Pentoxifylline Side Effects
It is possible that some side effects of pentoxifylline may not have been reported. These can be reported to the FDA here. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.
For the Consumer
Applies to pentoxifylline: oral tablet extended release
As well as its needed effects, pentoxifylline may cause unwanted side effects that require medical attention.
If any of the following side effects occur while taking pentoxifylline, check with your doctor or nurse as soon as possible:Rare
- Chest pain
- irregular heartbeat
- unusual excitement
- convulsions (seizures)
Some pentoxifylline side effects may not need any medical attention. As your body gets used to the medicine these side effects may disappear. Your health care professional may be able to help you prevent or reduce these side effects, but do check with them if any of the following side effects continue, or if you are concerned about them:Less common
- nausea or vomiting
- stomach discomfort
For Healthcare Professionals
Applies to pentoxifylline: compounding powder, oral tablet extended release
Pentoxifylline has been generally well tolerated. While typically minor, side effects have necessitated discontinuation of the drug in approximately 3% of treated patients. Tolerance to mild side effects generally has developed with continued use.[Ref]
Gastrointestinal side effects have been the most common side effects associated with pentoxifylline therapy and have included dyspepsia, nausea, vomiting, and belching, which occurred in 1% to 3% of patients. Some smaller studies have reported gastrointestinal disturbance in up to 33% of patients treated with pentoxifylline.[Ref]
Nervous system side effects have occurred in 1% to 2% of treated patients and have included headache, dizziness, insomnia, and tremor. Some smaller studies have reported nervous system adverse effects in up to 17% of treated patients. In addition, rare cases of visual and auditory hallucinations have been reported. Aseptic meningitis has been reported in postmarketing experiences.[Ref]
Cardiovascular side effects have included reports of palpitations, flushing, and angina. These reports have usually been associated with higher doses of an immediate release capsule which is not available in the United States.[Ref]
Hematologic side effects have included anecdotal reports of pancytopenia and fatal aplastic anemia.[Ref]
Hepatic side effects have included postmarketing reports of cholestasis.
Hypersensitivity side effects have included postmarketing reports of anaphylactic reaction, anaphylactoid reaction, and anaphylactic shock.
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2. Dettelbach HR, Aviado DM "Clinical pharmacology of pentoxifylline with special reference to its hemorrheologic effect for the treatment of intermittent claudication." J Clin Pharmacol 25 (1985): 8-26
3. Witter FR, Smith RV "The excretion of pentoxifylline and its metabolites into human breast milk." Am J Obstet Gynecol 151 (1985): 1094-7
4. Ward A, Clissold SP "Pentoxifylline: a review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its therapeutic efficacy." Drugs 34 (1987): 50-97
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6. Lucas MA "Prevention of post-operative thrombosis in peripheral arteriopathies. Pentoxifylline vs. conventional antiaggregants: a six-month randomized follow-up study." Angiology 35 (1984): 443-50
7. Baker DE, Campbell RK "Pentoxifylline: a new agent for intermittent claudication." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 19 (1985): 345-8
8. Crowder JE, Cohn JB, Savitsky JP, Morgan DL, Slywka J, Cobert BL, Hryniewicki SW, Piccirillo RT, Wilcox CS "Efficacy and safety of pentoxifylline in geriatric patients with intermittent claudication." Angiology 40 (1989): 795-802
9. Gilbert GJ "Pentoxifylline-induced musical hallucinations." Neurology 43 (1993): 1621-2
10. Pitner J, Simpson W, Gutierrez S, Mintzer J "Pentoxifylline (Trental)-induced visual hallucinations." J Am Geriatr Soc 41 (1993): 782-3
11. Mass RD, Venook AP, Linker CA, Zipkin RE "Pentoxifylline and aplastic anemia." Ann Intern Med 107 (1987): 427-8
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