Skip to Content

Trace Elements

Pronunciation

(trase EL e ments)

Index Terms

  • Addamel N
  • Chromium
  • Copper
  • Manganese
  • Neonatal Trace Metals
  • Peditrace
  • Selenium
  • Trace Metals
  • Trace Minerals
  • Zinc

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Injection, solution:

Addamel N: Chromium 1 mcg, copper 0.13 mg, fluoride 0.095 mg, iodide 0.013 mg, iron 0.11 mg, manganese 0.027 mg, molybdenum 1.9 mcg, selenium, 3.2 mcg, and zinc 0.65 mg per 1 mL (20 mL)

Multitrace-4: Chromium 4 mcg, copper 0.4 mg, manganese 0.1 mg, and zinc 1 mg per 1 mL (10 mL) [contains aluminum, benzyl alcohol]

Multitrace-4 Concentrate: Chromium 10 mcg, copper 1 mg, manganese 0.5 mg, and zinc 5 mg per 1 mL (1 mL) [contains aluminum]; chromium 10 mcg, copper 1 mg, manganese 0.5 mg, and zinc 5 mg per 1 mL (10 mL) [contains benzyl alcohol]

Multitrace-4 Neonatal: Chromium 0.85 mcg, copper 0.1 mg, manganese 0.025 mg, and zinc 1.5 mg per 1 mL (2 mL) [contains aluminum]

Multitrace-5: Chromium 4 mcg, copper 0.4 mg, manganese 0.1 mg, selenium 20 mcg, and zinc 1 mg per 1 mL (10 mL) [contains aluminum, benzyl alcohol]

Multitrace-5 Concentrate: Chromium 10 mcg, copper 1 mg, manganese 0.5 mg, selenium 60 mcg, and zinc 5 mg per 1 mL (1 mL) [contains aluminum]; chromium 10 mcg, copper 1 mg, manganese 0.5 mg, selenium 60 mcg, and zinc 5 mg per 1 mL (10 mL) [contains benzyl alcohol]

Peditrace: Copper 20 mcg, iodide 1 mcg, fluoride 57 mcg, manganese 1 mcg, selenium 2 mcg, and zinc 250 mcg per 1 mL (10 mL)

Trace Elements 4 Pediatric: Chromium 1 mcg, copper 0.1 mg, manganese 0.03 mg, and zinc 0.5 mg per 1 mL (10 mL) [contains aluminum, benzyl alcohol]

Injection, solution [preservative free]:

Multitrace-4 Pediatric: Chromium 1 mcg, copper 0.1 mg, manganese 0.025 mg, and zinc 1 mg per 1 mL (3 mL) [contains aluminum]

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Multitrace-4
  • Multitrace-4 Concentrate
  • Multitrace-4 Neonatal
  • Multitrace-4 Pediatric
  • Multitrace-5
  • Multitrace-5 Concentrate
  • Trace Elements 4 Pediatric

Pharmacologic Category

  • Trace Element, Parenteral

Pharmacology

Chromium: Helps to maintain normal glucose metabolism and peripheral nerve function and prevents development of impaired glucose tolerance, ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, and a confusional state similar to mild/moderate hepatic encephalopathy.

Copper: Cofactor for serum ceruloplasmin, an oxidase necessary for proper formation of the iron carrier protein, transferrin; also helps maintain normal rates of red and white blood cell formation and prevents development of leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia, depressed ceruloplasmin levels, impaired transferrin formation and secondary iron deficiency.

Manganese: Activator for enzymes such as polysaccharide polymerase, liver arginase, cholinesterase and pyruvate carboxylase and prevents development of nausea and vomiting, weight loss, dermatitis, and changes in growth and hair color.

Selenium: Protects cell components from oxidative damage due to peroxides produced in cellular metabolism and prevents development of muscle pain and tenderness.

Zinc: Facilitates wound healing, helps maintain normal growth rates, normal skin hydration and senses of taste and smell and prevents development of parakeratosis, hypogeusia, anorexia, dysosmia, geophagia, hypogonadism, growth retardation and hepatosplenomegaly.

Excretion

Chromium: Urine and bile

Copper: Feces

Manganese: Feces (primarily); ancillary routes via pancreatic secretions or reabsorption into the intestinal lumen

Selenium: Urine, feces

Zinc: Urine, feces

Use: Labeled Indications

Trace metal supplement for total parenteral nutrition: Prevent and correct trace metal deficiencies as a supplement to IV total parenteral nutrition (TPN).

Contraindications

Administration of undiluted solutions by direct injection into a peripheral vein.

Dosing: Adult

Trace metal supplement for TPN: IV:

Manufacturer labeling:

Chromium: 10 to 15 mcg/day (20 mcg/day with intestinal fluid loss)

Copper: 500 to 1,500 mcg/day

Manganese: 150 to 800 mcg/day

Selenium: 20 to 40 mcg/day

Zinc: 2.5 to 4 mg/day. Consider an additional 2 mg/day for acute catabolic states; with fluid loss from the small bowel, an additional 12.2 mg/L of small bowel fluid lost, or an additional 17.1 mg/kg of stool or ileostomy output is recommended.

ASPEN Guidelines (Mirtallo 2004):

Chromium: 10 to 15 mcg/day

Copper: 300 to 500 mcg/day

Manganese: 60 to 100 mcg/day

Selenium: 20 to 60 mcg/day

Zinc: 2.5 to 5 mg/day

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Pediatric

Trace metal supplement for TPN: Infants, Children, and Adolescents: IV:

Trace Metal Supplement for TPN: Manufacturer Labeling

Infants

Children and Adolescents

Chromium

0.14 to 0.2 mcg/kg/day

0.14 to 0.2 mcg/kg/day

Copper

20 mcg/kg/day

20 mcg/kg/day

Manganese

2 to 10 mcg/kg/day

2 to 10 mcg/kg/day

Selenium

3 mcg/kg/day

3 mcg/kg/day

Zinc

Preterm, ≤3 kg: 300 mcg/kg/day

Full term: 100 mcg/kg/day

100 mcg/kg/day

Table has been converted to the following text.

Trace metal supplement for TPN: Manufacturer labeling

Chromium: Infants, Children, and Adolescents: 0.14 to 0.2 mcg/kg/day

Copper: Infants, Children, and Adolescents: 20 mcg/kg/day

Manganese: Infants, Children, and Adolescents: 2 to 10 mcg/kg/day

Selenium: Infants, Children, and Adolescents: 3 mcg/kg/day

Zinc:

Infants, preterm, ≤3 kg: 300 mcg/kg/day

Infants, full term: 100 mcg/kg/day

Children and Adolescents: 100 mcg/kg/day

Trace Elements: ASPEN Guidelines (Mirtallo 2004)

Trace Element1

Infants 3 to 10 kg

Infants, Children, and Adolescents 10 to 40 kg

Adolescents >40 kg

1Recommended intakes of trace elements cannot be achieved through the use of a commercially available combination trace element product. Only through the use of individualized trace element products can recommended intakes be achieved.

2Reduce dose in patients with renal impairment.

3Reduce dose by 50% in patients with impaired biliary excretion or cholestatic liver disease.

4Omit in patients with impaired biliary excretion or cholestatic liver disease.

5Indicated for use in long-term parenteral nutrition patients (ie, >1 month of therapy).

Chromium2

0.2 mcg/kg/day

0.14 to 0.2 mcg/kg/day

5 to 15 mcg/day

Copper3

20 mcg/kg/day

5 to 20 mcg/kg/day

200 to 500 mcg/day

Manganese4

1 mcg/kg/day

1 mcg/kg/day

40 to 100 mcg/day

Selenium2,5

2 mcg/kg/day

1 to 2 mcg/kg/day

40 to 60 mcg/day

Zinc

50 to 250 mcg/kg/day

50 to 125 mcg/kg/day

2 to 5 mg/day

Table has been converted to the following text:

Trace Elements: ASPEN Guidelines1 (Mirtallo 2004):

Chromium:

Reduce dose in patients with renal impairment.

Infants 3 to 10 kg: 0.2 mcg/kg/day

Infants, Children, and Adolescents 10 to 40 kg: 0.14 to 0.2 mcg/kg/day

Adolescents >40 kg: 5 to 15 mcg/day

Copper:

Reduce dose by 50% in patients with impaired biliary excretion or cholestatic liver disease.

Infants 3 to 10 kg: 20 mcg/kg/day

Infants, Children, and Adolescents 10 to 40 kg: 5 to 20 mcg/kg/day

Adolescents >40 kg: 200 to 500 mcg/day

Manganese:

Omit in patients with impaired biliary excretion or cholestatic liver disease.

Infants 3 to 10 kg: 1 mcg/kg/day

Infants, Children, and Adolescents 10 to 40 kg: 1 mcg/kg/day

Adolescents >40 kg: 40 to 100 mcg/day

Selenium:

Reduce dose in patients with renal impairment; indicated for use in long-term parenteral nutrition patients.

Infants 3 to 10 kg: 2 mcg/kg/day

Infants, Children, and Adolescents 10 to 40 kg: 1 to 2 mcg/kg/day

Adolescents >40 kg: 40 to 60 mcg/day

Zinc:

Infants 3 to 10 kg: 50 to 250 mcg/kg/day

Infants, Children, and Adolescents 10 to 40 kg: 50 to 125 mcg/kg/day

Adolescents >40 kg: 2 to 5 mg/day

Dosing: Renal Impairment

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling; use chromium with caution and decrease dose in pediatric patients. Decrease dose or omit selenium in pediatric patients with renal impairment.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling; decrease dose or omit copper and manganese in pediatric patients with severe hepatic impairment and/or biliary tract obstruction.

Administration

For IV use only. Must be diluted prior to use and infused as component of parenteral nutrition or parenteral solutions. Do not administer undiluted solutions by direct injection into a peripheral vein. Multitrace 4 Neonatal solution is acidic; do not use syringes with aluminum needles or hubs.

Storage

Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F).

Warnings/Precautions

Disease-related concerns:

• GI malfunction: Consider reduction in dosage or deletion of selenium in patients with GI malfunction.

• Hepatic impairment: Copper and manganese may accumulate in severe hepatic impairment and/or biliary obstruction; consider reduction in dosage or deletion of copper and manganese in patients with severe hepatic impairment or biliary obstruction.

• Renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with renal impairment; metals may accumulate in renal failure. Consider reduction in dosage or deletion of selenium in patients with renal impairment.

Dosage form specific issues:

• Benzyl alcohol and derivatives: Some dosage forms may contain benzyl alcohol; large amounts of benzyl alcohol (≥99 mg/kg/day) have been associated with a potentially fatal toxicity (“gasping syndrome”) in neonates; the “gasping syndrome” consists of metabolic acidosis, respiratory distress, gasping respirations, CNS dysfunction (including convulsions, intracranial hemorrhage), hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse (AAP ["Inactive" 1997]; CDC 1982); some data suggests that benzoate displaces bilirubin from protein binding sites (Ahlfors 2001); avoid or use dosage forms containing benzyl alcohol with caution in neonates. See manufacturer’s labeling.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Aluminum toxicity: Contains aluminum; toxic aluminum concentrations may be seen with high doses, prolonged use, or in patients with renal impairment. Premature neonates are at higher risk due to immature renal function and aluminum intake from other parenteral sources. Parenteral aluminum exposure of >4 to 5 mcg/kg/day is associated with CNS and bone toxicity; tissue loading may occur at lower doses.

• Overdose potential: Multiple trace metal solutions present a risk of overdosage when the need for one trace element is appreciably higher than for others in the formulation; utilization of individual trace metal solutions may be needed.

Monitoring Parameters

Periodically monitor plasma zinc, copper, manganese, chromium and selenium, with more frequent monitoring in patients receiving more than the usual dose.

Pregnancy Risk Factor

C

Pregnancy Considerations

Refer to individual elements for requirements in pregnancy.

Patient Education

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.

Hide