Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 In Adults
WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW:
Diabetes mellitus type 1 is a disease that affects how your body makes insulin and uses glucose (sugar). Insulin helps move sugar out of the blood so it can be used for energy. Normally, when the blood sugar level increases, the pancreas makes more insulin. Type 1 diabetes develops because your immune system destroys pancreas cells that make insulin. Your pancreas cannot make enough insulin, so your blood sugar level continues to rise.
- Insulin: You will need 1 or more doses of insulin each day. Insulin can be injected or given through an insulin pump. Ask your healthcare provider which method is best for you. You or a family member will be taught how to give insulin injections if this is the best method for you. Your family member can give you the injections if you are not able. Take your insulin as directed. Too much insulin may cause your blood sugar level to go too low.
- Take your medicine as directed. Call your healthcare provider if you think your medicine is not helping or if you have side effects. Tell him if you are allergic to any medicine. Keep a list of the medicines, vitamins, and herbs you take. Include the amounts, and when and why you take them. Bring the list or the pill bottles to follow-up visits. Carry your medicine list with you in case of an emergency.
Follow up with your healthcare provider or diabetes specialist as directed:
You will need yearly eye exams to check for retinopathy and yearly urine tests to check for kidney problems. Your healthcare provider may want you to have your A1c checked every 3 months. Write down your questions so you remember to ask them during your visits.
Check your blood sugar level as directed:
You will be taught how to use a glucose monitor. You will need to check your blood sugar level at least 3 times each day. Ask your healthcare provider when and how often to check during the day. If you check your blood sugar level before a meal , it should be between 70 and 130 mg/dL. If you check your blood sugar level 1 to 2 hours after a meal , it should be less than 180 mg/dL. Ask your healthcare provider if these are good goals for you. You may need to check for ketones in your urine or blood if your level is higher than directed. Write down your results, and show them to your healthcare provider. He may make changes to your medicine, food, or exercise schedules.
If your blood sugar level is too low:
Your blood sugar level is too low if it goes below 70 mg/dL. Eat or drink a small amount of fast-acting carbohydrate, or take 4 glucose tablets (15 to 20 grams of glucose). Check your blood sugar level again 15 minutes later. If it is above 70 mg/dL, eat a small snack. If it is still below 70 mg/dL, eat a small amount of fast-acting carbohydrate, or take 4 more glucose tablets. Your healthcare provider or dietitian can tell you which fast-acting carbohydrates to eat, and how much is safe for you. Ask your healthcare provider for more information on diabetic hypoglycemia (low blood sugar level).
Medical alert identification:
Wear medical alert jewelry or carry a card that says you have diabetes. Ask your healthcare provider where to get these items.
High blood sugar levels can damage nerves and blood vessels. You may lose feeling in your feet because of nerve damage. Check your feet each day for sores. Wear shoes and socks that fit correctly. Trim your toenails straight across to prevent ingrown toenails. Do not cut your nails into the corners or close to the skin. Do not dig under or around the nail. Ask your healthcare provider for more details about foot care.
Your dietitian will help you create a meal plan to keep your blood sugar level steady.
Exercise can help keep your blood sugar level steady, decrease your risk of heart disease, and help you lose weight. Even a 10 to 15 pound weight loss can help you manage your blood sugar level. Exercise for at least 30 minutes, 5 days a week. Work with your healthcare provider to create an exercise plan. You may need to eat a carbohydrate snack before, during, or after you exercise. If your blood sugar level is less than 100 mg/dL, have a carbohydrate snack before you exercise. Examples are 4 to 6 crackers, ½ banana, 8 ounces (1 cup) of milk, or 4 ounces (½ cup) of juice. If your blood sugar level is higher than directed, check your blood or urine for ketones before you exercise. Do not exercise if your blood sugar level is high and you have ketones in your urine or blood.
If you smoke, it is never too late to quit. Smoking can worsen the problems that can occur with diabetes. Ask your healthcare provider for information about how to stop smoking if you are having trouble quitting.
Alcohol affects your blood sugar level and can make it harder to manage your diabetes. Women should limit alcohol to 1 drink a day. Men should limit alcohol to 2 drinks a day. A drink of alcohol is 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1½ ounces of liquor.
Contact your healthcare provider if:
- You are vomiting or have diarrhea.
- You have an upset stomach and cannot eat foods on your meal plan.
- You feel weak or more tired than usual.
- You feel dizzy or have headaches.
- Your skin is red, dry, warm, or swollen.
- You have a wound that does not heal.
- You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.
Return to the emergency department if:
- Your blood sugar level is lower than directed and does not improve with treatment.
- You are having trouble staying awake or focusing.
- You are shaking or sweating.
- You have blurred or double vision.
- Your breath has a fruity, sweet smell, or your breathing is shallow.
- Your heartbeat is fast and weak.
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The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.