Hydroxyurea Side Effects
Some side effects of hydroxyurea may not be reported. Always consult your doctor or healthcare specialist for medical advice. You may also report side effects to the FDA.
For the Consumer
Applies to hydroxyurea: oral capsule, oral tablet
Along with its needed effects, hydroxyurea may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.
Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking hydroxyurea:More common
- Cough or hoarseness
- fever or chills
- lower back or side pain
- painful or difficult urination
- Black, tarry stools
- blackening of the fingernails and toenails
- blood in the urine or stools
- pinpoint red spots on the skin
- sores in the mouth and on the lips
- unusual bleeding or bruising
- convulsions (seizures)
- difficulty with urination
- joint pain
- seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there
- swelling of the feet or lower legs
- Bleeding under the skin
- blisters on the skin
- bluish or pale color on the skin of the fingers or toes
- coldness of the fingers or toes
- crater-like lesions on the skin
- itching skin
- numbness or tingling of the fingers or toes
- pain in the fingers or toes
- unusual tiredness or weakness
- weight loss
Get emergency help immediately if any of the following symptoms of overdose occur while taking hydroxyurea:Symptoms of overdose
- Scaling of the skin on the hands and feet
- severe darkening of skin color
- sores in the mouth and on the lips
- swelling of the palms and soles of the feet
- violet flushing of the skin
Some side effects of hydroxyurea may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:More common
- loss of appetite
- nausea or vomiting
- redness of skin at the place of irradiation
- skin rash and itching
For Healthcare Professionals
Applies to hydroxyurea: compounding powder, oral capsule, oral tablet
Hematologic side effects have been the most common reported and have included neutropenia, and very low reticulocyte and platelet levels, which required discontinuation of therapy. Elevated mean corpuscular volume of red cells have also been reported.
Hematologic recovery usually occurred within two weeks.
Gastrointestinal side effects have included stomatitis, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation. Both fatal and nonfatal pancreatitis have been reported in HIV-infected patients who received hydroxyurea in combination with antiretroviral agents.
Vasculitic toxicities were reported most often in patients with a history of, or currently receiving, interferon therapy.
Other side effects have included cutaneous vasculitic toxicities such as vasculitic ulcerations and gangrene, which have occurred in patients with myeloproliferative disorders during therapy with hydroxyurea.
Dermatologic side effects including maculopapular rash, skin ulceration, dermatomyositis-like skin changes, peripheral erythema, squamous dysplasia, nail pigmentation, and facial erythema have been reported. In patients who have received several years of long-term daily maintenance therapy, hyperpigmentation, atrophy of skin and nails, scaling and violet papules have been reported. Alopecia has been reported very rarely. A case of transverse melanonychia has also been reported.
Oncologic side effects have included skin cancer. Use of hydroxyurea has been mutagenic, clastogenic, and cause cellular transformation to a tumorigenic phenotype. The drug has been reported to be unequivocally genotoxic and a presumed transspecies carcinogen, which implies a carcinogenic risk to humans.
Genitourinary side effects have been reported to occasionally include a temporary impairment of renal tubular function accompanied by elevations in serum uric acid, BUN, and creatinine levels. Dysuria has been reported very rarely.
General side effects have included fever, chills, malaise, edema, asthenia, and moderate drowsiness following large doses.
Nervous system side effects including headache, dizziness, disorientation, hallucinations, and convulsions have been reported very rarely. Severe peripheral neuropathy has been reported in HIV-infected patients who received hydroxyurea in combination with antiretroviral agents.
Hepatic side effects have included elevation of hepatic enzymes. Both fatal and nonfatal hepatotoxicity have been reported in HIV-infected patients who received hydroxyurea in combination with antiretroviral agents. Fatal hepatic events were reported most often in patients treated with the combination of hydroxyurea, didanosine, and stavudine. This combination should be avoided.
Respiratory side effects have rarely included the development of acute pulmonary infiltrates, fever, dyspnea, and pulmonary fibrosis.
Metabolic side effects including two cases of tumor lysis syndrome have been reported.
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