(de FLAZE a kort)
Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.
Emflaza: 22.75 mg/mL (13 mL) [contains polysorbate 80, sorbitol]
Emflaza: 6 mg, 18 mg, 30 mg, 36 mg [contains corn starch]
Brand Names: U.S.
- Corticosteroid, Systemic
Deflazacort is a corticosteroid prodrug; its active metabolite, 21-desDFZ, acts on the glucocorticoid receptor to exert anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. The precise mechanism by which deflazacort exerts its therapeutic effects in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy is unknown.
Rapidly converted by esterases to 21-desDFZ (active metabolite); 21-desDFZ metabolized by CYP3A4 to several metabolites (inactive)
Urine (~68%; 18% as 21-desDFZ)
Time to Peak
1 hour (range: 0.25 to 2 hours); delayed by 1 hour with a high-fat meal
Use: Labeled Indications
Duchenne muscular dystrophy: Treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in patients ≥5 years
Hypersensitivity to deflazacort or any component of the formulation.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy: Oral: Usual dose: 0.9 mg/kg once daily. Note: Round up to nearest possible dose when using tablets; round up to nearest tenth of a mL when using suspension.
Concomitant moderate or strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (eg, clarithromycin, fluconazole, diltiazem, verapamil): Reduce deflazacort dose to 1/3 of usual dose.
Refer to adult dosing.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy: Children ≥5 years and Adolescents: Oral: Refer to adult dosing.
Concomitant moderate or strong CYP3A4 inhibitors: Refer to adult dosing.
Dosing: Renal Impairment
No dosage adjustment necessary; use with caution.
Dosing: Hepatic Impairment
Mild to moderate impairment: No dosage adjustment necessary.
Severe impairment: There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling (has not been studied).
Oral: Administer with or without food.
Tablets: Administer whole or may crush and mix with applesauce (administer applesauce mixture immediately).
Suspension: Shake well; measure prescribed dose with provided dispenser, mix thoroughly with 3 to 4 ounces of juice or milk and administer immediately. Do not mix or administer with grapefruit juice.
Grapefruit juice increases the total exposure to the active metabolite of deflazacort.
Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Discard unused suspension 1 month after opening the bottle.
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Corticosteroids (Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors. Increased muscular weakness may occur. Monitor therapy
Aldesleukin: Corticosteroids may diminish the antineoplastic effect of Aldesleukin. Avoid combination
Amphotericin B: Corticosteroids (Systemic) may enhance the hypokalemic effect of Amphotericin B. Monitor therapy
Androgens: Corticosteroids (Systemic) may enhance the fluid-retaining effect of Androgens. Monitor therapy
Antacids: May decrease the bioavailability of Corticosteroids (Oral). Management: Consider separating doses by 2 or more hours. Budesonide enteric coated tablets could dissolve prematurely if given with drugs that lower gastric acid, with unknown impact on budesonide therapeutic effects. Consider therapy modification
Antidiabetic Agents: Hyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy
Aprepitant: May increase the serum concentration of Corticosteroids (Systemic). Management: No dose adjustment is needed for single 40 mg aprepitant doses. For other regimens, reduce oral dexamethasone or methylprednisolone doses by 50%, and IV methylprednisolone doses by 25%. Antiemetic regimens containing dexamethasone reflect this adjustment. Consider therapy modification
BCG (Intravesical): Immunosuppressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of BCG (Intravesical). Avoid combination
Bile Acid Sequestrants: May decrease the absorption of Corticosteroids (Oral). Monitor therapy
Calcitriol (Systemic): Corticosteroids (Systemic) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Calcitriol (Systemic). Monitor therapy
Coccidioides immitis Skin Test: Immunosuppressants may diminish the diagnostic effect of Coccidioides immitis Skin Test. Monitor therapy
Conivaptan: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Avoid combination
Corticorelin: Corticosteroids may diminish the therapeutic effect of Corticorelin. Specifically, the plasma ACTH response to corticorelin may be blunted by recent or current corticosteroid therapy. Monitor therapy
CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Deflazacort. Avoid combination
CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Deflazacort. Avoid combination
CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate): May increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Deflazacort. Management: Administer one third of the recommended deflazacort dose when used together with a strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification
CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Deflazacort. Management: Administer one third of the recommended deflazacort dose when used together with a strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification
Dasatinib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy
Deferasirox: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy
Deferasirox: Corticosteroids (Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Deferasirox. Specifically, the risk for GI ulceration/irritation or GI bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy
Deferasirox: Corticosteroids may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Deferasirox. Specifically, the risk for GI ulceration/irritation or GI bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy
Denosumab: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Immunosuppressants. Specifically, the risk for serious infections may be increased. Monitor therapy
Desirudin: Corticosteroids (Systemic) may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Desirudin. More specifically, corticosteroids may increase hemorrhagic risk during desirudin treatment. Management: Discontinue treatment with systemic corticosteroids prior to desirudin initiation. If concomitant use cannot be avoided, monitor patients receiving these combinations closely for clinical and laboratory evidence of excessive anticoagulation. Consider therapy modification
Desmopressin: Corticosteroids (Systemic) may enhance the hyponatremic effect of Desmopressin. Avoid combination
Echinacea: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Immunosuppressants. Consider therapy modification
Estrogen Derivatives: May increase the serum concentration of Corticosteroids (Systemic). Monitor therapy
Fingolimod: Immunosuppressants may enhance the immunosuppressive effect of Fingolimod. Management: Avoid the concomitant use of fingolimod and other immunosuppressants when possible. If combined, monitor patients closely for additive immunosuppressant effects (eg, infections). Consider therapy modification
Fosaprepitant: May increase the serum concentration of Corticosteroids (Systemic). The active metabolite aprepitant is likely responsible for this effect. Consider therapy modification
Fusidic Acid (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Avoid combination
Hyaluronidase: Corticosteroids may diminish the therapeutic effect of Hyaluronidase. Management: Patients receiving corticosteroids (particularly at larger doses) may not experience the desired clinical response to standard doses of hyaluronidase. Larger doses of hyaluronidase may be required. Consider therapy modification
Idelalisib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Avoid combination
Indacaterol: May enhance the hypokalemic effect of Corticosteroids (Systemic). Monitor therapy
Indium 111 Capromab Pendetide: Corticosteroids (Systemic) may diminish the diagnostic effect of Indium 111 Capromab Pendetide. Avoid combination
Isoniazid: Corticosteroids (Systemic) may decrease the serum concentration of Isoniazid. Monitor therapy
Leflunomide: Immunosuppressants may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Leflunomide. Specifically, the risk for hematologic toxicity such as pancytopenia, agranulocytosis, and/or thrombocytopenia may be increased. Management: Consider not using a leflunomide loading dose in patients receiving other immunosuppressants. Patients receiving both leflunomide and another immunosuppressant should be monitored for bone marrow suppression at least monthly. Consider therapy modification
Loop Diuretics: Corticosteroids (Systemic) may enhance the hypokalemic effect of Loop Diuretics. Monitor therapy
MiFEPRIStone: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Corticosteroids (Systemic). MiFEPRIStone may increase the serum concentration of Corticosteroids (Systemic). Management: Avoid mifepristone in patients who require long-term corticosteroid treatment of serious illnesses or conditions (e.g., for immunosuppression following transplantation). Corticosteroid effects may be reduced by mifepristone treatment. Avoid combination
Natalizumab: Immunosuppressants may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Natalizumab. Specifically, the risk of concurrent infection may be increased. Avoid combination
Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents (Nondepolarizing): May enhance the adverse neuromuscular effect of Corticosteroids (Systemic). Increased muscle weakness, possibly progressing to polyneuropathies and myopathies, may occur. Consider therapy modification
Nicorandil: Corticosteroids (Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nicorandil. Gastrointestinal perforation has been reported in association with this combination. Monitor therapy
Nivolumab: Immunosuppressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Nivolumab. Consider therapy modification
NSAID (COX-2 Inhibitor): Corticosteroids (Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of NSAID (COX-2 Inhibitor). Monitor therapy
NSAID (Nonselective): Corticosteroids (Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of NSAID (Nonselective). Monitor therapy
Ocrelizumab: May enhance the immunosuppressive effect of Immunosuppressants. Monitor therapy
Palbociclib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy
Pimecrolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Immunosuppressants. Avoid combination
Quinolone Antibiotics: Corticosteroids (Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Quinolone Antibiotics. Specifically, the risk of tendonitis and tendon rupture may be increased. Monitor therapy
Roflumilast: May enhance the immunosuppressive effect of Immunosuppressants. Consider therapy modification
Salicylates: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Corticosteroids (Systemic). These specifically include gastrointestinal ulceration and bleeding. Corticosteroids (Systemic) may decrease the serum concentration of Salicylates. Withdrawal of corticosteroids may result in salicylate toxicity. Monitor therapy
Siltuximab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy
Simeprevir: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy
Sipuleucel-T: Immunosuppressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Sipuleucel-T. Monitor therapy
Stiripentol: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Use of stiripentol with CYP3A4 substrates that are considered to have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided due to the increased risk for adverse effects and toxicity. Any CYP3A4 substrate used with stiripentol requires closer monitoring. Consider therapy modification
Tacrolimus (Topical): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Immunosuppressants. Avoid combination
Telaprevir: Corticosteroids (Systemic) may decrease the serum concentration of Telaprevir. Telaprevir may increase the serum concentration of Corticosteroids (Systemic). Management: Concurrent use of telaprevir and systemic corticosteroids is not recommended. When possible, consider alternatives. If used together, employ extra caution and monitor closely for excessive corticosteroid effects and diminished telaprevir effects. Consider therapy modification
Tertomotide: Immunosuppressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Tertomotide. Monitor therapy
Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: Corticosteroids (Systemic) may enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy
Tocilizumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy
Tofacitinib: Immunosuppressants may enhance the immunosuppressive effect of Tofacitinib. Management: Concurrent use with antirheumatic doses of methotrexate or nonbiologic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) is permitted, and this warning seems particularly focused on more potent immunosuppressants. Avoid combination
Trastuzumab: May enhance the neutropenic effect of Immunosuppressants. Monitor therapy
Urea Cycle Disorder Agents: Corticosteroids (Systemic) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Urea Cycle Disorder Agents. More specifically, Corticosteroids (Systemic) may increase protein catabolism and plasma ammonia concentrations, thereby increasing the doses of Urea Cycle Disorder Agents needed to maintain these concentrations in the target range. Monitor therapy
Vaccines (Inactivated): Immunosuppressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Inactivated). Management: Vaccine efficacy may be reduced. Complete all age-appropriate vaccinations at least 2 weeks prior to starting an immunosuppressant. If vaccinated during immunosuppressant therapy, revaccinate at least 3 months after immunosuppressant discontinuation. Consider therapy modification
Vaccines (Live): Corticosteroids (Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vaccines (Live). Corticosteroids (Systemic) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Live). Management: Doses equivalent to less than 2 mg/kg or 20 mg per day of prednisone administered for less than 2 weeks are not considered sufficiently immunosuppressive to create vaccine safety concerns. Higher doses and longer durations should be avoided. Consider therapy modification
Warfarin: Corticosteroids (Systemic) may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Warfarin. Monitor therapy
Dermatologic: Erythema (8% to 28%)
Endocrine & metabolic: Cushingoid appearance (33% to 60%), hirsutism (10% to 35%), weight gain (20% to 28%), obesity (central, 10% to 25%)
Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain (including upper abdominal pain: 18%), increased appetite (14%)
Genitourinary: Pollakiuria (12% to 15%)
Respiratory: Cough (12%), upper respiratory tract infection (12%)
1% to 10%:
Cardiovascular: Cardiac arrhythmia (≥1%)
Central nervous system: Irritability (8% to 10%), abnormal behavior (9%), psychomotor agitation (6%), aggressive behavior (≥1%), depression (≥1%), dizziness (≥1%), emotional disturbance (≥1%), emotional lability (≥1%), heat exhaustion (≥1%), hypertonia (≥1%, hypertonic bladder), insomnia (≥1%), mood changes (≥1%), sleep disorder (≥1%)
Dermatologic: Skin rash (7%), atrophic striae (6%), acneiform eruption (≥1%), acne vulgaris (≥1%), alopecia (≥1%), impetigo (≥1%)
Endocrine & metabolic: Glycosuria (≥1%), hot flash (≥1%), increased thirst (≥1%)
Gastrointestinal: Constipation (10%), abdominal distress (6%), nausea (6%), dyspepsia (≥1%), gastrointestinal disease (≥1%)
Genitourinary: Dysuria (≥1%), testicular pain (≥1%), urinary tract infection (≥1%), urine discoloration (≥1%)
Hematologic & oncologic: Bruise (6%)
Infection: Influenza (≥1%), tooth abscess (≥1%), viral infection (≥1%)
Neuromuscular & skeletal: Back pain (7%), back injury (≥1%), limb pain (≥1%), muscle spasm (≥1%), myalgia (≥1%), neck pain (≥1%)
Ophthalmic: Hordeolum (≥1%), increased lacrimation (≥1%)
Otic: Otitis externa (≥1%)
Respiratory: Nasopharyngitis (10%), rhinorrhea (8%), epistaxis (6%), hypoventilation (≥1%), pharyngitis (≥1%)
Miscellaneous: Fever (9%), accidental injury (≥1%, face), mass (≥1%, neck)
Frequency not defined.
Central nervous system: Myasthenia (associated with long-term use)
Neuromuscular & skeletal: Bone fracture (long bones including the fibula as well as greenstick fractures), decreased bone mineral density, osteopenia (associated with long-term use), tendon disease (associated with long-term use)
<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Abnormal serum calcium (negative calcium balance), acute pancreatitis (especially in children), acute peptic ulcer with hemorrhage and perforation, amyotrophy, anaphylaxis, anxiety, avascular necrosis of bones, carbohydrate intolerance, change in serum protein (negative protein balance), chorioretinitis, cognitive dysfunction (including confusion, amnesia, delusions, hallucinations, mania, or suicidal thoughts), corneal thinning, decreased serum potassium, edema, exacerbation of epilepsy, hemorrhage, hypersensitivity, hypokalemic alkalosis, increased intracranial pressure (with papilledema in children), leukocytosis, negative nitrogen balance, peptic ulcer, pseudotumor cerebri, scleral thinning, thromboembolism (especially in patients with underlying conditions associated with increased thrombotic tendency), toxic epidermal necrolysis, vertebral compression fracture, vertigo, wound healing impairment
Concerns related to adverse effects:
• Adrenal suppression: May cause hypercorticism or suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. HPA axis suppression may lead to adrenal crisis. Withdrawal and discontinuation of a corticosteroid should be done slowly and carefully.
• Anaphylaxis: Rare cases of anaphylaxis have occurred in patients receiving corticosteroids.
• Immunosuppression: Prolonged use of corticosteroids may increase the incidence of secondary infection, cause activation of latent infections, mask acute infection (including fungal infections), prolong or exacerbate existing infections, or limit response to killed or inactivated vaccines. Exposure to chickenpox or measles should be avoided. Close observation is required in patients with latent tuberculosis and/or TB reactivity; restrict use in active TB (only in conjunction with antituberculosis treatment). Avoid use in patients with active ocular herpes simplex. Hepatitis B reactivation can occur in patients who are hepatitis B carriers. Amebiasis should be ruled out in any patient with recent travel to tropic climates or unexplained diarrhea prior to initiation of corticosteroids. Use with extreme caution in patients with Strongyloides infections; hyperinfection, dissemination and fatalities have occurred.
• Kaposi sarcoma: Prolonged treatment with corticosteroids has been associated with the development of Kaposi sarcoma (case reports); if noted, discontinuation of therapy should be considered (Goedert 2002).
• Myopathy: Acute myopathy has been reported with high dose corticosteroids, usually in patients with neuromuscular transmission disorders; may involve ocular and/or respiratory muscles; monitor creatinine kinase; recovery may be delayed.
• Ocular effects: Prolonged use may cause posterior subcapsular cataracts, glaucoma (with possible nerve damage), and increased intraocular pressure. Consider routine eye exams in chronic users.
• Psychiatric disturbances: Corticosteroid use may cause psychiatric disturbances, including depression, euphoria, insomnia, mood swings, and personality changes. Preexisting psychiatric conditions may be exacerbated by corticosteroid use.
• Skin reactions: Toxic epidermal necrolysis has been reported within 8 weeks of starting treatment; discontinue at first sign of rash, unless rash is clearly not drug-related.
• Thromboembolic events: Higher cumulative doses of corticosteroids have been associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism. Use caution in patients with a history of or at increased risk for thromboembolic disorders.
• Cardiovascular disease: Use with caution in patients with heart failure and/or hypertension; use has been associated with fluid retention, electrolyte disturbances, and hypertension. Use with caution following acute MI; corticosteroids have been associated with myocardial rupture.
• Diabetes: Use with caution in patients with diabetes mellitus; may alter glucose production/regulation leading to hyperglycemia.
• Gastrointestinal disease: Use with caution in patients with GI diseases (diverticulitis, fresh intestinal anastomoses, ulcerative colitis, active or latent peptic ulcer, abscess or other pyogenic infections) due to perforation risk. Avoid use if there is a probability of impending perforation, abscess, or other pyogenic infection.
• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
• Myasthenia gravis: Use with caution in patients with myasthenia gravis; exacerbation of symptoms has occurred especially during initial treatment with corticosteroids.
• Osteoporosis: Use with caution in patients with or who are at risk for osteoporosis; high doses and/or long-term use of corticosteroids have been associated with increased bone loss, osteoporotic fractures, and avascular necrosis.
• Pheochromocytoma: Use with caution in patients with pheochromocytoma; cases of pheochromocytoma crisis, which can be fatal, have been reported with corticosteroids.
• Renal impairment: Use with caution in renal impairment; fluid retention may occur.
• Seizure disorders: Use with caution in patients with a history of seizure disorder.
• Thyroid disease: Changes in thyroid status may necessitate dosage adjustments; metabolic clearance of corticosteroids increases in hyperthyroid patients and decreases in hypothyroid ones.
Concurrent drug therapy issues:
• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.
• Pediatric: May affect growth velocity; growth should be routinely monitored in pediatric patients.
Dosage form specific issues:
• Benzyl alcohol and derivatives: Some dosage forms may contain benzyl alcohol; large amounts of benzyl alcohol (≥99 mg/kg/day) have been associated with a potentially fatal toxicity (“gasping syndrome”) in neonates; the “gasping syndrome” consists of metabolic acidosis, respiratory distress, gasping respirations, CNS dysfunction (including convulsions, intracranial hemorrhage), hypotension and cardiovascular collapse (AAP 1997; CDC 1982); some data suggests that benzoate displaces bilirubin from protein binding sites (Ahlfors 2001); avoid or use dosage forms containing benzyl alcohol with caution in neonates. See manufacturer’s labeling.
• Discontinuation of therapy: Withdraw therapy with gradual tapering of dose.
• Stress: Patients may require higher doses when subject to stress (ie, trauma, surgery, severe infection).
Blood pressure, blood glucose, electrolytes
Following prolonged use: Bone mass density, assess HPA axis suppression (eg, ACTH stimulation test, morning plasma cortisol test, urinary free cortisol test), growth in children, signs and symptoms of infection, cataract formation, intraocular pressure.
Deflazacort crosses the placenta. Orofacial clefts, intrauterine growth restriction, and decreased birth weight have been reported following maternal use. Hypoadrenalism may occur in newborns following maternal use of corticosteroids in pregnancy; monitor.
• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)
• Patient may experience increased hunger, common cold symptoms, polyuria, constipation, back pain, or nausea. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of infection; signs of high blood sugar (confusion, fatigue, increased thirst, increased hunger, polyuria, flushing, fast breathing, or breath that smells like fruit); signs of blood clots (numbness or weakness on one side of the body; pain, redness, tenderness, warmth, or swelling in the arms or legs; change in color of an arm or leg; angina; shortness of breath; tachycardia; or coughing up blood); signs of Cushings disease (weight gain in upper back or abdomen; moon face; severe headache; or slow healing); signs of adrenal gland problems (severe nausea, vomiting, severe dizziness, passing out, muscle weakness, severe fatigue, mood changes, lack of appetite, or weight loss); severe headache; dizziness; passing out; vision changes; signs of low potassium (muscle pain or weakness, muscle cramps, or an abnormal heartbeat); signs of low calcium (muscle cramps or spasms, numbness and tingling, or seizures); signs of depression (suicidal ideation, anxiety, emotional instability, or confusion); severe loss of strength and energy; irritability; tremors; tachycardia; confusion; sweating a lot; shortness of breath; excessive weight gain; swelling in the arms or legs; signs of skin changes (acne, stretch marks, slow healing, or hair growth); bone pain; joint pain; severe abdominal pain; black, tarry, or bloody stools; vomiting blood; or signs of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin [with or without fever]; red or irritated eyes; or sores in mouth, throat, nose, or eyes) (HCAHPS).
• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.
Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.