(nee oh MYE sin)
- Neomycin Sulfate
Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.
Tablet, Oral, as sulfate:
Generic: 500 mg
- Ammonium Detoxicant
- Antibiotic, Aminoglycoside
Interferes with bacterial protein synthesis by binding to 30S ribosomal subunits
Oral, percutaneous: Poor (3%)
97% of an orally administered dose remains in the GI tract. Absorbed neomycin distributes to tissues and concentrates in the renal cortex. With repeated doses, accumulation also occurs in the inner ear.
Feces (97% of oral dose as unchanged drug); urine (30% to 50% of absorbed drug as unchanged drug)
Time to Peak
1 to 4 hours
0% to 30%
Use: Labeled Indications
Hepatic coma (portal-systemic encephalopathy): Adjunctive therapy in hepatic coma.
Surgical (perioperative) prophylaxis: Adjunctive therapy as part of a regimen for the suppression of the normal bacterial bowel flora (eg, preoperative bowel preparation), given concomitantly with enteric-coated erythromycin base.
Hypersensitivity to the neomycin or any component of the formulation; intestinal obstruction; patients with inflammatory or ulcerative GI disease. Patients with a history of hypersensitivity or serious toxic reaction to other aminoglycosides may have a cross-sensitivity to neomycin.
Surgical (perioperative) prophylaxis: Oral:
Manufacturer's labeling: 1 g at 1 PM, 2 PM, and 11 PM on the day preceding 8 AM surgery as an adjunct to mechanical cleansing of the bowel and oral erythromycin
Alternative recommendation: 1 g at 1 PM, 2 PM, and 11 PM on the day preceding 8 AM surgery combined with mechanical cleansing of the large intestine and oral erythromycin or metronidazole, and IV antibiotics on the day of surgery (Bratzler, 2013)
Hepatic encephalopathy: Oral: 4 to 12 g daily divided every 4 to 6 hours for 5 to 6 days
Chronic hepatic insufficiency: Oral: 4 g daily for an indefinite period
Refer to adult dosing.
Surgical (perioperative) prophylaxis: Children and Adolescents: Oral: 15 mg/kg/dose for 3 doses administered over 10 hours (eg, at 1 PM, 2 PM, and 11 PM) on the the day preceding surgery; maximum dose: 1,000 mg; (Bratzler, 2013); used as an adjunct to mechanical cleansing of the intestine and in combination with erythromycin base or metronidazole and perioperative IV antibiotics
Dosing: Renal Impairment
There are no dosage adjustments provided in manufacturer’s labeling; however, dosage reduction or discontinuation of therapy should be considered if a patient develops renal insufficiency. The risk of nephro- and/or ototoxicity is increased in patients with renal impairment.
Dosing: Hepatic Impairment
There are no dosage adjustments provided in manufacturer’s labeling.
Store at 20ºC to 25ºC (68ºF to 77ºF).
AbobotulinumtoxinA: Aminoglycosides may enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of AbobotulinumtoxinA. Monitor therapy
Acarbose: Neomycin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Acarbose. Neomycin may decrease the metabolism of Acarbose. Monitor therapy
Amphotericin B: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy
Arbekacin: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Arbekacin may enhance the ototoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy
Bacitracin (Systemic): Neomycin may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Bacitracin (Systemic). Avoid combination
BCG (Intravesical): Antibiotics may diminish the therapeutic effect of BCG (Intravesical). Avoid combination
BCG Vaccine (Immunization): Antibiotics may diminish the therapeutic effect of BCG Vaccine (Immunization). Monitor therapy
Bisphosphonate Derivatives: Aminoglycosides may enhance the hypocalcemic effect of Bisphosphonate Derivatives. Monitor therapy
Capreomycin: May enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy
CARBOplatin: Aminoglycosides may enhance the ototoxic effect of CARBOplatin. Especially with higher doses of carboplatin. Monitor therapy
Cardiac Glycosides: Aminoglycosides may decrease the serum concentration of Cardiac Glycosides. This effect has only been demonstrated with oral aminoglycoside administration. Monitor therapy
Cefazedone: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy
Cephalosporins (2nd Generation): May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy
Cephalosporins (3rd Generation): May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy
Cephalosporins (4th Generation): May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy
Cephalothin: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy
Cephradine: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy
CISplatin: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy
Colistimethate: Aminoglycosides may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Colistimethate. Aminoglycosides may enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of Colistimethate. Consider therapy modification
CycloSPORINE (Systemic): Aminoglycosides may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of CycloSPORINE (Systemic). Monitor therapy
Distigmine: Aminoglycosides may diminish the therapeutic effect of Distigmine. Monitor therapy
Foscarnet: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Avoid combination
Lactobacillus and Estriol: Antibiotics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Lactobacillus and Estriol. Monitor therapy
Loop Diuretics: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Specifically, nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Monitor therapy
Mannitol (Systemic): May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Avoid combination
Mecamylamine: Aminoglycosides may enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of Mecamylamine. Avoid combination
Methoxyflurane: Aminoglycosides may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Methoxyflurane. Avoid combination
Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents: Aminoglycosides may enhance the respiratory depressant effect of Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents. Monitor therapy
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: May decrease the excretion of Aminoglycosides. Data only in premature infants. Monitor therapy
OnabotulinumtoxinA: Aminoglycosides may enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of OnabotulinumtoxinA. Monitor therapy
Oxatomide: May enhance the ototoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy
Penicillins: May decrease the serum concentration of Aminoglycosides. Primarily associated with extended spectrum penicillins, and patients with renal dysfunction. Exceptions: Amoxicillin; Ampicillin; Cloxacillin; Dicloxacillin; Nafcillin; Oxacillin; Penicillin G (Parenteral/Aqueous); Penicillin G Benzathine; Penicillin G Procaine; Penicillin V Potassium. Consider therapy modification
Regorafenib: Neomycin may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Regorafenib. Monitor therapy
RimabotulinumtoxinB: Aminoglycosides may enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of RimabotulinumtoxinB. Monitor therapy
Sodium Picosulfate: Antibiotics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Sodium Picosulfate. Management: Consider using an alternative product for bowel cleansing prior to a colonoscopy in patients who have recently used or are concurrently using an antibiotic. Consider therapy modification
SORAfenib: Neomycin may decrease the serum concentration of SORAfenib. Monitor therapy
Tenofovir Products: Aminoglycosides may increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Products. Tenofovir Products may increase the serum concentration of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy
Vancomycin: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy
Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): Neomycin may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Vitamin K Antagonists. Monitor therapy
Central nervous system: Sore mouth
Gastrointestinal: Anorectal pain, diarrhea, mouth irritation, nausea, rectal irritation, vomiting
<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Auditory ototoxicity, dyspnea, eosinophilia, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, vestibular ototoxicity
Concerns related to adverse effects:
• Malabsorption: Small amounts of neomycin are absorbed through intact intestinal mucosa; increases in fecal bile acid excretion and reduction of intestinal lactase activity may occur. Oral doses of >12 g/day produce malabsorption of fats, nitrogen, cholesterol, carotene, glucose, xylose, lactose, sodium, calcium, cyanocobalamin and iron.
• Nephrotoxicity: [US Boxed Warning]: May cause nephrotoxicity; usual risk factors include preexisting renal impairment, concomitant nephrotoxic medications, advanced age and dehydration. Discontinue treatment if signs of nephrotoxicity occur; renal damage is usually reversible.
• Neuromuscular blockade and respiratory paralysis: [US Boxed Warning]: May cause neuromuscular blockade and respiratory paralysis; especially when given soon after anesthesia or muscle relaxants.
• Neurotoxicity: [US Boxed Warning]: May cause neurotoxicity; symptoms also include numbness, skin tingling, muscle twitching and seizures. Usual risk factors include preexisting renal impairment and concomitant neuro-/nephrotoxic medications. Discontinue treatment if signs of ototoxicity occur; risk of hearing loss continues after drug withdrawal.
• Superinfection: Prolonged use may result in fungal or bacterial superinfection, including C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) and pseudomembranous colitis; CDAD has been observed >2 months postantibiotic treatment.
• Hearing impairment: Use with caution in patients with preexisting vertigo, tinnitus, or hearing loss.
• Neuromuscular disorders: Use with caution in patients with neuromuscular disorders, including myasthenia gravis and Parkinson disease.
• Renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with preexisting renal insufficiency; dosage modification required.
Concurrent drug therapy issues:
• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.
Dosage form specific issues:
• Benzyl alcohol and derivatives: Some dosage forms may contain sodium benzoate/benzoic acid; benzoic acid (benzoate) is a metabolite of benzyl alcohol; large amounts of benzyl alcohol (≥99 mg/kg/day) have been associated with a potentially fatal toxicity (“gasping syndrome”) in neonates; the “gasping syndrome” consists of metabolic acidosis, respiratory distress, gasping respirations, CNS dysfunction (including convulsions, intracranial hemorrhage), hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse (AAP ["Inactive" 1997]; CDC, 1982); some data suggests that benzoate displaces bilirubin from protein binding sites (Ahlfors, 2001); avoid or use dosage forms containing benzyl alcohol derivative with caution in neonates. See manufacturer’s labeling.
• Parenteral administration: More toxic than other aminoglycosides when given parenterally; do not administer parenterally.
• Surgical irrigation: Do not use as surgical irrigation due to significant systemic absorption of the drug.
Serum creatinine/BUN at baseline and periodically during chronic therapy; audiometry in symptomatic patients
Pregnancy Risk Factor
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted. Aminoglycosides cross the placenta. Aminoglycosides may cause fetal harm if administered to a pregnant woman. There are several reports of total irreversible bilateral congenital deafness in children whose mothers received another aminoglycoside (streptomycin) during pregnancy. Although serious side effects to the fetus/infant have not been reported following maternal use of all aminoglycosides, a potential for harm exists. Large oral doses may cause malabsorption of some nutrients in the mother.
• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)
• Patient may experience nausea or diarrhea. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of renal impairment, severe dizziness, syncope, tinnitus, hearing impairment, asthenia, paresthesia, fasciculations, or change in balance (HCAHPS).
• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.
Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for healthcare professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience and judgment in diagnosing, treating and advising patients.
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- Drug class: aminoglycosides
Other brands: Neo-Fradin