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Neomycin, Polymyxin B, and Gramicidin

Pronunciation

(nee oh MYE sin, pol i MIKS in bee, & gram i SYE din)

Index Terms

  • Gramicidin, Neomycin, and Polymyxin B
  • Polymyxin B, Neomycin, and Gramicidin

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Solution, ophthalmic [drops]: Neomycin 1.75 mg, polymyxin B 10,000 units, and gramicidin 0.025 mg per 1 mL (10 mL)

Neosporin® Ophthalmic Solution: Neomycin 1.75 mg, polymyxin B 10,000 units, and gramicidin 0.025 mg per 1 mL (10 mL)

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Neosporin® Ophthalmic Solution

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antibiotic, Ophthalmic

Pharmacology

Interferes with bacterial protein synthesis by binding to 30S ribosomal subunits; binds to phospholipids, alters permeability, and damages the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane permitting leakage of intracellular constituents

Use: Labeled Indications

Superficial ocular infections: Short-term treatment of superficial external ocular infections caused by susceptible organisms

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to neomycin, polymyxin B, gramicidin or any component of the formulation

Dosing: Adult

Superficial ocular infections: Ophthalmic: Instill 1-2 drops into affected eye(s) every 4 hours or 2 drops per hour for severe infections for 7 to 10 days

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Pediatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Drug Interactions

AbobotulinumtoxinA: Aminoglycosides may enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of AbobotulinumtoxinA. Monitor therapy

Acarbose: Neomycin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Acarbose. Neomycin may decrease the metabolism of Acarbose. Monitor therapy

Amphotericin B: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy

Arbekacin: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Arbekacin may enhance the ototoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy

Bacitracin (Systemic): Polymyxin B may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Bacitracin (Systemic). Avoid combination

Bacitracin (Systemic): Neomycin may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Bacitracin (Systemic). Avoid combination

BCG (Intravesical): Antibiotics may diminish the therapeutic effect of BCG (Intravesical). Avoid combination

BCG Vaccine (Immunization): Antibiotics may diminish the therapeutic effect of BCG Vaccine (Immunization). Monitor therapy

Bisphosphonate Derivatives: Aminoglycosides may enhance the hypocalcemic effect of Bisphosphonate Derivatives. Monitor therapy

Capreomycin: May enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of Polymyxin B. Monitor therapy

CARBOplatin: Aminoglycosides may enhance the ototoxic effect of CARBOplatin. Especially with higher doses of carboplatin. Monitor therapy

Cardiac Glycosides: Aminoglycosides may decrease the serum concentration of Cardiac Glycosides. This effect has only been demonstrated with oral aminoglycoside administration. Monitor therapy

Cefazedone: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Polymyxin B. Monitor therapy

Cephalosporins (2nd Generation): May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy

Cephalosporins (3rd Generation): May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy

Cephalosporins (4th Generation): May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy

Cephalothin: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy

Cephradine: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy

Cholera Vaccine: Antibiotics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Cholera Vaccine. Avoid combination

CISplatin: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy

Colistimethate: Aminoglycosides may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Colistimethate. Aminoglycosides may enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of Colistimethate. Consider therapy modification

CycloSPORINE (Systemic): Aminoglycosides may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of CycloSPORINE (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Distigmine: Aminoglycosides may diminish the therapeutic effect of Distigmine. Monitor therapy

Foscarnet: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Avoid combination

Lactobacillus and Estriol: Antibiotics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Lactobacillus and Estriol. Monitor therapy

Loop Diuretics: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Specifically, nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Monitor therapy

Mannitol (Systemic): May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Avoid combination

Mecamylamine: Polymyxin B may enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of Mecamylamine. Avoid combination

Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents: Polymyxin B may enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents. Consider therapy modification

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: May decrease the excretion of Aminoglycosides. Data only in premature infants. Monitor therapy

OnabotulinumtoxinA: Aminoglycosides may enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of OnabotulinumtoxinA. Monitor therapy

Oxatomide: May enhance the ototoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy

Penicillins: May decrease the serum concentration of Aminoglycosides. Primarily associated with extended spectrum penicillins, and patients with renal dysfunction. Exceptions: Amoxicillin; Ampicillin; Cloxacillin; Dicloxacillin; Nafcillin; Oxacillin; Penicillin G (Parenteral/Aqueous); Penicillin G Benzathine; Penicillin G Procaine; Penicillin V Potassium. Consider therapy modification

Regorafenib: Neomycin may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Regorafenib. Monitor therapy

RimabotulinumtoxinB: Aminoglycosides may enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of RimabotulinumtoxinB. Monitor therapy

Sodium Picosulfate: Antibiotics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Sodium Picosulfate. Management: Consider using an alternative product for bowel cleansing prior to a colonoscopy in patients who have recently used or are concurrently using an antibiotic. Consider therapy modification

SORAfenib: Neomycin may decrease the serum concentration of SORAfenib. Monitor therapy

Tenofovir Products: Aminoglycosides may increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Products. Tenofovir Products may increase the serum concentration of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy

Vancomycin: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): Neomycin may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Vitamin K Antagonists. Monitor therapy

Adverse Reactions

Frequency not defined.

Dermatologic: Maculopapular rash, urticaria, vesicular eruption

Hypersensitivity: Angioedema

Ophthalmic: Burning sensation of eyes, eye irritation (transient), eye pruritus, ophthalmic inflammation, stinging of eyes

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Neomycin sensitization: Symptoms of neomycin sensitization include itching, reddening, edema, and failure to heal.

• Ocular effects (prolonged use): Glaucoma, defects in visual acuity, posterior subcapsular cataract formation, and secondary ocular infections may result from prolonged use.

Pregnancy Risk Factor

C

Pregnancy Considerations

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with this combination. See individual monographs for Neomycin and Polymyxin B.

Patient Education

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Have patient report immediately to prescriber vision changes, eye pain, severe eye irritation, or eye discharge (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for healthcare professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience and judgment in diagnosing, treating and advising patients.

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