 hours after use of the drug in ophthalmic examination of an infant because feeding intolerance may occur.101 102

  • Importance of learning and adhering to proper administration techniques to avoid contamination of the product.101 102

  • Importance of informing clinicians of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs and dietary or herbal supplements, as well as any concomitant illnesses.101 102

  • Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed.101 102

  • Importance of informing patients of other important precautionary information.101 (See Cautions.)

Preparations

Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.

Cyclopentolate Hydrochloride

Routes

Dosage Forms

Strengths

Brand Names

Manufacturer

Ophthalmic

Solution

0.5%

Cyclogyl (with benzalkonium chloride)

Alcon

1%

AK-Pentolate (with benzalkonium chloride)

Akorn

Cyclogyl (with benzalkonium chloride)

Alcon

Cyclopentolate Hydrochloride 1% Ophthalmic Solution

Bausch & Lomb, Falcon

Cylate

OCuSOFT

2%

Cyclogyl (with benzalkonium chloride)

Alcon

Cyclopentolate Hydrochloride Combinations

Routes

Dosage Forms

Strengths

Brand Names

Manufacturer

Ophthalmic

Solution

0.2% with Phenylephrine Hydrochloride 1%

Cyclomydril (with benzalkonium chloride)

Alcon

AHFS DI Essentials. © Copyright, 2004-2014, Selected Revisions August 1, 2008. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 7272 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.

References

101. Alcon Laboratories. Cyclogyl (cyclopentolate hydrochloride) ophthalmic solution, USP prescribing information. Fort Worth, TX; 2004 Feb.

102. Alcon Laboratories. Cyclomydril (cyclopentolate hydrochloride/phenylephrine hydrochloride) ophthalmic solution prescribing information. Fort Worth, TX; 2004 Feb.

103. Paysse EA. Retinopathy of prematurity. From UpToDate website (). Updated 2008 Jan 7. Accessed 2008 May 14.

104. Ellis FD. Topical ophthalmic agents used for infants and children. In: Zimmerman TJ, Kooner KS, Sharir M et al, eds. Textbook of ocular pharmacology. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1997:783-6.

105. Zimmerman CF, Hogan RN, Le TD. Mydriatic and cycloplegic drugs. In: Zimmerman TJ, Kooner KS, Sharir M et al, eds. Textbook of ocular pharmacology. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1997:807-26.

106. American Academy of Ophthalmology Pediatric Ophthalmology/Strabismus Panel. Preferred practice pattern guidelines. Pediatric eye evaluations. San Francisco, CA: American Academy of Ophthalmology; 2007 Sep. Available at . Accessed 2008 Apr 24.

a. AHFS drug information 2008. McEvoy GK, ed. Cyclopentolate hydrochloride. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists; 2008: 2904–5.

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