Skip to main content


Scientific Name(s): Pistacia lentiscus L.
Common Name(s): Lentisk, Mastic, Mastich, Mastick (tree), Mastix

Medically reviewed by Last updated on Jul 7, 2022.

Clinical Overview


The purported uses of mastic are diverse. The resin has been used in cancer, infection, surgical wound adhesion, and benign gastric ulcers. Other traditional uses include as an antioxidant and as an insecticide, and for treatment of high cholesterol, Crohn disease, diabetes, and hypertension. However, clinical trials are lacking to support these uses.


Mastic resin at a dosage of 1 g daily has been studied for the treatment of duodenal ulcer. Various commercial products are available to help eliminate H. pylori bacterium in the stomach (implicated in a number of GI complaints), including Mastika, which contains mastic gum 250 mg in capsule form. Manufacturer dosage guidelines recommend 4 capsules orally before bed for 2 weeks, followed by a maintenance dosage of 2 capsules daily.


Avoid use in individuals with hypersensitivity to pollen or to any of the ingredients of mastic gum.


Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.


None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Most adverse reactions are associated with hypersensitivity to the plant species or with allergic reactions.


Most toxic effects involve allergic reactions.

Scientific Family

  • Anacardiaceae


Mastic is a gum or resin collected from an evergreen, dioecious shrub, which can grow to approximately 3 m in height. The shrub is native to the Mediterranean region, primarily the Greek island of Chios. Its leaves are green, leathery, and oval. Its small flowers grow in clusters and are reddish to green. The fruit is an orange-red drupe that ripens to black.

Mastic is tapped from June to August via numerous, longitudinal gouges made in the tree bark. An oleoresin exudes and hardens into a teardrop shape that is approximately the size of a pea (3 mm). The transparent, yellow-green resin is collected every 15 days. If chewed, the resin becomes plastic-like, with a balsamic/turpentine-like odor and taste.Chevalier 1996, Evans 1996, Lawless 1995, Windholz 1989, Youngken 1950

Mastic resembles the resin sanderach (obtained from Tetraclinis articulata), although sanderach does not have the chewable qualities of mastic.Evans 1996, Lawless 1995 A related species is Pistacia vera, the pistachio nut.


Mastic resin was used in ancient Egypt as incense and to embalm the dead.Chevalier 1996 It has also been used as a breath sweetener and is chewed to preserve the teeth and gums. Mastic resin has been used as a flavoring in puddings, sweets, and cakes, and as the basis of a Greek liqueur called 'mastiche.'Pistacia 2017

Commercial applications of mastic resin include as an adherent for protecting luster in glass, porcelain, bone, wood, and metal. Mastic resin is used in alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, in some cosmetic mixtures and perfumes, in dentistry as an ingredient in filling material, and in toothpaste. The resin has been used traditionally as a chewing gum and for protection against lip dryness.Duru 2003


Mastic is an oleoresin containing approximately 2% volatile oil.Evans 1996, Windholz 1989 The resin contains alpha- and beta-masticoresins, masticin, mastic acid, masticoresene, and tannins.Chevalier 1996 Mastic is a complex mixture of tri-, tetra-, and pentacyclic triterpene acids and alcohols.Marner 1991 Reports of certain fractions from the plant include polymer fraction isolation/characterizationSanz 1992, van den Berg 1998 and acidic triterpenic fractions of mastic gum.Papageorgiou 1997

The essential oil component in mastic contains more than 70 compounds, some of the primary constituents being alpha-pinene, myrcene, caryophyllene, beta-pinene, linalool, and germacrene D.Calabro 1974, Calabro 1974, Magiatis 1999, Papageorgiou 1991, Papageorgiou 1981 Another report lists certain percentages of essential oils from galls and aerial parts of the plant, such as sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (47%), beta-caryophyllene (13%), and cadinene (8%).Fernandez 2000 Essential oil composition in the species P. lentiscus differs from region to region. Reports from the areas of Chios,Katsiotis 1984 Egypt,De Pooter 1991 and CorsicaCastola 1996 are available. The chemical composition of the essential oil in mastic also changes with solidification and storage,Papanicolaou 1995 as well as with the time of year in which samples are taken.Medina 1979 Chemical composition of various parts of the plant has been discussed, including of the leaves, fruits, and aerial parts.Boelens 1991, Bonsignore 1998, Fleisher 1992, Wyllie 1990 Lipids in the bark of P. lentiscus have been examined.Diamantoglou 1979

Uses and Pharmacology

The purported uses of mastic are diverse; however, clinical studies are generally lacking to support specific therapeutic applications. Limited reviews of the available evidence have been published.(Dimas 2012, Rauf 2017)

Antimicrobial effects

Activity against several bacterial and fungal pathogens is documented in the scientific literature. Clinical trials document oral antiseptic activity for use in dentistry.

In vitro data

Monoterpenes are the primary chemical components contributing to the antibacterial activity of mastic oil against gram-positive and gram-negative strains.(Koutsoudaki 2005, Tassou 1995) Activity against the following organisms is documented: Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis.(Iauk 1996)

Mastic also exhibits antifungal activity. The growth of the fungi Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Torulopsis glabrata, and Trichophyton spp. has been inhibited by mastic.(Ali-Shtayeh 1999) Activity against the agricultural pathogens Rhizoctonia solani(Duru 2003) and Aspergillus flavus(Barra 2007) has also been documented.

Clinical data

Antibacterial activity of mastic gum against oral pathogens, such as Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli primarily associated with dental caries, has been documented. In a preliminary study of 25 periodontally healthy patients, mastic had antibacterial activity against S. mutans and mutans streptococci compared with placebo gum.(Aksoy 2006) Another study reported similar inhibition of lactobacilli growth in the saliva of orthodontically treated patients with fixed appliances who were chewing mastic versus placebo gum.(Aksoy 2007)

Antioxidant effects

In vitro data

Antioxidant activity of P. lentiscus resin and essential oil against free radicals has been documented.(Abdelwahed 2007, Assimopoulou 2005, Ljubuncic 2005, Longo 2007) Anthocyanins,(Longo 2007) tannins (eg, gallic acid),(Ljubuncic 2005) and tocopherol content(Abdel-Rahman 1976, Abdel-Rahman 1975, Cerrati 1992) all contribute to mastic's antioxidant activity.

Antiulcer activity

Mastic has demonstrated an ability to improve benign gastric ulcers.(Huwez 1986) Triterpenic acids may be responsible for reducing Helicobacter pylori colonization in gastric inflammation and ulceration.(Paraschos 2007)

Animal and in vitro data

Microdilution assay revealed that mastic gum killed 50% of the isolates of H. pylori strains when tested at a concentration of 125 mcg/mL, and killed 90% at a concentration of 500 mcg/mL.(Marone 2001)

Results of a study in rats with induced gastric and duodenal ulcers suggested antisecretory and cytoprotective effects of mastic.(Al-Said 1986) A study in which H. pylori SS1–infected mice were administered total mastic extract without polymer documented an approximately 30-fold reduction in H. pylori colonization; however, no attenuation in H. pylori-associated chronic inflammatory infiltration and activity of chronic gastritis was observed.(Paraschos 2007) Another study of mice concluded that monotherapy with mastic was not effective in eradicating H. pylori infection.(Loughlin 2003)

Clinical data

In a double-blind, controlled clinical trial of 38 patients with duodenal ulcers, mastic 1 g given daily for 2 weeks exhibited ulcer healing effects, determined by endoscopy, compared with placebo.(Al-Habbal 1984) A letter in the New England Journal of Medicine discusses this study, as well as others, and concludes that mastic 1 g daily for 2 weeks can rapidly cure peptic ulcers, and that mastic's antibacterial actions against H. pylori may partly explain these beneficial effects.(Huwez 1998) However, in another clinical study of 8 patients, investigators concluded that mastic gum had no effect on eradicating H. pylori.(Bebb 2003) Immunomodulatory effects of mastic gum have been observed in H. pylori–positive patients.(Kottakis 2009)

In another clinical study (N=148), mastic gum 350 mg taken 3 times daily for 3 weeks was effective in reducing pain associated with functional dyspepsia compared with placebo.(Dabos 2010)


Animal and in vitro data

Despite several in vitro studies using human cancer cell lines that reported antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects, research reveals no clinical studies regarding the use of mastic in cancer.(Balan 2007, He 2006, Loutrari 2006) Studies of rodents in the last 10 years are limited but report positive findings.(Spyridopoulou 2017)

Cholesterol effects

Animal and in vitro data

Animal studies have documented the beneficial effects of mastic on blood lipids.(Andreadou 2016, Bomboi 1988) An in vitro study demonstrated antiatherogenic effects of P. lentiscus resin.(Dedoussis 2004)

Clinical data

In one study, patients receiving Chios mastic powder exhibited a decrease in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio, lipoprotein (a), apolipoprotein A-1, apolipoprotein B, liver enzymes, gamma-GT levels, and glucose levels.(Triantafyllou 2007)


Animal data

Older reports of antidiabetic effects in rodents exist in the literature.(Eskander 1995)


In vitro data

Older reports of hypotensive effects of P. lentiscus exist in the literature.(Sanz 1992, Sanz 1993)


In vitro data

According to older reports, mastic may possess insecticidal properties.(Pascual-Villalobos 1998)

Irritable bowel disease

Animal data

In a study of rats with induced colitis, administration of mastic oil decreased inflammation and resulted in fewer intestinal tissue changes.(Naouar 2016)

Clinical data

A 4-week pilot study examined the efficacy of mastic in patients with mild to moderate active Crohn disease (N=18). Patients received mastic capsules (6 capsules per day [mastic 0.37 g per capsule]) (n=10) or control (n=8). Mastic was effective in regulating inflammatory mediators such as C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor–alpha, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in plasma, as well as oxidative stress. Mastic therapy induced remission in 7 of the 10 patients, and nutritional status also improved in patients receiving mastic therapy.(Kaliora 2007)

In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in adults with relapsed irritable bowel disease (40 with Crohn disease and 20 with ulcerative colitis), administration of a supplement containing the natural resinous product of P. lentiscus (2.8 g/day) for 3 months significantly improved biomarkers of oxidative stress (ie, plasma oxidised low-density lipoprotein [oxLDL]/LDL, oxLDL/high density lipoprotein) in patients with Crohn disease but not those with ulcerative colitis. Additionally, amino acids as potential biomarkers of metabolic changes were unchanged in the subgroup of patients with ulcerative colitis that took the supplement and were significantly decreased in patients on placebo. The supplement was standardized to 14 mg mastihadienonic acid and 13 mg isomastihadienonic acid.(Papada 2018)

Surgical wound adhesive

Clinical data

In a comparative study, mastic gum (Mastisol) adhesive plus surgical adhesive strips exhibited the strongest adhesion when compared with 4 other anchoring methods.(Mikhail 1986, Mikhail 1989) Mastic gum adhesive has a lower incidence of postoperative contact dermatitis and skin discoloration,(Lesesne 1992) and provides increased adhesiveness compared with compound tincture of benzoin.(Yavuzer 2005)


Mastic resin at a dosage of 1 g daily has been studied for the treatment of duodenal ulcer.Al-Habbal 1984

Various commercial products are available to help eliminate H. pylori bacterium in the stomach (implicated in a number of GI complaints), including Mastika, which contains mastic gum 250 mg in capsule form. Manufacturer dosage guidelines recommend 4 capsules orally before bed for 2 weeks, followed by a maintenance dosage of 2 capsules daily.Mastic 2000

Pregnancy / Lactation

Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.


None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Most adverse reactions are associated with hypersensitivity to the plant species or with allergic reactions.


Most toxic effects related to mastic or P. lentiscus involve allergic reactions. The plant pollen is a major source of allergic reactions.Cvitanović 1994, Keynan 1987, Keynan 1997 The first report of immunological reactions to pollen extracts of the Pistacia genus occurred in 1987.Keynan 1987 A monographic review of mastic's chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity is available.Ford 1992 Children ingesting mastic may develop diarrhea.Kang 2007

A 13-week toxicity study in rats documented changes in hematological parameters, including increased white blood cell and platelet counts. Increases in total proteins, albumin, and total cholesterol were also documented. Liver weights increased in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased body weight was documented at high doses.Janakat 2002 Some studies report hepatoprotective effectsLjubuncic 2005 of aqueous extracts of P. lentiscus, while others identify hepatotoxic effects.Janakat 2002

Index Terms

  • Pistacia vera
  • Tetraclinis articulate
  • Sanderach



This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product.

This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age.

Abdel-Rahman A. Mastich and olibanum as antioxidants. Grasas Aceites (Seville). 1976;27:175-177.
Abdel-Rahman A, et al. Mastich as an antioxidant. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 1975;52:423.
Abdelwahed A, Bouhlel I, Skandrani I, et al. Study of antimutagenic and antioxidant activities of gallic acid and 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloylglucose from Pistacia lentiscus. Confirmation by microarray expression profiling. Chem Biol Interact. 2007;165(1):1-13.17129579
Aksoy A, Duran N, Koksal F. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial effects of mastic chewing gum against Streptococcus mutans and mutans streptococci. Arch Oral Biol. 2006;51(6):476-481.16343417
Aksoy A, Duran N, Toroglu S, Koksal F. Short-term effect of mastic gum on salivary concentrations of cariogenic bacteria in orthodontic patients. Angle Orthod. 2007;77(1):124-128.17029554
Al-Habbal MJ, Al-Habbal Z, Huwez FU. A double-blind controlled clinical trial of mastic and placebo in the treatment of duodenal ulcer. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1984;11(5):541-544.6395994
Al-Said MS, Ageel AM, Parmar NS, Tariq M. Evaluation of mastic, a crude drug obtained from Pistacia lentiscus for gastric and duodenal anti-ulcer activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 1986;15(3):271-278.3724207
Ali-Shtayeh MS, Abu Ghdeib SI. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes. Mycoses. 1999;42(11-12):665-672.10680445
Andreadou I, Mitakou S, Paraschos S, et al. "Pistacia lentiscus L." reduces the infarct size in normal fed anesthetized rabbits and possess antiatheromatic and hypolipidemic activity in cholesterol fed rabbits. Phytomedicine. 2016; 23(11):1220-1226.27316396
Assimopoulou A, Zlatanos S, Papageorgiou V. Antioxidant activity of natural resins and bioactive triterpenes in oil substrates. Food Chem. 2005;92(4):721-727.
Balan KV, Prince J, Han Z, et al. Antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptosis in human colon cancer cells treated in vitro with constituents of a product derived from Pistacia lentiscus L. var. chia. Phytomedicine. 2007;14(4):263-272.16713222
Barra A, Coroneo V, Dessi S, Cabras P, Angioni A. Characterization of the volatile constituents in the essential oil of Pistacia lentiscus L. from different origins and its antifungal and antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55(17):7093-7098.17658828
Bebb JR, Bailey-Flitter N, Ala'Aldeen D, Atherton JC. Mastic gum has no effect on Helicobacter pylori load in vivo. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;52(3):522-523.12888582
Boelens M, et al. Chemical composition of the essential oils from the gum and from various parts of Pistacia lentiscus L. (mastic gum tree). Flavour Fragrance J. 1991;6:271-275.
Bomboi G, Pinna W, Sau F. Total blood lipids and lipoproteins in sheep fed Pistacia lentiscus drupe [in Italian]. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1988;64(1):93-99.3166786
Bonsignore L, et al. GC-MS and GC-FTIR analysis of the volatile fraction of Pistacia lentiscus L. aerial parts. Boll Chim Farm. 1998;137:476-479.
Calabro G, et al. Constituents of essential oils. IV. Essence of lentiscus (Pistacia lentiscus). Atti - Conv Naz Olii Essenz Sui Deriv Agrum. 1974:1-2;8-18.
Calabro G, et al. Essential oil constituents. IV. Essence of lentisc. Essenze Deriv Agrum. 1974;44:82-92.
Castola V, et al. Analysis of the chemical composition of essential oil of Pistacia lentiscus L. from Corsica. EPPOS. 1996;7:558-563.
Cerrati C, et al. α-Tocopherol, a major antioxidant in Mediterranean plants. Sostanze Grasse. 1992;69:317-320.
Chevalier A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. New York, NY: DK Publishing; 1996:249.
Cvitanović S, Marusić M. Hypersensitivity to pollen allergens on the Adriatic coast. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 1994;4(2):96-100.7921334
Dabos KJ, Sfika E, Vlatta LJ, Frantzi D, Amygdalos GI, Giannikopoulos G. Is Chios mastic gum effective in the treatment of functional dyspepsia? A prospective randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;127(2):205-209.19961914
De Pooter H, et al. Essential oils from the leaves of three Pistacia species grown in Egypt. Flavour Fragrance J. 1991;6:229-232.
Dedoussis GV, Kaliora AC, Psarras S, et al. Antiatherogenic effect of Pistacia lentiscus via GSH restoration and downregulation of CD36 mRNA expression. Atherosclerosis. 2004;174(2):293-303.15136059
Diamantoglou S, et al. The lipid content and fatty acid composition of barks and leaves of Pistacia lentiscus, Pistacia terebinthus and Pistacia vera during a year. Z Pflanzenphysiol. 1979;93:219-228.
Dimas KS, Pantazis P, Ramanujam R. Review: Chios mastic gum: a plant-produced resin exhibiting numerous diverse pharmaceutical and biomedical properties. In Vivo. 2012;26(5):777-785.22949590
Duru ME, Cakir A, Kordali S, et al. Chemical composition and antifungal properties of essential oils of three Pistacia species. Fitoterapia. 2003;74(1-2):170-176.12628418
Eskander E, et al. Hypoglycemic effect of a herbal formulation in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Egypt J Pharm Sci. 1995;36:253-270.
Evans WC. Trease and Evans' Pharmacognosy. 14th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Company Ltd; 1996:290-291.
Fernandez A, et al. Composition of the essential oils from galls and aerial parts of Pistacia lentiscus L. J Essent Oil Res. 2000;12:19-23.
Fleisher Z, et al. Volatiles of the mastic tree—Pistacia lentiscus L. aromatic plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part X. J Essent Oil Res. 1992;4:663-665.
Ford R, et al. Mastic absolute. Food Chem Toxicol. 1992;30(suppl):71S-72S.
He ML, Yuan HQ, Jiang AL, et al. Gum mastic inhibits the expression and function of the androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells. Cancer. 2006;106(12):2547-2555.16691616
Huwez FU, Al-Habbal MJ. Mastic in treatment of benign gastric ulcers. Gastroenterol Jpn. 1986;21(3):273-274.3732760
Huwez FU, Thirlwell D, Cockayne A, Ala'Aldeen DA. Mastic gum kills Helicobacter pylori. N Engl J Med. 1998;339(26):1946.9874617
Iauk L, Ragusa S, Rapisarda A, Franco S, Nicolosi VM. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Pistacia lentiscus L. extracts: preliminary report. J Chemother. 1996;8(3):207-209.8808717
Janakat S, Al-Merie H. Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of Pistacia lentiscus, Phillyrea latifolia and Nicotiana glauca. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;83(1-2):135-138.12413719
Kaliora AC, Stathopoulou MG, Triantafillidis JK, Dedoussis GV, Andrikopoulos NK. Chios mastic treatment of patients with active Crohn's disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13(5):748-753.17278198
Kang JS, Wanibuchi H, Salim EI, Kinoshita A, Fukushima S. Evaluation of the toxicity of mastic gum with 13 weeks dietary administration to F344 rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;45(3):494-501.17092621
Katsiotis S, et al. Qualitative and quantitative GLC analysis of the essential oil of Pistacia lentiscus (Mastix) from different districts of the Chios Island. Epistm Ekdosis. 1984;10:17-28.
Keynan N, Geller-Bernstein C, Waisel Y, Bejerano A, Shomer-Ilan A, Tamir R. Positive skin tests to pollen extracts of four species of Pistacia in Israel. Clin Allergy. 1987;17(3):243-249.3608141
Keynan N, Tamir R, Waisel Y, et al. Allergenicity of the pollen of Pistacia. Allergy. 1997;52(3):323-330.9140524
Kottakis F, Kouzi-Koliakou K, Pendas S, Kountouras J, Choli-Papadopoulou T. Effects of mastic gum Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia on innate cellular immune effectors. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;21(2):143-149.19212203
Koutsoudaki C, Krsek M, Rodger A. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil and the gum of Pistacia lentiscus Var. chia. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53(20):7681-7685.16190616
Lawless J. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils. Rockport, MA: Element Books; 1995:203.
Lesesne CB. The postoperative use of wound adhesives. Gum mastic versus benzoin, USP. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1992;18(11):990.1430556
Ljubuncic P, Azaizeh H, Portnaya I, et al. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of eight plants used in traditional Arab medicine in Israel. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;99(1):43-47.15848018
Ljubuncic P, Song H, Cogan U, Azaizeh H, Bomzon A. The effects of aqueous extracts prepared from the leaves of Pistacia lentiscus in experimental liver disease. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;100(1-2):198-204.16054533
Longo L, Scardino A, Vasapollo G. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins in the berries of Pistacia lentiscus L., Phillyrea latifolia L. and Rubia peregrina L. Innovative Food Science Emerging Technologies. 2007;8(3):360-364.
Loughlin MF, Ala'Aldeen DA, Jenks PJ. Monotherapy with mastic does not eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection from mice. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;51(2):367-371.12562704
Loutrari H, Magkouta S, Pyriochou A, et al. Mastic oil from Pistacia lentiscus var. chia inhibits growth and survival of human K562 leukemia cells and attenuates angiogenesis. Nutr Cancer. 2006;55(1):86-93.16965245
Magiatis P, Melliou E, Skaltsounis AL, Chinou IB, Mitaku S. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia. Planta Med. 1999;65(8):749-752.10630120
Marner F, et al. Triterpenoids from gum mastic, the resin of Pistacia lentiscus. Phytochemistry. 1991;30:3709-3712.
Marone P, Bono L, Leone E, Bona S, Carretto E, Perversi L. Bactericidal activity of Pistacia lentiscus mastic gum against Helicobacter pylori. J Chemother. 2001;13(6):611-614.11806621
Mastic gum supplement for UK digestion. Chem Drug. 2000:28(10):12.
Medina Carnicer M, et al. The Mediterranean shrubby vegetation. X. Evolution of chemical composition of Pistacia lentiscus L. (Lentisco). Arch Zootech. 1979;28:105-109.
Mikhail GR, Selak L, Salo S. Reinforcement of surgical adhesive strips. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1986;12(9):904-905, 908.3528256
Mikhail GR, Selak L, Salo S, Balle MR. The efficacy of adhesives in the application of wound dressings. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1989;10(3):216-219.2745498
Naouar MS, Mekki LZ, Charfi L, Boubaker J, Filali A. Preventive and curative effect of Pistacia lentiscus oil in experimental colitis. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;83:577-583.27459113
Papada E, Forbes A, Amerikanou C, et al. Antioxidative efficacy of a Pistacia lentiscus supplement and its effect on the plasma amino acid profile in inflammatory bowel disease: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Nutrients. 2018;10(11):1779. doi:10.3390/nu1011177930453494
Papageorgiou VP, et al. The chemical composition of the essential oil of mastic gum. J Essent Oil Res. 1991;3:107-110.
Papageorgiou VP, Bakola Christianopoulou MN, Apazidou KK, Psarros EE. Gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic analysis of the acidic triterpenic fraction of mastic gum. J Chromatogr. 1997;769(2):263-273.
Papageorgiou VP, Sagredos AN, Moser R. GLC-MS computer analysis of the essential oil of mastic gum. Chem Chron. 1981;10:119-124.
Papanicolaou D, et al. Changes in chemical composition of the essential oil of Chios "mastic resin" from Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia tree during solidification and storage. Dev Food Sci. 1995;37A:303-310.
Paraschos S, Magiatis P, Mitakou S, et al. In vitro and in vivo activities of Chios mastic gum extracts and constituents against Helicobacter pylori. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51(2):551-559.17116667
Pascual-Villalobos M, et al. Screening for anti-insect activity in Mediterranean plants. Ind Crops Prod. 1998;8:183-194.
Pistacia lentiscus. Plants for a Future website. Accessed September 2, 2017.
Rauf A, Patel S, Uddin G, et al. Phytochemical, ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological profile of genus Pistacia. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;86:393-404.28012394
Sanz MJ, Terencio MC, Paya M. Isolation and hypotensive activity of a polymeric procyanidin fraction from Pistacia lentiscus L. Pharmazie. 1992;47(6):466-467.1409845
Sanz MJ, Terencio MC, Payá M. Pharmacological actions of a new procyanidin polymer from Pistacia lentiscus L. Pharmazie. 1993;48(2):152-153.8475166
Spyridopoulou K, Tiptiri-Kourpeti A, Lampri E, et al. Dietary mastic oil extracted from Pistacia lentiscus var. chia suppresses tumor growth in experimental colon cancer models. Sci Rep. 2017;7:3782.28630399
Tassou C, et al. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of mastic gum (Pistacia lentiscus var. chia) on gram positive and gram negative bacteria in broth and in model food system. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation. 1995;36:411-420.
Triantafyllou A, Chaviaras N, Sergentanis TN, Protopapa E, Tsaknis J. Chios mastic gum modulates serum biochemical parameters in a human population. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;111(1):43-49.17150319
van den Berg KJ, van der Horst J, Boon JJ, Sudmeijer OO. Cis-1,4-poly-β-myrcene; the structure of the polymeric fraction of mastic resin (Pistacia lentiscus L) elucidated. Tetrahedron Lett. 1998;39(17):2645-2648.
Windholz M, Budavari S, Blumetti RF, Otterbein ES, eds. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. 11th ed. Rahway, NJ: Merck & Co; 1989:92.
Wyllie S, et al. Volatile components of the fruit of Pistacia lentiscus. J Food Sci. 1990;55:1325-1326.
Yavuzer R, Kelly C, Durrani N, Mittal V, Jackson IT, Remine S. Reinforcement of subcuticular continuous suture closure with surgical adhesive strips and gum mastic: Is there any additional strength provided? Am J Surg. 2005;189(3):315-318.15792758
Youngken HW. A Text Book of Pharmacognosy. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: P. Blakiston's Son & Co; 1950:535-536.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.